Robert Fredrick Paulsen III is an American voice actor and singer who has done many voice roles in various films, television shows, video games, including Raphael and Donatello from the 1987 and 2012 cartoons of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. In total, Paulsen has been the voice of over 250 different animated characters and performed in over 1000 commercials, he continues to play parts in dozens of cartoons as well as characters in animated feature movies. He began his voice-over career in 1983 with the mini-series G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero, where he played "Snow Job" and "Tripwire". A few years his career launched into more roles such as "Cobra Slavemaster" and reprising "Snow Job" and "Tripwire" on G. I. Joe, "Corky" on The Snorks, "Marco Smurf" on the seasons of The Smurfs, "Boober" on the animated version of Fraggle Rock, "Hadji" in The New Adventures of Jonny Quest and the title character – "Saber Rider" and the villain "Jesse Blue" on Saber Rider and the Star Sheriffs. During the 1980s, Paulsen explored the field of live action films.
His first movie was Eyes of Fire in 1983. He played supporting roles in Body Double, Stewardess School and Mutant on the Bounty, he appeared in television shows during this time as well, such as St. Elsewhere, he mentioned in an interview, regarding his role in Body Double, that he would not want his child to see the movie, so he could not be proud of his work. Paulsen became more prevalent in the world of advertising as well. In the 1980s, he had been the announcer for the sitcom Cheers and continued to secure roles as an announcer, he appeared as the voice of "Mr. Opportunity", spokesman of Honda commercials on TV and radio, the announcer for Buffalo Dick's Radio Ranch, the spokesman for Lucky Stores, a West Coast grocery store chain, before it was acquired by Albertsons in 1998, he provided the voice of "Dog" in the Taco Bell kids meal commercials from 1996 to mid-1997, with Eddie Deezen as the voice of "Nacho" the cat. However, Paulsen's most famous advertising role was in the original commercial of the now ubiquitous Got Milk? campaign.
The famous commercial, Who shot Alexander Hamilton in that famous duel?, aired in 1993, launched the Got Milk? Campaign into a monstrously successful enterprise. Paulsen continues to be one of the most sought-after commercial voice actors in the industry, he can be heard as the voice of singing Mr. Mini-Wheat in the Mini-Wheats commercials in Canada. From 1987 to 1995, Paulsen voiced Raphael and various supporting characters in the original 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles series. Starting as a five-part miniseries, the series continued for ten seasons and 193 episodes, it became an instant pop culture symbol. Paulsen has said that Raphael's voice is similar to his natural voice, he returned to the franchise as Donatello for the 2012 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles series on Nickelodeon, which ran for five seasons and 124 episodes from September 29, 2012 until November 12, 2017. Paulsen serves as the voice director for the subsequent series, Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, which premiered in July 2018.
Throughout the early 1990s, Paulsen continued to co-star in animated series, which allowed him to branch further into radio and television announcements and dropped live action acting from his repertoire. In 1993, he voiced "Antoine D'Coolette" in ABC's series Sonic the Hedgehog, "Arthur", an insecure accountant in a moth costume, in the superhero series The Tick in 1995, replacing Micky Dolenz, who had played Arthur. In 1993, he starred as the title character in The Mask. At this time, he starred in what became one of his most popular roles, "Yakko Warner" of Animaniacs. Paulsen provided the voice of "Pinky" from both Animaniacs and its spin-off Pinky and the Brain, a show which won him several Annie Awards and a Daytime Emmy in 1999, he did a number of characters in Tiny Toon Adventures, including "Fowlmouth", "Arnold the Pit Bull", "Concord Condor". In the direct-to-video movie Tiny Toon Adventures: How I Spent My Vacation, he did the voices for "Banjo Possum", "Mr. Hitcher", "Johnny Pew".
Paulsen has provided voices for a great number of characters, among which are Yakko Warner, Dr. Otto Scratchansniff and Pinky in Animaniacs, Steelbeak in Darkwing Duck and Boomer in The Powerpuff Girls, Atchan in Hi Hi Puffy AmiYumi, Spooky the Tuff Little Ghost in The Spooktacular New Adventures of Casper, Ogden O. Ostrich in Channel Umptee-3, Hathi in Jungle Cubs, Jack Fenton, The Box Ghost, Nicolai Technus, The Vulture Ghosts in Danny Phantom, Carl Wheezer and Skeet in Jimmy Neutron, Mark Chang, his father King Grippulon, Happy Peppy Gary and Bucky McBadbat in The Fairly OddParents, Peck the Rooster in Barnyard and Back at the Barnyard, Gordon in'Catscratch, he was the voice of Rothchild in the early episodes of Samurai Jack. Additionally, Paulsen provided the voice of P. J. Pete in Goof Troop, A Goofy Movie, An Extremely Goofy Movie, as well as the voices of Ratchet and Dr. Debolt in the TaleSpin pilot episode and introductory TV movie Plunder & Lightning, he did the voices of Boober Fraggle and Marjory the Trash Heap in the animated version of Fraggle Rock, as well as Gwizdo in the Dragon Hunters movie.
He voiced Zeek and Joshua in K10C: Kids' Ten Commandments, Rude Dog in Rude Dog and the Dweebs, Archie the Raccoon, A. K. A. Ze Archer, in "Mask of the Raccoon" on
Kenneth Mars was an American actor and voice actor, who specialized in comedic roles. He had roles in two Mel Brooks films: as the Nazi playwright Franz Liebkind in The Producers and Police Inspector Hans Wilhelm Friedrich Kemp in Young Frankenstein. Mars appeared in two seasons of Malcolm in the Middle as Otto, Francis's well-meaning but dimwitted boss, he voiced King Triton, Ariel's father, in the 1989 Disney animated film The Little Mermaid and its sequel, the television series and the Kingdom Hearts series. He did several other animated voice-over film roles such as Littlefoot's grandfather in the Land Before Time series and that of Professor Screweyes in We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story, King Colbert in Thumbelina. Mars was born in Chicago, his father, Bernard "Sonny" Mars, was a television personality. He acting at Northwestern University. After graduation he began acting in the early 1960s did small roles in theatre followed by TV and film. In 1977, he married Barbara Newborn, they had two daughters and Rebecca.
The marriage lasted until his death in 2011. Mars made his acting debut in 1962 as a book publisher on Car 54, Where Are You?. He appeared on such television series as Gunsmoke, Get Smart, McMillan & Wife and The Bob Crane Show, he appeared in dramatic roles, such as Will Turner, a former FBI agent, in Warren Beatty's The Parallax View. Mars played Harry Zarakartos on the Richard Benjamin-Paula Prentiss sitcom She, he was featured in a number of small roles in broadcasts such as the Misfits of Science pilot episode and the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Shadowplay". He was cast opposite Bette Davis in Hello Mother, Goodbye!, a 1973 television pilot aired by NBC but never picked up as a series. From 1970-74 Mars guest starred in five episodes of Love, American Style, playing various characters. In 1977, Mars became a series regular on both the Sha Na Na variety series and on Norman Lear's talk show parody Fernwood 2-Night in the memorable recurring role of William W. D.'Bud' Prize, appearing the following year on America 2-Night in the same role.
In 2001 Mars portrayed a comedic washed-up photographer on Just Shoot Me. Before his death, his final television roles were Otto, the German dude ranch owner on Fox Broadcasting Company's Malcolm in the Middle, an appearance on Disney Channel's Hannah Montana, a reprise of his role as Grandpa Longneck in The Land Before Time television series. Mars played characters with exaggerated accents, he portrayed German characters in The Producers and Young Frankenstein, played the Croatian musicologist Hugh Simon in What's Up, Doc?. His first broadly accented character was that of Sir Evelyn Oakleigh in the 1962 Off-Broadway revival of the Cole Porter musical Anything Goes, he appeared in the 1962 Broadway play, The Affair. In 1975, ABC/Dunhill released a comedy LP produced by Earl Doud, Henry the First, featuring Mars in a number of comedy bits as Henry Kissinger, including a cover version of the Bachman–Turner Overdrive song, "Takin' Care of Business". Mars cultivated a lengthy voice acting career, launching it by voicing several characters on Uncle Croc's Block.
He voiced the roles of Ariel's father King Triton in The Little Mermaid and the villainous Professor Screweyes in We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story, as well as voicing King Triton in Kingdom Hearts and Kingdom Hearts II, he voiced Littlefoot's Grandpa Longneck in the Land Before Time series of films and the spin-off television series. He played some minor roles on Adventures in Odyssey, he played Sweet William in Fievel's American Tails, which took place after An American Tail: Fievel Goes West. He voiced characters on many animated television series, such as The Smurfs, The Biskitts, A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, TaleSpin, Animaniacs, as well as video games, such as Fallout and Kingdom Hearts. In 2008, Mars was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer which had spread beyond his pancreas, his cancer made him so ill that he could not reprise his role as King Triton for The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Beginning, so Jim Cummings took over the role. As well as not being able to voice Triton, he could not voice Grandpa Longneck in The Land Before Time XIII: The Wisdom of Friends.
Mars died from pancreatic cancer on February 12, 2011, at the age of 75. Kenneth Mars at Find a Grave Kenneth Mars on IMDb Kenneth Mars at the TCM Movie Database
Musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing. The songs advance the plot or develop the film's characters, but in some cases, they serve as breaks in the storyline as elaborate "production numbers." The musical film was a natural development of the stage musical after the emergence of sound film technology. The biggest difference between film and stage musicals is the use of lavish background scenery and locations that would be impractical in a theater. Musical films characteristically contain elements reminiscent of theater. In a sense, the viewer becomes the diegetic audience, as the performer looks directly into the camera and performs to it; the 1930's through the early 1950's are considered to be the golden age of the musical film, when the genre's popularity was at its highest in the Western world. Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the earliest Disney animated feature film, was a musical which won an honorary Oscar for Walt Disney at the 11th Academy Awards.
Musical short films were made by Lee de Forest in 1923–24. Beginning in 1926, thousands of Vitaphone shorts were made, many featuring bands and dancers; the earliest feature-length films with synchronized sound had only a soundtrack of music and occasional sound effects that played while the actors portrayed their characters just as they did in silent films: without audible dialogue. The Jazz Singer, released in 1927 by Warner Brothers, was the first to include an audio track including non-dietetic music and diegetic music, but it had only a short sequence of spoken dialogue; this feature-length film was a musical, featuring Al Jolson singing "Dirty Hands, Dirty Face", "Toot, Tootsie", "Blue Skies", "My Mammy". Historian Scott Eyman wrote, "As the film ended and applause grew with the houselights, Sam Goldwyn's wife Frances looked around at the celebrities in the crowd, she saw'terror in all their faces', she said, as if they knew that'the game they had been playing for years was over'." Still, only isolated sequences featured "live" sound.
In 1928, Warner Brothers followed this up with another Jolson part-talkie, The Singing Fool, a blockbuster hit. Theaters scrambled to install the new sound equipment and to hire Broadway composers to write musicals for the screen; the first all-talking feature, Lights of New York, included a musical sequence in a night club. The enthusiasm of audiences was so great that in less than a year all the major studios were making sound pictures exclusively; the Broadway Melody had a show-biz plot about two sisters competing for a charming song-and-dance man. Advertised by MGM as the first "All-Talking, All-Singing, All-Dancing" feature film, it was a hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture for 1929. There was a rush by the studios to hire talent from the stage to star in lavishly filmed versions of Broadway hits; the Love Parade starred Maurice Chevalier and newcomer Jeanette MacDonald, written by Broadway veteran Guy Bolton. Warner Brothers produced the first screen operetta, The Desert Song in 1929.
They photographed a large percentage of the film in Technicolor. This was followed by the first all-color, all-talking musical feature, entitled On with the Show; the most popular film of 1929 was the second all-color, all-talking feature, entitled Gold Diggers of Broadway. This film broke all box office records and remained the highest-grossing film produced until 1939; the market became flooded with musicals and operettas. The following all-color musicals were produced in 1929 and 1930 alone: The Show of Shows, The Vagabond King, Follow Thru, Bright Lights, Golden Dawn, Hold Everything, The Rogue Song, Song of the Flame, Song of the West, Sweet Kitty Bellairs, Under a Texas Moon, Bride of the Regiment, Whoopee!, King of Jazz, Viennese Nights, Kiss Me Again. In addition, there were scores of musical features released with color sequences. Hollywood released more than 100 musical films in 1930, but only 14 in 1931. By late 1930, audiences had been oversaturated with musicals and studios were forced to cut the music from films that were being released.
For example, Life of the Party was produced as an all-color, all-talking musical comedy. Before it was released, the songs were cut out; the same thing happened to Fifty Million Frenchmen and Manhattan Parade both of, filmed in Technicolor. Marlene Dietrich sang songs in her films, Rodgers and Hart wrote a few well-received films, but their popularity waned by 1932; the public had come to associate color with musicals and thus the decline in their popularity resulted in a decline in color productions. The taste in musicals revived again in 1933 when director Busby Berkeley began to enhance the traditional dance number with ideas drawn from the drill precision he had experienced as a soldier during World War I. In films such as 42nd Street and Gold Diggers of 1933, Berkeley choreographed a number of films in his unique style. Berkeley's numbers begin on a stage but transcend the limitations of theatrical space: his ingenious routines, involving human bodies forming patterns like a kaleidoscope, could never fit onto a real stage and the intended perspective is viewing from straight above.
Musical stars such as Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers were among the most popular and highly
An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities; the seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and displacing or disrupting the ground; when the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can trigger landslides, volcanic activity. In its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event—whether natural or caused by humans—that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused by rupture of geological faults, but by other events such as volcanic activity, mine blasts, nuclear tests.
An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter. Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane; the sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behavior. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface; this continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake.
This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior. There are three main types of fault, all of which may cause an interplate earthquake: normal and strike-slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip and movement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. Reverse faults occur in areas.
Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other. Many earthquakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip. Reverse faults those along convergent plate boundaries are associated with the most powerful earthquakes, megathrust earthquakes, including all of those of magnitude 8 or more. Strike-slip faults continental transforms, can produce major earthquakes up to about magnitude 8. Earthquakes associated with normal faults are less than magnitude 7. For every unit increase in magnitude, there is a thirtyfold increase in the energy released. For instance, an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 releases 30 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude earthquake and a 7.0 magnitude earthquake releases 900 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude of earthquake. An 8.6 magnitude earthquake releases the same amount of energy as 10,000 atomic bombs like those used in World War II. This is so because the energy released in an earthquake, thus its magnitude, is proportional to the area of the fault that ruptures and the stress drop.
Therefore, the longer the length and the wider the width of the faulted area, the larger the resulting magnitude. The topmost, brittle part of the Earth's crust, the cool slabs of the tectonic plates that are descending down into the hot mantle, are the only parts of our planet which can store elastic energy and release it in fault ruptures. Rocks hotter than about 300 °C flow in response to stress; the maximum observed lengths of ruptures and mapped faults are 1,000 km. Examples are the earthquakes in Chile, 1960; the longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault, the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey and the Denali Fault in Alaska, are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, those along normal faults are shorter. The most important parameter controlling the maximum earthquake magnitude on a fault is however not the maximum available length, but the available width because the latter varies by a factor of 20. Along converging plate margins, the dip angle of the rupture plane is shallow about 10 de
James Roy Horner was an American composer and orchestrator of film scores, writing over 100. He was known for the integration of choral and electronic elements, for his frequent use of motifs associated with Celtic music. Horner's first major score was in 1979 for The Lady in Red, but he did not establish himself as an eminent film composer until his work on the 1982 film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, his score for James Cameron's Titanic is the best-selling orchestral film soundtrack of all time. He wrote the score for the highest-grossing film of all time, Cameron's Avatar. Horner collaborated on multiple projects with directors including Don Bluth, James Cameron, Joe Johnston, Walter Hill and Ron Howard, he won two Academy Awards, two Golden Globes, three Satellite Awards, three Saturn Awards, was nominated for three British Academy Film Awards. Horner, an avid pilot, died at the age of 61 in a single-fatality crash while flying his Short Tucano turboprop aircraft. Horner was born in 1953 in California, to Jewish immigrants.
His father, Harry Horner, was born in Holice, Bohemia a part of Austria-Hungary. He worked as a set designer and art director, his mother, Joan Ruth, was born into a prominent Canadian family. His brother Christopher is a documentary filmmaker. James Horner started playing piano at the age of five, he played violin. He spent his early years in London, he returned to America, where he attended Verde Valley School in Sedona and received his bachelor's degree in music from the University of Southern California. After earning a master's degree, he started work on his doctorate at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he studied with Paul Chihara, among others. After several scoring assignments with the American Film Institute in the 1970s, he finished teaching a course in music theory at UCLA turned to film scoring. Horner was an avid pilot, owned several small airplanes. Horner's first credit as a feature-film composer was for B-movie director and producer Roger Corman's Battle Beyond the Stars.
As his work gained notice in Hollywood, Horner was invited to take on larger projects. One of his first major scores was for 1979's The Lady in Red. Horner's big break came in 1982, it established him as an A-list Hollywood composer. Director Nicholas Meyer quipped that Horner was hired because the studio could no longer afford the first Trek movie's composer, Jerry Goldsmith. Horner continued writing high-profile film scores including 48 Hrs. Krull, Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, Cocoon, Aliens, *batteries not included, Willow and Field of Dreams. Cocoon was the first of his many collaborations with director Ron Howard. In 1987, Horner's original score for Aliens brought him his first Academy Award nomination. "Somewhere Out There," which he co-composed and co-wrote with Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil for An American Tail, was nominated that year for Best Original Song. Throughout the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, Horner wrote orchestral scores for family films, with credits for An American Tail. A Dinosaur's Story.
Horner scored six films in 1995, including his commercially successful and critically acclaimed works for Braveheart and Apollo 13, both of which received Academy Award nominations. Horner's biggest critical and financial success came in 1997 with his score for James Cameron's Titanic. At the 70th Academy Awards, Horner received the Oscar for Best Original Dramatic Score, shared the Oscar for Best Original Song with co-writer Will Jennings for "My Heart Will Go On"; the film's score and song won three Grammy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards. After Titanic, Horner continued to compose for major productions, including The Perfect Storm, A Beautiful Mind, Enemy at the Gates, The Mask of Zorro, The Legend of Zorro, House of Sand and Fog and Bicentennial Man, he worked on smaller projects such as Iris and Bobby Jones: Stroke of Genius. He received his eighth and ninth Academy Award nominations for A Beautiful Mind and House of Sand and Fog, but lost on both occasions to composer Howard Shore. Horner composed the 2006–2011 theme for the CBS Evening News, introduced during the debut of anchor Katie Couric on September 5, 2006.
He wrote various treatments of the theme, explaining, "One night the show might begin with the Iranians obtaining a nuclear device, another it might be something about a flower show... The tone needs to match the news."Horner collaborated again with James Cameron on his 2009 film Avatar, which became the highest-grossing film of all time, surpassing Cameron's own Titanic. Horner worked on Avatar for over two years, he said, "Avatar has been the most difficult film I have worked on, the biggest
A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin
Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase. These insects are solitary, but under certain circumstances they become more abundant and change their behaviour and habits, becoming gregarious. No taxonomic distinction is made between grasshopper species. In the solitary phase, these grasshoppers are innocuous, their numbers are low, they do not pose a major economic threat to agriculture. However, under suitable conditions of drought followed by rapid vegetation growth, serotonin in their brains triggers a dramatic set of changes: they start to breed abundantly, becoming gregarious and nomadic when their populations become dense enough, they form bands of wingless nymphs which become swarms of winged adults. Both the bands and the swarms move around and strip fields and cause damage to crops; the adults are powerful fliers. Locusts have formed plagues since prehistory; the ancient Egyptians carved them on their tombs and the insects are mentioned in the Iliad, the Bible and the Quran.
Swarms have been a contributory cause of famines and human migrations. More changes in agricultural practices and better surveillance of locations where swarms tend to originate, have meant that control measures can be used at an early stage; the traditional means of control are based on the use of insecticides from the ground or the air, but other methods using biological control are proving effective. Swarming behaviour decreased in the 20th century, but despite modern surveillance and control methods, the potential for swarms to form is still present, when suitable climatic conditions occur and vigilance lapses, plagues can still occur. Locusts are large insects and convenient for use in research and the study of zoology in the classroom, they are edible insects. The word "locust" is derived from the Latin Vulgate locusta. Locusts are the swarming phase of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae; these insects are solitary, but under certain circumstances become more abundant and change their behaviour and habits, becoming gregarious.
No taxonomic distinction is made between grasshopper species. In English, the term "locust" is used for grasshopper species that change morphologically and behaviourally on crowding, forming swarms that develop from bands of immature stages called hoppers; these changes are examples of phase polymorphism. He made his discoveries during his studies of the Migratory locust in Caucasus, whose solitary and gregarious phases had been thought to be separate species, he designated the two phases as gregaria. These are referred to as statary and migratory morphs, though speaking, their swarms are nomadic rather than migratory. Charles Valentine Riley and Norman Criddle were involved in achieving the understanding and control of locusts. Swarming behaviour is a response to overcrowding. Increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs causes an increase in levels of serotonin; this causes the locust to change colour, eat much more, breed much more easily. The transformation of the locust to the swarming form is induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.
A large swarm can consist of billions of locusts spread out over an area of thousands of square kilometres, with a population of up to 80 million per square kilometre. When desert locusts meet, their nervous systems release serotonin, which causes them to become mutually attracted, a prerequisite for swarming; the initial bands of gregarious hoppers are known as "outbreaks", when these join together into larger groups, the event is known as an "upsurge". Continuing agglomerations of upsurges on a regional level originating from a number of separate breeding locations are known as "plagues". During outbreaks and the early stages of upsurges, only part of the locust population becomes gregarious, with scattered bands of hoppers spread out over a large area; as time goes by, the insects become more cohesive and the bands become concentrated in a smaller area. In the desert locust plague in Africa, the Middle East, Asia that lasted from 1966 to 1969, the number of locusts increased from two to 30 billion over two generations, but the area covered decreased from over 100,000 square kilometres to 5,000 square kilometres.
One of the greatest differences between the solitary and gregarious phases is behavioural. The gregaria nymphs are attracted to this being seen as early as the second instar, they soon form bands of many thousands of individuals. These groups behave like cohesive units and move across the landscape downhill, but making their way around barriers and merging with other bands; the attraction between the insects seems to be visual, but involves olfactory cues, the band seem to navigate using the sun. They pause to feed at intervals before resuming their march, may cover tens of kilometres over a few weeks. Differences in morphology and development are seen. In the desert locust and the migratory locust, for example, the gregaria nymphs become darker with st