The tasimeter, or microtasimeter, or measurer of infinitesimal pressure, is a device designed by Thomas Edison to measure infrared radiation. In 1878, Samuel Langley, Henry Draper, other American scientists needed a sensitive instrument that could be used to measure minute temperature changes in heat emitted from the Sun's corona during the July 29 solar eclipse, due to occur along the Rocky Mountains. To satisfy those needs Edison devised a microtasimeter employing a carbon button; the value of the instrument lies in its ability to detect small variations of temperature. This is accomplished indirectly; the change of temperature causes expansion or contraction of a rod of vulcanite, which changes the resistance of an electric circuit by varying the pressure it exerts upon a carbon-button included in the circuit. During the total eclipse of the sun in 1878, it demonstrated the existence of heat in the corona, it is of service in ascertaining the relative expansion of substances due to a rise of temperature.
The functional parts are represented in the partial cross section, which shows its construction and mode of operation. The substance whose expansion is to be measured is shown at A, it is clamped at B, its lower end fitting into a slot in the metal plate, M, which rests upon the carbon-button. The latter is in an electric circuit, which includes a delicate galvanometer. Any variation in the length of the rod changes the pressure upon the carbon, alters the resistance of the circuit; this causes a deflection of the galvanometer-needle—a movement in one direction denoting expansion of A, while an opposite motion signifies contraction. To avoid any deflection which might arise from change in strength of battery, the tasimeter is inserted in an arm of a Wheatstone bridge. In order to ascertain the exact amount of expansion in decimals of an inch, the screw S, seen in front of the dial, is turned until the deflection caused by the change of temperature is reproduced; the screw works a second screw, causing the rod to ascend or descend, the exact distance through which the rod moves is indicated by the needle, N, on the dial.
The instrument can be advantageously used to measure changes in the humidity of the atmosphere. In this case the strip of vulcanite is replaced by one of gelatine, which changes its volume by absorbing moisture. 1878 was a time when great advances were being made in electric arc lighting, during the solar eclipse expedition, which Edison accompanied, the men discussed the practicality of subdividing the intense arc lights so that electricity could be used for lighting in the same fashion as with small, individual gas burners. The basic problem seemed to be to keep the burner, or bulb, from being consumed by preventing it from overheating. Edison thought he would be able to solve this by fashioning a microtasimeter-like device to control the current, he boldly announced that he would invent a safe and inexpensive electric light that would replace the gaslight. Edison declined to patent the device, saying it was only of interest to scientists, allowed companies in London and Philadelphia to manufacture tasimeters royalty-free.
The scientists who tested it found it too erratic to be of use for quantitative measurement purposes, it was soon abandoned. Bolometer Infrared telescope Eclipse Vicissitudes:Thomas Edison and the Chickens, J. Donald Fernie, American Scientist. Edison the scientist, John A. Eddy, Applied Optics
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
West Orange, New Jersey
West Orange is a suburban township in central Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 46,207, reflecting an increase of 1,264 from the 44,943 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,840 from the 39,103 counted in the 1990 Census. West Orange was part of the Native American Hackensack clan's territory, for over 10,000 years; the Hackensack were a phatry of the Unami tribe of the Leni Lenape. In their language, "Leni Lenape" means, "The Original People." The Acquackanonk sub-tribe were located along the Passaic River. They were part of the Algonquin language family, known as "Delaware Indians" by the 18th century, they identified themselves with the totem of the Turtle. They were hunter-gatherers and had cultural traditions such as Wedding Ceremonies. Northfield Ave and Old Indian Road in West Orange, remain as original Hackensack trails, their main settlement was. They would travel to mountains to hunt for food.
The Passaic River runs in an upside-down V shape - 8 miles west and east, 13 miles north of West Orange. In the centuries prior to industrial development, the Passaic River and Watchung Mountains were major geographic landmarks amidst the untouched wilderness. West Orange is located at the peak of the Watchung Mountains; this vantage point over the valleys East to Manhattan - had a strategic value for Leni Lenape warriors, George Washington's troops during the American Revolution. The wooded South Mountain Reservation has rocks shaped like the backs of large Turtles; the area gives its name to the Turtle Back Zoo. The Turtle Back Rocks were considered sacred to the Native Americans, as related to their Creation myth of "Turtle Island". "Turtle Island" is the Native American name for North America. In the creation myth, the world was created from a turtle's back; the Native Americans did not understand the concept of "land ownership". They consisted of many hunter-gatherer tribes who would overlap territories and had tribal wars, but did not "own" land.
They believed in taking only what was necessary from nature, considering the needs of the next seven generations. This hospitality at first benefited the European settlers, who struggled in the wilderness after reaching North America's shores. In the 1500s and 1600s, the territory was disputed and transferred many times between the Hackensack, Scottish and English colonists. Due to the wars between the Native Americans and European settlers, most European settlers stayed East of the Hudson River. In 1664, the English took possession of Dutch New Netherland. On October 28, 1664, The English purchased 500,000 acres of land from the Hackensack, from Staten Island to the Passaic River on the North to the Raritan River on the South, for about 154 English pounds; this is known as the "Elizabethtown Purchase." In 1666, Puritan Captain Robert Treat moved south to New Jersey from Connecticut and purchased a tract of land from Governor Carteret, west of the Passaic River and 8 miles east of what is West Orange.
However, the Hackensack tribe disputed this purchase, said it was not included in the Elizabethtown Purchase. On July 11, 1667, Treat settled the purchase through a Lenni Lenape interpreter, he founded "New Ark" or Newark, establishing it as a Puritan theocracy, as had been done in Milford, CT. The Newark territory kept extending West as the English overthrew the Dutch and claimed or purchased more Hackensack territory; this expansion was effected by individual property owners, who would purchase tracts of land bit by bit. Sometimes they would name it after themselves; the borders were not defined, few if any maps remain. In 1678, Anthony Olive became the first European to settle in, he was of Dutch origin. He started a farm at the base of the mountains -- in, it was still untouched wilderness. In 1702, New Jersey became a royal colony of England. By 1706 what is now West Orange - was considered part of Essex County in the East Jersey territory. By the 1700s West Orange was known as part of the "Newark Mountains".
During the American Revolution, the Valleys were populated by mills. The area on Main St now known as "Tory Corner" was called Williamstown, after two brothers Nathaniel and Benjamin Williams. Nathaniel and his two eldest sons were Loyalists to the British crown, gathered other Loyalists for meetings. Nathaniel took his eldest sons James and Amos to join the British Army in 1777, never returned. Meanwhile, Nathaniel's wife Mary Williams stayed on the farm with her younger children, her farm house had been built in 1720. She gave to Washington's revolutionary troops. James returned to the farm decades to reunite with his mother Mary. Nathaniel and Amos never returned. Nathaniel died of smallpox in New York. A plaque to Mary Williams was erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1922. West Orange was a part of Newark township, remained so until November 27, 1806, when the territory now encompassing all of The Oranges was detached to form Orange Township. On April 13, 1807, the first government was elected.
On January 31, 1860, Orange was incorporated as a town, on April 3, 1872, it was reincorporated as a city. Orange began fragmenting into smaller communities because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police and street departments. South Orange was organized on April 1, 1861, Fairmount (an independent municipality
John C. Rice
John C. Rice was an American born Broadway stage actor, credited with performing the first onscreen kiss with May Irwin in 1896 for the Thomas Edison film company film The Kiss; the film was a 47-second recreation of a scene from the Broadway play The Widow Jones starring Irwin and Rice. John C. Rice on IMDb John C. Rice at the Internet Broadway Database Victorian era portrait of young John C. Rice
Consolidated Edison, Inc. known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies in the United States, with $12 billion in annual revenues as of 2017, over $48 billion in assets. The company provides a wide range of energy-related products and services to its customers through its subsidiaries: Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. a regulated utility providing electric and gas service in New York City and Westchester County, New York, steam service in the borough of Manhattan. In 2015, electric revenues accounted for 70.35% of consolidated sales. Though the company provides an indispensable service to New York residents, a number of major incidents and service problems have negatively impacted its reputation with the public. In 1823, Con Edison's earliest corporate predecessor, the New York Gas Light Company, was founded by a consortium of New York City investors. A year it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Due to the Board of Aldermen's authority to grant franchises in the City of New York in the early to mid 1800s, interaction with Tammany Hall was required to expand business.
By William M. Tweed's reign in the late 1860s as the Boss of Tammany Hall, the power to authorize franchises lay with the County Board of Supervisors, of which Tweed had been a member. By 1871, Tweed was a member of the board of the Harlem Gas Light Company, a precursor to the Consolidated Edison Company. In 1884, six gas companies combined into the Consolidated Gas Company; the New York Steam Company began providing service in lower Manhattan in 1882. Today, Con Edison operates the largest commercial steam system in the world, providing steam service to nearly 1,600 commercial and residential establishments in Manhattan from Battery Park to 96th Street. Con Edison's electric business dates back to 1882, when Thomas Edison’s Edison Illuminating Company of New York began supplying electricity to 59 customers in a square-mile area in lower Manhattan. After the “War of Currents”, there were more than 30 companies generating and distributing electricity in New York City and Westchester County, but by 1920 there were far fewer, the New York Edison Company was the leader.
In 1936, with electric sales far outstripping gas sales, the company incorporated and the name was changed to Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. The years that followed brought further amalgamations as Consolidated Edison acquired or merged with more than a dozen companies between 1936 and 1960. Con Edison today is the result of acquisitions and mergers of more than 170 individual electric and steam companies. On January 1, 1998, following the deregulation of the utility industry in New York state, a holding company, Consolidated Edison, Inc. was formed. It is one of the nation’s largest investor-owned energy companies, with $13 billion in annual revenues and $47 billion in assets; the company provides a wide range of energy-related products and services to its customers through two regulated utility subsidiaries and three competitive energy businesses. Under a number of corporate names, the company has been traded on the NYSE without interruption since 1824—longer than any other NYSE stock.
Its largest subsidiary, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. provides electric and steam service to more than 3 million customers in New York City and Westchester County, New York, an area of 660 square miles with a population of nearly 9 million. In 1998, Consolidated Edison, Inc. acquired Orange & Rockland Utilities, operated separately. To date, Con Edison has invested $3 billion in solar and wind projects. In September 2017 it was announced that the company would invest $1.25 billion in “renewable energy production facilities over the next three years.”The company's “renewable portfolio” contains more than 1.5 gigawatts of operating capacity. Seventy-five percent of that capacity comes from solar energy. Clean energy accounts for around eight percent of the company's earnings, as of fall 2017. To support electric vehicles, Con Edison partnered with the company FleetCarma to provide $500 in rewards to owners of electric vehicles in New York City and Westchester County, New York. Through this program, Con Edison pays customers to charge their vehicles.
The Con Edison electrical transmission system utilizes voltages of 138 kilovolts, 345 kV, 500 kV. The company has two 345 kV interconnections with upstate New York that enable it to import power from Hydro-Québec in Canada and one 345 kV interconnection each with Public Service Electric and Gas in New Jersey and LIPA on Long Island. Con Edison is interconnected with Public Service Electric and Gas via the Branchburg-Ramapo 500 kV line. Con Ed's distribution voltages are 33 kV, 27 kV, 13 kV, 4 kV; the 93,000 miles of underground cable in the Con Edison system could wrap around the Earth 3.6 times. Nearly 36,000 miles of overhead electric wires complement the underground system—enough cable to stretch between New York and Los Angeles 13 times; the Con Edison gas system has nearly 7,200 miles of pipes—if
The Widow Jones
The Widow Jones was an 1895 New York City stage musical comedy. Thomas Edison hired the play's stars, May Irwin and John Rice, to recreate the kiss seen in act 1 of the play for the 1896 short film, The Kiss, made in Edison's Kinetoscope process. "His Legs Are Assorted Sizes" "I Love My Honey Yes I Do" "The New Bully" The Widow Jones at the Internet Broadway Database The Kiss - the Edison film on YouTube