City Hall Square, Copenhagen
The City Hall Square is a public square in the centre of Copenhagen, located in front of the Copenhagen City Hall. Its large size, its location and its affiliation with the city hall make it a popular venue for a variety of events. It is often used as a point for measuring distances from Copenhagen. Opposite Strøget, Vesterbrogade extends into the Vesterbro district and crosses the border to Frederiksberg, andersens Boulevard, Copenhagens most heavily congested street, and Vester Voldgade pass the square on either side of the city hall. Apart from the City Hall, notable buildings around the square include Politikens Hus, the headquarters of national daily newspaper Politiken, and Industriens Hus, the City Hall Square is located at the site of Copenhagens old hay market and the Western City Gate with surrounding fortifications. Vilhelm Klein designed a building for the first exhibition which was built at the corner of Vesterbro Passage which was built from 1870 to 1872. The four-winged, two-storey building was built in red brick to a design which was inspired by Italian Renaissance architecture, in 1879 the centre of the complex was re-built into a large domed exhibition hall.
On 1 January 1888 the hay market moved to a new location outside Kødbyen, the site is still named Halmtorvet after it. The main venue of the Nordic Exhibition of 1888 was a timber structure topped by a huge dome with a flag pole at its top. Its architect was the young and unknown Martin Nyrop who was to design the new city hall. In the 1880s, plans were conceived to build a new city hall on the grounds, and in 1888, an architecture competition was held in early 1889. Apart from Nyrop, who won the competition, Vilhelm Dahlerup, on 28 July 1894, the foundation stone was laid. When it was inaugurated in 1905, the square in front of it one of the most central. The square was redesigned in 1995 and 1996 by KHR Architects, the intersecting street leading from Vesterbrogade to Strøget was removed, uniting the two sides of the square. A bus hub was built on the side of the square. In 2010, work began on a new station on the site, requiring a major reorganisation of the site. The Dragon Fountain, depicting a bull and a dragon in combat, designed by Thorvald Bindesbøll and Joakim Skovgaard, out was inaugurated in 1904.
The Weather Girl is perched high on the Richs building on the corner of Rådhuspladsen and Vesterbrogade, one sculpture rotates to the front, depicting the girl with her bicycle
A student or pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution. In Britain those attending university are termed students, in the United States, and more recently in Britain, the term student is applied to both categories. In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university. When speaking about learning outside an institution, student is used to refer to someone who is learning a topic or who is a student of a certain topic or person. In Nigeria, education is classified into four system known as 6-3-3-4 system of education and it implies six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary, three years in senior secondary and four years in the university. However, the number of years to be spent in university is determined by the course of study. Some courses have longer study length than others and those in primary school are often referred to as pupils. Those in university as well as those in school are being referred to as students.
Six years of school education in Singapore is compulsory. International Schools are subject to overseas curriculums, such as the British, Primary education is compulsory in Bangladesh. Its a near crime to not to children to primary school when they are of age. But it is not a punishable crime, because of the socio-economic state of Bangladesh, child labour is sometimes legal. But the guardian must ensure the primary education, everyone who is learning in any institute or even online may be called student in Bangladesh. Sometimes students taking undergraduate education is called undergraduates and students taking post-graduate education may be called post-graduates, Education System Of Bangladesh, Education is free in Brunei. Darussalam not limited to government educational institutions but private educational institutions, there are mainly two types of educational institutions, government or public, and private institutions. Several stages have to be undergone by the prospective students leading to higher qualifications, Primary School Secondary School High School Colleges University Level It takes six and five years to complete the primary and secondary levels respectively.
Upon completing these two stages, students/pupils have freedom to progress to sixth-form centers, colleges or probably straight to employment. Students are permitted to progress towards university level programs in both government and private university colleges, Education in Cambodia is free for all the students who study in Primary School, Secondary School or High School
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Saint George, according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Syrian origin and officer in the Guard of Roman emperor Diocletian, who ordered his death for failing to recant his Christian faith. As a Christian martyr, he became one of the most venerated saints in Christianity. In hagiography, as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers and one of the most prominent military saints, he is immortalised in the myth of Saint George and his memorial, Saint Georges Day, is traditionally celebrated on April 23. Numerous countries, cities and organisations claim Saint George as their patron, accounts differ regarding whether George was born in Cappadocia or Syria Palaestina, but agree that he was raised at least partly in Lydda. There is little information on the life of Saint George. Two stories tell of his possible origins, one says that he was born in the region of Cappadocia, which is now located in central Turkey. Georges parents were both Christian, and they brought him up to be a Christian and his father died when he was fourteen, and his mother took George back to her homeland of Palestine.
At seventeen, he joined the Roman army, a second story says that Georges father came from Cappadocia. His mother was from Lydda, in Palestine, and George was born in Lydda, both of his parents were from noble Syrian families and gave him the Greek name of Georgios. Georges father had been an officer in the Roman army, so George joined the Roman army as soon as he could, an earlier work by Eusebius, Church history, written in the 4th century, contributed to the legend but did not name George or provide significant detail. A critical edition of a Syriac Acta of Saint George, accompanied by an annotated English translation, was published by E. W. Brooks in 1925. Pope Gelasius I stated that George was among those whose names are justly reverenced among men. The traditional legends have offered a narration of Georges encounter with a dragon. The modern legend that follows below is synthesised from early and late hagiographical sources, chief among the legendary sources about the saint is the Golden Legend, which remains the most familiar version in English owing to William Caxtons 15th-century translation.
At the age of 14, George lost his father, a few years later, George decided to go to Nicomedia and present himself to Diocletian to apply for a career as a soldier. Diocletian welcomed him with arms, as he had known his father. By his late twenties, George was promoted to the rank of military tribune, George objected, and with the courage of his faith, approached the Emperor and ruler. Diocletian was upset, not wanting to lose his best tribune, but George loudly renounced the Emperors edict, and in front of his fellow soldiers and tribunes he claimed himself to be a Christian
Ramboll Group A/S is a consulting engineering group with worldwide operations. Ramboll was founded in October 1945 as Rambøll & Hannemann in Copenhagen, in 1991 the company merged with B. Højlund Rasmussen A/S into Rambøll, Hannemann & Højlund A/S, in 2003 the company merged with Swedish Scandiaconsult making it the largest consulting engineering business in the Nordics. In the summer of 2007, Ramboll broadened its geographical presence by acquiring the UK based engineering firm Whitbybird, when Whitbybird was acquired the company employed 680 people and had offices throughout the UK and in Italy and the United Arab Emirates. In April 2008, Rambolls presence in India was strengthened by acquiring the Indian telecom design company ImIsoft, Ramboll was founded in October 1945 as Rambøll & Hannemann in Copenhagen by Børge Johannes Rambøll and Johan Georg Hannemann. Both had worked and studied at the Technical University of Denmark and their first projects included a design for the roof of a clothing factory, and the Ballongyngen ride at Tivoli Gardens theme park in Copenhagen.
They won major contracts with the Danish broadcast engineering services to erect broadcast towers in Denmark and this led to work with high-tension-line towers for power plants, as well as with the Norwegian telephone directorate. In addition to offices in Copenhagen and Aarhus, a branch was opened in Oslo in 1976, in 1991 the company merged with B. Højlund Rasmussen A/S to form Rambøll, Hannemann & Højlund A/S, a further merger with Scandiaconsult in 2003 made the company the largest consulting engineering firm in the Nordic region. In 2006 the company acquired Storvik & Co in Norway, in August 2007 Ramboll bought privately owned UK based engineering firm Whitbybird. In March 2011 Ramboll bought privately owned UK based engineering firm Gifford, Gifford has offices around the world. Also in March 2011, Ramboll acquired the engineering section of Dong Energy. All shares in Ramboll Group A/S are owned by the Ramboll Foundation and they have for instance had a key role in the work on the Oresund Bridge, connecting Copenhagen, Denmark with Malmö, Sweden.
The bridge is one of the most important infrastructures in Denmark, the international European route E20 runs across the bridge, as does the Oresund Railway Line. They were involved in the planning and construction of the Great Belt Bridge, Ramboll was the leading engineer on the new Royal Danish Opera, The Copenhagen Opera House. This was carried out between 2001 and 2004, a characteristic feature of the Opera building is the gigantic roof covering the entire building stretching all the way to the harbour front. Measuring 158 metres x 90 metres, the Opera roof is one of the largest roof constructions in the world. The innovative design of the roof, which Ramboll has projected in cooperation with Henning Larsen Architects, was the reason for the Opera winning The 2008 IABSE Outstanding Structure Award
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planets surface. The term most often refers to oceans and lakes, a body of water does not have to be still or contained, streams and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are considered bodies of water. Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are artificial, there are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways, some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids. Arm of the sea - sea arm, used to describe a sea loch, arroyo - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally.
Artificial lake or artificial pond - see reservoir or impoundment, barachois - a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay - an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf, bayou - a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Bight - a large and often only slightly receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature, billabong - see Oxbow lake, a pond or still body of water created when a river changes course and some water becomes trapped. Boil - see Seep Brook - a small stream, canal - an artificial waterway, usually connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel - the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean consisting of a bed. See stream bed and strait, earth scientists generally use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay. Basin - a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, creek - an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove.
Delta - the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, distributary or distributary channel - a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Draw - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, fjord - a submergent landform which has occurred due to glacial activity. Glacier - a large collection of ice or a river that moves slowly down a mountain. Glacial Pothole - see Kettle Gulf - a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay, headland - an area of water bordered by land on three sides
Holmen is a water-bound neighbourhood in Copenhagen, occupying the former grounds of the Royal Naval Base and Dockyards. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager. Since the early 1990s, the area has instead been redeveloped for use as a new district of the city. The area is characterized by a mixture of residential developments, creative businesses and educational institutions. Holmen is home to the Copenhagen Opera House which was completed in 2005, though technically a part of the central Indre By district of Copenhagen, being a cul-de-sac as districts go, the area has a somewhat quiet and remote reputation and feel to it. Frederiksholm is the area which has seen most new construction since Holmen naval base was closed, many new buildings have been built while old buildings from the areas naval past have been converted for new uses. The existence of Holmen originates in a wish to relocate the Danish Fleet from its home at Bremerholm.
Since the city was growing rapidly, it was no longer practical to have the fleet stationed in the center of the city, being built out of timber, the vessels constituted a major hazard. Furthermore, the sailors disposed of their garbage by throwing it directly into the harbor, in 1680, a plan was conceived to move the fleet out of the city. Responsibility for the plan was given to Admiral Niels Juel, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was extended northwards to protect the area which had been chosen for the fleet. The extension had seven bastions, named for members of the Royal Family, in Carls and Wilhems Bastion, black powder depots were constructed. Built in 1688 and 1690, they are the oldest structures at Holmen, the northernmost bastion was Charlotte Amalies Bastion, and north of this two cannon batteries were established, Batteriet Quintus and Batteriet Neptunus. The latters name came from the ship which was the foundation for the battery. This battery was renamed to Christiani Sixti Batteri, or Christian VIs Battery.
Today it is known as Batteriet Sixtus or just Sixtus, the sinking of ships continued, loaded with mud from the harbor and trash from Copenhagens streets. In certain streets, there could be more than one metre of trash and this efforts gradually formed an island, which was given the name Nyholm. It was to this island that the shipyard was relocated. The first ship which was set to sea from this shipyard was the first Dannebrog in 1692, the construction of all large ships were moved to Nyholm, and at Bremerholm, now called Gammelholm, only smaller vessels were built
Dronning Louises Bro
Dronning Louises Bro is a bridge across The Lakes in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It joins Frederiksborggade in Indre By with Nørrebrogade in Nørrebro and separates Sortedam Lake to the northeast from Peblinge Lake to the south west, the bridge was designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup, and constructed between 1885 and 1887. The bridge is named after Queen Louise, King Christian IXs wife, a bridge ) located close to the site of the current bridge is mentioned in 1562. It provided a link between Copenhagens North Gate and the Nørrebro Road In 1618-20, Christian IV built a combined embankment, the crossing was improved in the 1720s. The embankments in each end was reinforced with stones and the central bridge section was replaced by a drawbridge. Blichfeld pointed out that the extension of Frederiksborggade had developed into a shopping street with no vacant shops. His proposal was featured in the magazine Ude og Hjemme in 1883 where it was described as practical and artistically well-designed. Construction began in 1885 and the bridge opened on 7 September 1887, the bridge became known as the Peblinge Bridge.
Queen Louises Bridge is built of granite and has three arches, the cast iron railings are decorated by four identical bronze cartouches featuring Copenhagens coat of arms surrounded by weapons and lions. The railing integrates eight lampposts and four flagpoles
Nyboder is a historic row house district of former Naval barracks in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was planned and first built by Christian IV to accommodate a need for housing for the personnel of the rapidly growing Royal Danish Navy and their families during that time. Nyboder is today very much associated with their colour and Nyboder yellow is in Danish often used as a generic term to refer to their exact hue of yellow. However, the colour of the development was red and white. Under Christian IV the Royal Danish Navy grew rapidly and there was an urgent need for accommodation for its personnel. The new development was planned on land outside Copenhagen previously acquired by the king with the intention to expand the city northwards. This had still not happened but Saint Annes Post, to develop into Kastellet, had already constructed a little further north. Construction of Nyboder was commenced in 1631, the area was laid out around two main streets radiating from a planned square which was never established.
The rows were oriented perpendicularly to these streets. The architects assisting the King were Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and Leonhard Blasius, Christian IVs Nyboder was completed around 1641. In 1647, one year before Christian IVs death, Nyboder was definitively absorbed by the city when the Eastern City Gate is moved. Just north of Nyboder lay a piece of undevelopped land known as Greenland, on 16 December 1658 a gunpowder magazine just north of Nyboder exploded, damaging or demolishing many houses and causing numerous casualties. In 1668 Copenhagens gallows were moved from its previous location, at the site where Kongens Nytorv would be out a few years later. In 1677, Nyboder saw another bleak neighbour when the Stocks House was built a little to the south, from its early days, the Nyboder area included a guardhouse which was replaced by a new building in the 1780s. It had a bell which was used to gather people in the event of a military attack or fire. The building houses the Nyboder barracks own guard and contained a jail, when the Frederiksholm islet is created by a series of Land reclamation, the intention is to use it for new naval barracks but again the plans are not carried out.
In the end it was decided to build new houses at Nyboder, in 175624 two-storey houses designed by Philip de Lange were built and while extensions would be directed by other architects, it continued to be to his initial design. In 1771 some of Christian IVs original rows were extended with an extra storey by Anthon, from 1781-96 another app.150 houses were built. A guard house and five houses were added to the area during the same period
Islands Brygge is a harbourfront area in central Copenhagen, located on the north-western coast of Amager. The neighbourhood is noted for its waterfront park Havneparken, which is one of the most popular areas along the Copenhagen harbourfront, established through a series of land reclamations from the 1880s, it served both military, residential and dockland purposes. It is characterized by a mixture of old buildings and modern architecture, Islands Brygge has an area of roughly 1 km² and a population of 12,147, though it has never been an administrative unit with formally defined boundaries. The north-western shore of Amager was originally characterized by a shallow watered beach, at that time the shoreline was situated just east of present-day Artillerivej. The area was filled in 1887-88 and a new arsenal, shooting ranges, Islands Brygge was the hub of commercial ships sailing to and from Iceland, a former member of the state of Denmark. The Danish trade monopoly in Iceland was a business, generating extreme wealth and political power for many of Copenhagens mayors.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Port of Copenhagen had become very busy both with freight and passenger vessels and extensions were needed. In 1901, the Port Authorities extended the existing reclamation southwards to create new areas for the storage of coal, from 1905 construction of residential buildings on the most inland parts of the new land began. The co-operative Danish retailer FDB established new headquarters in the neighbourhood in 1908 and it comprised both administrative functions and storage facilities. Dansk Sojakagefabrik, a soy bean processing plant, was opened by the East Asiatic Company in 1909, at its peak in the 1950s, the plant employed approximately 2,500 workers, many of whom lived in the neighbourhood. To improve road and rail connections between Zealand and Amager, a new bridge was constructed at the site of the present-day Langebro, the new bridge soon became outdated and in 1930 a new temporary bridge was built. Still more land was reclaimed until 1933, when Islands Brygge reached its current extent.
Under the Occupation of Denmark during World War II, many German troops were stationed at Islands Brygge, after World War II, the military presence in the area diminished and by 1976 most of the former military buildings had been demolished or converted to other use. The first step towards the transformation of the area into a lively, Islands Brygge is today a fashionable mainly residential neighbourhood, stretching from Langebro in the north to Bryggebroen in the south. The northern part of the area, from Langebro to Sturlasgade, is dominated by early 20th-century residential blocks with shops at street level. Some structures from the industrial and dockland past have been preserved and converted to other uses. These include Gemini Residence, the Wennberg Silo and the Zepeline Building, located directly on the waterfront, is the main recreational area of the neighbourhood and one of the most lively and popular places along the Copenhagen harbourfront. It has retained several features from the industrial past, including old railway tracks
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government