The Khmer Rouge was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. The name had been used in the 1950s by Norodom Sihanouk as a blanket term for the Cambodian left; the Khmer Rouge army was built up in the jungles of Eastern Cambodia during the late 1960s, supported by the North Vietnamese army, the Viet Cong and the Pathet Lao. Despite a massive American bombing campaign against them, the Khmer Rouge won the Cambodian Civil War when in 1975 they captured the Cambodian capital and overthrew the government of the Khmer Republic. Following their victory, the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan renamed the country as Democratic Kampuchea and set about forcibly evacuating the country's major cities; the regime murdered hundreds of thousands of their perceived political opponents. The Cambodian genocide led to the deaths of 1.5 to 3 million people, around 25% of Cambodia's population.
The Khmer Rouge regime was autocratic, xenophobic and repressive. The genocide was in part the result of the regime's social engineering policies, its attempts at agricultural reform through collectivisation led to widespread famine while its insistence on absolute self-sufficiency in the supply of medicine, led to the death of many thousands from treatable diseases such as malaria. The Khmer Rouge's racist emphasis on national purity included several genocides of Cambodian minorities. Arbitrary executions and torture were carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during genocidal purges of its own ranks between 1975 and 1978; the regime was removed from power in 1979 when Vietnam entered Cambodia and destroyed most of the Khmer Rouge's army. The Khmer Rouge fled to Thailand whose government saw them as a buffer force against the Communist Vietnamese; the US and China and their allies, notably the Thatcher government, backed Pol Pot in exile in Thailand, providing the Khmers with intelligence, food and military training.
The Khmer Rouge continued to fight the Vietnamese and the new People's Republic of Kampuchea government during the Cambodian–Vietnamese War which ended in 1989. The Cambodian governments-in-exile held onto Cambodia's United Nations seat until 1993, when the monarchy was restored and the name of the Cambodian state was changed from Democratic Cambodia to Kingdom of Cambodia. A year thousands of Khmer Rouge guerrillas surrendered themselves in a government amnesty. In 1996, a new political party called the Democratic National Union Movement was formed by Ieng Sary, granted amnesty for his role as the deputy leader of the Khmer Rouge; the organisation was dissolved by the mid-1990s and surrendered in 1999. In 2014, two Khmer Rouge leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, were jailed for life by a United Nations-backed court, which found them guilty of crimes against humanity for their roles in the Khmer Rouge's genocidal campaign; the Khmer Rouge dissolved sometime in December 1999. The term "Khmers rouges", French for "Red Khmers", was coined by Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk and adopted by English speakers.
It was used to refer to a succession of communist parties in Cambodia which evolved into the Communist Party of Kampuchea and the Party of Democratic Kampuchea. Its military was known successively as the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army and the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. In power, the movement's ideology was shaped by a power struggle during 1976 in which the so-called Party Centre led by Pol Pot defeated other regional elements of the leadership; the Party Centre's ideology combined elements of Marxism with a xenophobic form of Khmer nationalism. Due in part to secrecy and changes in the government's presentation of itself, academic interpretations of its political position within Marxist thought vary ranging from interpreting it as the "purest" Marxist-Leninist movement to characterising it as an anti-Marxist "peasant revolution", its leaders and theorists, most of whom had been exposed to the Stalinist outlook of the French Communist Party during the 1950s, developed a distinctive and eclectic "post-Leninist" ideology that drew on elements of Stalinism and the postcolonial theory of Frantz Fanon.
In the early 1970s, the Khmer Rouge looked to the model of Enver Hoxha's Albania, which they believed was the most advanced communist state in existence. Many of the regime's characteristics, such as its focus on the rural peasantry rather than the urban proletariat as the bulwark of revolution, its emphasis on Great Leap Forward-type initiatives, its desire to abolish personal interest in human behaviour, its promotion of communal living and eating and its focus on perceived common sense over technical knowledge appear to have been influenced by Maoist ideology. However, the Khmer Rouge displayed these characteristics in a more extreme form. While the CPK described itself as the "number 1 Communist state" once it was in power, some communist regimes such as Vietnam saw it as a Maoist deviation from orthodox Marxism; the Maoist and Khmer Rouge belief that human willpower could overcome material and historical conditions was at odds with mainstream Marxism, which emphasised materialism and the idea of history as inevitable progression.
Khmer ultranationalism was a defining characteristic of the regime, which combined an idealisation of the Angkor Empire with an exis
David Terence Puttnam, Baron Puttnam, is a British film producer and educator. His productions include Chariots of Fire, he sits on the Labour benches in the House of Lords. Puttnam was born in Southgate, England, the son of Marie Beatrix, a homemaker of Jewish origin, Leonard Arthur Puttnam, a photographer. Educated at Minchenden Grammar School in London, Puttnam had an early career in advertising, including five formative years at Collett Dickenson Pearce, as agent acting for the photographers David Bailey and Brian Duffy, he turned to film production in the late 1960s, working with Sanford Lieberson's production company Goodtimes Enterprises. The first feature he produced was Melody based on a script by Alan Parker, a minor hit, he and Lieberson produced the documentaries Peacemaking 1919, Glastonbury Fayre, Bringing It All Back Home. Puttnam and Lieberson's second film, The Pied Piper, directed by Jacques Demy was not a success, but That'll Be the Day with David Essex was a hit, they produced The Final Programme, a science fiction film, made some more documentaries, Double Headed Eagle: Hitler's Rise to Power 1918-1933, Swastika.
Puttnam and Lieberson executive produced the Ken Russell biopic Mahler, did a sequel to That'll Be The Day, directed by Michael Apted. There were more documentaries: Radio Wonderful, Brother Can You Spare a Dime, James Dean: The First American Teenager and The Memory of Justice. A second film with Russell, was a box office disaster and led to the end of the Puttnam-Lieberson partnership. Puttnam had a box office success with Bugsy Malone, a musical he executive produced and directed by Alan Parker and produced by Alan Marshall, it was the last film. He set up Enigma Films. Puttnam produced Ridley Scott's debut as The Duellists. More successful was Midnight Express which he produced with Marshall, directed by Parker from a script by Oliver Stone, it was a notable box office success. Puttnam made his first film in America, the directorial debut of Adrian Lyne, it was a box office flop. Puttnam's next film was his most successful yet. Chariots of Fire, the first feature directed by Hugh Hudson, became a massive hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture.
It was produced in association with Goldcrest Pictures. Puttnam set up a TV company, Enigma TV, made a series of TV movies in association with Goldcrest which carry Puttnam's name as executive producer. Six were made as a series called "First Love" for the fledgling Channel Four: P'tang, Kipperbang, directed by Apted, but Not Essential. Other films produced for television were Forever Young. Puttnam continued to produce features, he had another success with Local Hero and directed by Bill Forsythe. He did the acclaimed Cal, directed by Pat O'Connor and The Killing Fields, directed by Roland Joffe, he continued to executive produce TV movies like The Frog Prince, Mr. Love, Defense of the Realm, Knights & Emeralds, he produced The Mission directed by Joffe from a script by Robert Bolt which won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1986). Puttnam was chairman and CEO of Columbia Pictures from June 1986 until September 1987. Puttnam returned to producing individual films with Memphis Belle, Meeting Venus, A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia, Being Human, War of the Buttons, The Confessional, My Life So Far.
He executive produced The Josephine Baker Story, Without Warning: The James Brady Story, The Burning Season. In 1998, he retired from film production to focus on his work in the environment. In 1983, Puttnam was appointed as a Commander of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. In 1995 Puttnam was appointed as a Knight Bachelor. In 1997, Puttnam was created as a life peer and was granted Letters Patent to become Baron Puttnam, of Queensgate in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. In 1998, Puttnam was named in a list of financial donors to the British Labour Party. In 2002, he chaired the joint scrutiny committee on the Communications Bill, which recommended an amendment to prevent ownership of British terrestrial TV stations by companies with a significant share of the newspaper market; this was interpreted as being aimed at stopping Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation from buying channel Five. When the government opposed the amendment, Puttnam brokered a compromise – the introduction of a "public interest" test to be applied by the new regulator Ofcom, but without explicit restrictions.
From 2004 to 2005, Puttnam chaired the Hansard Society Commission on Communication of Parliamentary Democracy, the final report of which urged all political parties to commit to a renewal of parliamentary life in an attempt to reinvigorate representative democracy. In 2007, he chaired the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the Draft Climate Change Bill. Since November 2012, he has been the Prime Ministerial Trade Envoy to Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. In December 2012, who lives in Skibbereen, County Cork, was named Ireland’s Digital Champion by Communications Minister Pat Rabbitte, TD. In August 2014, Puttnam was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian oppo
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Khmer Rouge Killing Fields
The Cambodian Killing Fields are a number of sites in Cambodia where collectively more than a million people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979 after the end of the Cambodian Civil War. The mass killings are regarded as part of a broad state-sponsored genocide. Analysis of 20,000 mass grave sites by the DC-Cam Mapping Program and Yale University indicate at least 1,386,734 victims of execution. Estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.7 to 2.5 million out of a 1975 population of 8 million. In 1979, Vietnam toppled the Khmer Rouge regime; the Cambodian journalist Dith Pran coined the term "killing fields" after his escape from the regime. The Khmer Rouge regime arrested and executed everyone suspected of connections with the former government or with foreign governments, as well as professionals and intellectuals. Ethnic Vietnamese, ethnic Thai, ethnic Chinese, ethnic Cham, Cambodian Christians, the Buddhist monkhood were the demographic targets of persecution.
As a result, Pol Pot has been described as "a genocidal tyrant." Martin Shaw described the Cambodian genocide as "the purest genocide of the Cold War era."Ben Kiernan estimates that about 1.7 million people were killed. Researcher Craig Etcheson of the Documentation Center of Cambodia suggests that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a "most likely" figure of 2.2 million. After 5 years of researching some 20,000 grave sites, he concludes that, "these mass graves contain the remains of 1,386,734 victims of execution." A UN investigation reported 2 -- 3 million dead. Demographic analysis by Patrick Heuveline suggests that between 1.17 and 3.42 million Cambodians were killed, while Marek Sliwinski suggests that 1.8 million is a conservative figure. The Khmer Rouge acknowledged that 2 million had been killed—though they attributed those deaths to a subsequent Vietnamese invasion. By late 1979, UN and Red Cross officials were warning that another 2.25 million Cambodians faced death by starvation due to "the near destruction of Cambodian society under the regime of ousted Prime Minister Pol Pot", who were saved by international aid after the Vietnamese invasion.
The judicial process of the Khmer Rouge regime, for minor or political crimes, began with a warning from the Angkar, the government of Cambodia under the regime. People receiving more than two warnings were sent for "re-education", which meant near-certain death. People were encouraged to confess to Angkar their "pre-revolutionary lifestyles and crimes", being told that Angkar would forgive them and "wipe the slate clean." They were taken away to a place such as Tuol Sleng or Choeung Ek for torture and/or execution. The executed were buried in mass graves. In order to save ammunition, the executions were carried out using poison, spades or sharpened bamboo sticks. Inside the Buddhist Memorial Stupa at Choeung Ek, there is evidence of bayonets, wooden clubs, hoes for farming and curved scythes being used to kill victims- with images of skulls, damaged by these implements, as evidence. In some cases the children and infants of adult victims were killed by having their heads bashed against the trunks of Chankiri trees, were thrown into the pits alongside their parents.
The rationale was "to stop them growing up and taking revenge for their parents' deaths."Some victims were required to dig their own graves. The soldiers who carried out the executions were young men or women from peasant families. In 1997 the Cambodian government asked for the UN's assistance in setting up a genocide tribunal, it took nine years to agree to the shape and structure of the court – a hybrid of Cambodian and international laws – before the judges were sworn in, in 2006. The investigating judges were presented with the names of five possible suspects by the prosecution on July 18, 2007. On September 19, 2007 Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity, he faced Cambodian and foreign judges at the special genocide tribunal and was convicted on 7 August 2014 and received a life sentence. On July 26, 2010 Kang Kek Iew, director of the S-21 prison camp, was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 35 years' imprisonment.
His sentence was reduced to 19 years, as he had spent 11 years in prison. On February 2, 2012, his sentence was extended to life imprisonment by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia; the best known monument of the Killing Fields is at the village of Choeung Ek. Today, it is the site of a Buddhist memorial to the victims, Tuol Sleng has a museum commemorating the genocide; the memorial park at Choeung Ek has been built around the mass graves of many thousands of victims, most of whom were executed after interrogation at the S-21 Prison in Phnom Penh. The majority of those buried at Choeung Ek were Khmer Rouge killed during the purges within the regime. Many dozens of mass graves are visible above ground, many. Bones and clothing surface after heavy rainfalls due to the large number of bodies still buried in sh
Propaganda is information, not objective and is used to influence an audience and further an agenda by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information, presented. Propaganda is associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups, religious organizations and the media can produce propaganda. In the twentieth century, the term propaganda has been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda was a neutral descriptive term. A wide range of materials and media are used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new technologies were invented, including paintings, posters, films, radio shows, TV shows, websites. More the digital age has given rise to new ways of disseminating propaganda, for example, through the use of bots and algorithms to create computational propaganda and spread fake or biased news using social media. In a 1929 literary debate with Edward Bernays, Everett Dean Martin argues that, "Propaganda is making puppets of us.
We are moved by hidden strings which the propagandist manipulates." Propaganda is a modern Latin word, the gerundive form of propagare, meaning to spread or to propagate, thus propaganda means that, to be propagated. This word derived from a new administrative body of the Catholic church created in 1622 as part of the Counter-Reformation, called the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, or informally Propaganda, its activity was aimed at "propagating" the Catholic faith in non-Catholic countries. From the 1790s, the term began being used to refer to propaganda in secular activities; the term began taking a pejorative or negative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere. Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists; the Behistun Inscription detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne is viewed by most historians as an early example of propaganda. Another striking example of propaganda during Ancient History is the last Roman civil wars during which Octavian and Mark Antony blame each other for obscure and degrading origins, cowardice and literary incompetence, luxury and other slanders.
This defamation took the form of uituperatio, decisive for shaping the Roman public opinion at this time. Propaganda during the Reformation, helped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe, in particular within Germany, caused new ideas and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century. During the era of the American Revolution, the American colonies had a flourishing network of newspapers and printers who specialized in the topic on behalf of the Patriots; the first large-scale and organised propagation of government propaganda was occasioned by the outbreak of war in 1914. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat. Adolf Hitler came to echo this view, believing that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and the revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918. In Mein Kampf Hitler expounded his theory of propaganda, which provided a powerful base for his rise to power in 1933.
Historian Robert Ensor explains. Most propaganda in Nazi Germany was produced by the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda under Joseph Goebbels. World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, building on the experience of WWI, by Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive, as well as the United States Office of War Information. In the early 20th century, the invention of motion pictures gave propaganda-creators a powerful tool for advancing political and military interests when it came to reaching a broad segment of the population and creating consent or encouraging rejection of the real or imagined enemy. In the years following the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government sponsored the Russian film industry with the purpose of making propaganda films In WWII, Nazi filmmakers produced emotional films to create popular support for occupying the Sudetenland and attacking Poland; the 1930s and 1940s, which saw the rise of totalitarian states and the Second World War, are arguably the "Golden Age of Propaganda".
Leni Riefenstahl, a filmmaker working in Nazi Germany, created one of the best-known propaganda movies, Triumph of the Will. In the US, animation became popular for winning over youthful audiences and aiding the U. S. war effort, e.g. Der Fuehrer's Face, which ridicules Hitler and advocates the value of freedom. US war films in the early 1940s were designed to create a patriotic mindset and convince viewers that sacrifices needed to be made to defeat the Axis Powers. Polish filmmakers in Great Britain created anti-nazi color film Calling mr. Smith about current nazi crimes in occupied Europe and about lies of nazi propaganda; the West and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War. Both sides used film, and
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Samuel Atkinson Waterston is an American actor and director. Among other roles, he is noted for his portrayal of Sydney Schanberg in The Killing Fields, for which he received an Academy Award nomination, his starring role as Jack McCoy on the NBC television series Law & Order, which brought him Golden Globe and Screen Actors Guild Awards, he has been nominated for multiple Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild, BAFTA, Emmy awards, having starred in over eighty film and television productions during his fifty-year career. He has starred in numerous stage productions. AllMovie historian Hal Erickson characterized Waterston as having "cultivated a loyal following with his charismatic, unfailingly solid performances."Waterston received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2010 and was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 2012. Waterston, the third of four siblings, was born in Massachusetts, his mother, Alice Tucker, a landscape painter, was of English ancestry, a descendant of Mayflower passengers.
His father, George Chychele Waterston, was an emigrant from Leith, a semanticist and language teacher. Waterston attended both the Brooks School, a boarding school in North Andover, where his father taught, he entered Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, on a scholarship in 1958 where he studied history and drama graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1962. After graduating from Yale, he attended the Clinton Playhouse for several months. Waterston attended the Sorbonne in Paris and the American Actors Workshop; the classically trained Waterston has numerous stage credits to his name. For example, he played an award-winning Benedick in Joseph Papp's production of William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing and played the title role in Hamlet, he continues live theater work during the summers seen acting at places like Long Wharf Theatre and the Yale Repertory Theatre in New Haven. Waterston made his film debut in 1965's The Plastic Dome of Norma Jean and came to prominence in Fitzwilly in 1967.
He starred as Tom in a 1973 television film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie, alongside Katharine Hepburn. The film featured Michael Moriarty, whom Waterston replaced as the executive assistant district attorney on Law & Order. One of his breakout roles was opposite Jeff Bridges in the western comedy Rancho Deluxe in 1975. Other films include Savages, The Great Gatsby, Journey Into Fear, Capricorn One, Heaven's Gate and The Killing Fields. In 1985, he co-starred in Robert Preston's final television film with Mary Tyler Moore, Finnegan Begin Again. With Moore, Waterston played the title role in Lincoln, a television film adaptation of Gore Vidal's Lincoln. Other roles include Assault at West Point with Samuel L. Jackson, The Man in the Moon and Serial Mom. Waterston has appeared in several Woody Allen films, including Interiors and Her Sisters and Crimes and Misdemeanors. Waterston is a six-time Emmy Award nominee, as well as a winner of the Golden Globe and Screen Actors Guild Awards.
Aside from Law & Order, other television roles include D. A. Forrest Bedford in I'll Fly Away, for which he won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Drama Series in 1993, he had a starring role in an episode segment on the TV series Amazing Stories called "Mirror Mirror". In 1994, he appeared as US President William Foster, alongside Forest Whitaker and Dana Delany, in the television film The Enemy Within, a remake of director John Frankenheimer's Cold War political thriller Seven Days in May. In 1994, Waterston debuted as Executive Assistant District Attorney Jack McCoy in the fifth season of the television series Law & Order, he played the role of McCoy, who would become District Attorney, through the series finale in 2010, has reprised the role throughout the Law and Order franchise. Upon the show's cancellation, Waterston was the second longest-serving cast member, having reprised his role through 16 seasons. Due to the success of the New York–based TV series and his fellow longtime Law & Order castmate Jerry Orbach were declared "Living Landmarks" by the New York Landmarks Conservancy.
Waterston served on the Advisory Committee for the Lincoln Bicentennial, celebrating Abraham Lincoln's 200th birthday. He has portrayed Lincoln on screen, he voiced Lincoln in an exhibit at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, delivered Lincoln's Cooper Union speech on May 5, 2004. Waterston lent his voice to the animated television series Family Guy where he played Dr. Kaplan, the psychiatrist Brian Griffin consults during his mid-life crisis in the episode "Brian in Love". Wally Wingert voiced Dr. Kaplan instead in the episode "Road to Rhode Island", but Waterston returned to voice the character in "The Thin White Line," his final appearance. Waterston narrated NBC's documentary, The Great Race, the story of the famous 4 x 10-kilometer cross-country relay at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, which Italy won over the host nation; the special aired during NBC's coverage of the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino, Italy, on February 18, the day before the 2006 relay took place, won by Italy.
He added partial narration to the Ken Burns documentary, Lewis & Clark: The Journey of the Corp