Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Overbrook High School (Philadelphia)
Overbrook High School is a public, four-year secondary school in the Overbrook section of Philadelphia, in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Overbrook High School is designated by the School District of Philadelphia as Location #402, in the West Region; the building was designed by Irwin T. Catharine, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. Enrollment for 2004–05 was 2,075 students in grades 9 through 12. African Americans make up 99% of the student population, with whites and Latinos accounting for most of the rest of 2006; as of 2015, the school principal of Overbrook is Yvette Jackson Overbrook is best known for its famous alumni, who include Wilt Chamberlain and Will Smith. At least 11 Overbrook alumni have played in the NBA, the school is ranked sixth in that respect. Nick Falcon Official website Overbrook High School at the Wayback Machine at American School Directory Demographic & Climate Profile
Lonnie Corant Jaman Shuka Rashid Lynn, better known by his stage name Common, is an American rapper and philanthropist. Common debuted in 1992 with the album Can I Borrow a Dollar? and maintained an underground following into the late 1990s, after which he gained mainstream success through his work with the Soulquarians. Common's first major-label album Like Water for Chocolate received commercial success. In 2003, he won the Grammy Award for Best R&B Song for the Erykah Badu single "Love of My Life", his 2005 album Be was a commercial success and was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Common received his second Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group for "Southside", from his 2007 album Finding Forever, his best-of album, Thisisme Then: The Best of Common, was released in late 2007. In 2011, Common launched Think his own record label imprint, he had released music under various other labels including Relativity, GOOD Music. Common won the 2015 Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song and the Academy Award for Best Original Song, for his song "Glory" from the 2014 film Selma, in which he co-starred as Civil Rights Movement leader James Bevel.
Common's acting career includes roles in the films Smokin' Aces, Street Kings, American Gangster, Terminator Salvation, Date Night, Just Wright, Happy Feet Two, New Year's Eve, Run All Night, Being Charlie, John Wick: Chapter 2 and Smallfoot. He narrated the documentary Bouncing Cats, about one man's efforts to improve the lives of children in Uganda through hip-hop/b-boy culture, he starred as Elam Ferguson on the AMC western television series Hell on Wheels. Lonnie Rashid Lynn was born on March 13, 1972 at the Chicago Osteopathic Hospital in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, the son of educator Dr. Mahalia Ann Hines and former ABA basketball player turned youth counselor Lonnie Lynn Jr, he was raised in the Calumet Heights neighborhood. Lynn's parents divorced when he was six years old, resulting in his father moving to Denver, Colorado; this left Lynn to be raised by his mother. While a student at Luther High School South in Chicago, along with two of his friends formed C. D. R. A rap trio that opened for acts such as N.
W. A and Big Daddy Kane. Lynn attended Florida A&M University for two years under a scholarship and majored in business administration. After being featured in the Unsigned Hype column of The Source magazine, Lynn debuted in 1992 with the single "Take It EZ", followed by the album Can I Borrow a Dollar?, under stage name Common Sense. With the 1994 release of Resurrection, Common Sense achieved a much larger degree of critical acclaim, which extended beyond Chicago natives; the album sold well and received a strong positive reaction among alternative and underground hip hop fans at the time. Resurrection was Common Sense's last album produced entirely by his long-time production partner, No I. D. who would become a mentor to a young Kanye West. In 1996, Common Sense appeared on the Red Hot Organization's compilation CD, America Is Dying Slowly, alongside Biz Markie, Wu-Tang Clan, Fat Joe, among many other prominent hip hop artists; the CD, meant to raise awareness of the AIDS epidemic among African American men, was heralded as "a masterpiece" by The Source magazine.
He would also contribute to the Red Hot Organization's Fela Kuti tribute album, Red Hot and Riot in 2002. He collaborated with Djelimady Tounkara on a remake of Kuti's track, "Years of Tears and Sorrow"; the song "I Used to Love H. E. R." from Resurrection ignited a feud with West Coast rap group Westside Connection. The lyrics of the song criticized the path hip hop music was taking, utilizing a metaphor of a woman to convey hip hop and were interpreted by some as directing blame towards the popularity of West Coast gangsta rap. Westside Connection first responded with the 1995 song "Westside Slaughterhouse," with the lyrics "Used to love H. E. R. Mad cause I fucked her". "Westside Slaughterhouse" mentioned Common Sense by name, prompting the rapper to respond with the scathing Pete Rock-produced attack song "The Bitch in Yoo". Common Sense and Westside Connection continued to insult each other back and forth before meeting with Louis Farrakhan and setting aside their dispute. Following the popularity of Resurrection, Common Sense was sued by an Orange County-based reggae band with the same name, was forced to shorten his moniker to Common.
Scheduled for an October 1996 release, Common released his third album, One Day It'll All Make Sense, in September 1997. The album took a total of two years to complete and included collaborations with artists such as Lauryn Hill, De La Soul, Q-Tip, Black Thought, Chantay Savage, Questlove – a future fellow member of the Soulquarians outfit; the album, which made a point of eschewing any gangsterism, was critically acclaimed and led to a major label contract with MCA Records. In addition to releasing One Day, Common's first child, daughter Omoye Assata Lynn, was born shortly after the release of the album; as documented by hip-hop journalist Raquel Cepeda, in the liner notes for the album, this event had a profound spiritual and mental effect on Common and enabled him to grow musically while becoming more responsible as an artist. She writes: Rashid found out that he was going to become a daddy in about 8 months. Stunned and confused, Rashid had life-altering decisions to make with Kim Jones.
The situation led to the composition of his favorite cut on O
Andre Romelle Young, known professionally as Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer, entrepreneur, he is the founder and CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats Electronics, was co-owner of Death Row Records. He has produced albums for and overseen the careers of many rappers, including 2Pac, The D. O. C. Snoop Dogg, Xzibit, Knoc-turn'al, 50 Cent, The Game, Kendrick Lamar, he is credited as a key figure in the crafting and popularization of West Coast G-funk, a rap style characterized as synthesizer-based with slow, heavy beats. As of 2018, he is the third richest figure in hip hop, with a net worth of $770 million. Dre began his career as a member of the World Class Wreckin' Cru, he found fame with the influential gangsta rap group N. W. A with Eazy-E, Ice Cube, MC Ren, DJ Yella, which popularized explicit lyrics in rap to detail the violence of street life, his 1992 solo debut The Chronic, released under Death Row Records, made him one of the best-selling American performing artists of 1993.
It earned him a Grammy Award for the single "Let Me Ride", as well as several accolades for the single "Nuthin' but a'G' Thang". That year, he produced Death Row labelmate Snoop Doggy Dogg's quadruple platinum debut Doggystyle, mentored producers such as his step-brother Warren G and Snoop Dogg's cousin Daz Dillinger. In 1996, Dr. Dre left Death Row Records to establish Aftermath Entertainment, he produced a compilation album, Dr. Dre Presents the Aftermath, in 1996, released a solo album, 2001, in 1999. During the 2000s, Dr. Dre focused on producing other artists contributing vocals. Dr. Dre signed Eminem in 1998 and 50 Cent in 2002, co-produced their albums, he has won six Grammy Awards, including Producer of the Year. Dr. Dre has had acting roles in The Wash and Training Day. Rolling Stone ranked Dre 56 on their list of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Young was born in Compton, the first child of Theodore and Verna Young, his middle name, Romelle, is derived from The Romells. His parents married in 1964, separated in 1968, divorced in 1972.
His mother remarried to Curtis Crayon and had three children: sons Jerome and Tyree and daughter Shameka. In 1976, Young began attending Vanguard Junior High School in Compton, but due to gang violence, he transferred to the safer suburban Roosevelt Junior High School; the family moved and they lived in apartments and houses in Compton, Long Beach and in the Watts and South Central neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Young has stated that he was raised by his grandmother in New Wilmington Arms housing project in Compton, his mother married Warren Griffin, whom she met at her new job in Long Beach, which added three stepsisters and one stepbrother to the family. Young is the cousin of producer Sir Jinx, he attended Centennial High School in Compton during his freshman year in 1979, but transferred to Fremont High School in South Central Los Angeles due to poor grades. Young attempted to enroll in an apprenticeship program at Northrop Aviation Company, but poor grades at school made him ineligible. Thereafter, he focused on his social life and entertainment for the remainder of his high school years.
Young fathered a son with Cassandra Joy Greene named Curtis. Curtis was brought up by his mother and first met his father 20 years when Curtis became rapper Hood Surgeon. Inspired by the Grandmaster Flash song "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel", he attended a club called Eve After Dark to watch many DJs and rappers performing live, he subsequently became a DJ in the club under the name "Dr. J", based on the nickname of Julius Erving, his favorite basketball player. At the club, he met aspiring rapper Antoine Carraby to become member DJ Yella of N. W. A. Soon afterwards he adopted the moniker Dr. Dre, a mix of previous alias Dr. J and his first name, referring to himself as the "Master of Mixology". Eve After Dark had a back room with a small four-track studio. In this studio and Yella recorded several demos. In their first recording session, they recorded a song entitled "Surgery", with the lyrics "calling Dr. Dre to surgery" serving as the chorus to the song, he joined the musical group World Class Wreckin' Cru under Kru-Cut in 1984.
The group would become stars of the electro-hop scene. "Surgery", released after being recorded prior to the group's official formation, would prominently feature Dr. Dre on the turntable; the record would become the group's first hit, selling 50,000 copies within the Compton area. Dr. Dre and DJ Yella performed mixes for local radio station KDAY, boosting ratings for its afternoon rush-hour show The Traffic Jam. Dr. Dre's earliest recordings were released in 1994 on a compilation titled Concrete Roots. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of the website AllMusic described the compiled music, released "several years before Dre developed a distinctive style", as "surprisingly generic and unengaging" and "for dedicated fans only", his frequent absences from school jeopardized his position as a diver on his school's swim team. After high school, he attended Chester Adult School in Compton following his mother's demands for him to get a job or continue his education. After brief attendance at a radio broadcasting school, he relocated to the residence of his father and residence of his grandparents before returning to his mother's house.
He dropped out of Che
The Wash (soundtrack)
The Wash is the soundtrack to DJ Pooh's 2001 comedy film The Wash. It was released on November 2001 through Aftermath/Doggystyle/Interscope Records. Composed of seventeen tracks, the album featured performances from film stars Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg, among other hip hop and R&B artists, such as Bilal, Bubba Sparxxx, Busta Rhymes, D12, Joe Beast, Knoc-turn'al, LaToiya Williams, Truth Hurts and Xzibit. Production was handled by several record producers, including Bryan-Michael Cox, Focus... Hi-Tek, James Poyser, Mel-Man and Vikter Duplaix; the album peaked at number one in the Billboard 200 and moved 785,000 units, achieving gold status by the Recording Industry Association of America on February 28, 2002. The recording won the 2002 Stony Award for Best Soundtrack, it spawned two singles in 2002: "Bad Intentions" and "The Wash", which were released on January 7 and on March 18 respectively. NotesTrack 5 contains an interpolation from "Hollywood Hot" as recorded by Bob Crewe & Cinou Bullens Track 10 contains samples from "Mercy Mercy Me" and "God Is Love" as recorded by Marvin Gaye Track 14 contains a sample from "Get This Money" as recorded by Slum Village " Knee Deep" - Funkadelic "Climax" - Ohio Players "Rapture" - Blondie "Take a Little Time" - Terrell C.
Moses "No Other Love" - Faith Evans "I Ain't No Joke" - Eric Barrier and William Griffin "Encore Work Slow Evil" - Dr. Dre, Scott Storch & Mike Elizondo "Yo Ho" - Dr. Dre & Camara Kambon "2080 Guitar Beat" - Dr. Dre "Track 7" - Dr. Dre, Camara Kambon, Scott Storch & Mike Elizondo Compilation creditsDr. Dre appears courtesy of Aftermath Entertainment Snoop Dogg appears courtesy of Doggystyle Records D-12 appears courtesy of Shady Records/Interscope Records Bilal appears courtesy of Moyo Music, Inc./Interscope Records Knoc-turn'Al appears courtesy of L. A. Confidential Xzibit appears courtesy of Open Bar Entertainment/Loud Records Yero appears courtesy of Noontime Music Busta Rhymes appears courtesy of Flipmode Records/J Records Bubba Sparxxx appears courtesy of Beat Club Records/Interscope Records Hi-Tek appears courtesy of Hi-Tek Publishing RC appears courtesy of D&G Entertainment Soopafly appears courtesy of Fly2K Records/Doggystyle Records Toi appears courtesy of Fly2K Records Ox appears courtesy of Interscope Records "The Wash" Original Motion Picture Soundtrack at Discogs
The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor is a 1987 British-Italian epic biographical drama film about the life of Puyi, the last Emperor of China, whose autobiography was the basis for the screenplay written by Mark Peploe and Bernardo Bertolucci. Independently produced by Jeremy Thomas, it was directed by Bertolucci and released in 1987 by Columbia Pictures. Puyi's life is depicted from his ascent to the throne as a small boy to his imprisonment and political rehabilitation by the Communist Party of China; the film stars John Lone as Puyi, with Joan Chen, Peter O'Toole, Ruocheng Ying, Victor Wong, Dennis Dun, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Maggie Han, Ric Young, Vivian Wu, Chen Kaige. It was the first Western feature film authorized by the People's Republic of China to film in the Forbidden City in Beijing, it won 9 Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, at the 60th iteration of the event. In 1950, Puyi has been kept in custody for five years, since the Red Army captured him during the Soviet Union entry into the Pacific War in 1945.
In the established People's Republic of China, Puyi arrives as a political prisoner and war criminal at the Fushun Prison. Soon after his arrival, Puyi attempts suicide, but is revived and told he must stand trial. 42 years earlier, in 1908, a toddler Puyi is summoned to the Forbidden City by the dying Empress Dowager Cixi. After telling him that the previous emperor had died earlier that day, with her last words, Cixi tells Puyi that he will be the next emperor. After his coronation, frightened by his new surroundings expresses his wish to go home, denied. Despite having scores of palace eunuchs and maids to wait on him, his only real friend is his wet nurse, Ar Mo, who accompanied him and his father to the palace on the Empress Dowager's summons; the next section of the film continues the series of chronological flashbacks showing Puyi's early life intermixed with his imprisonment in the 1950s. His upbringing is confined to the imperial palace, which he is not allowed to leave; when he is about ten, he is visited by his younger brother, who tells him he is no longer Emperor and that China is a republic.
In 1919, the kindly Scotsman Reginald Johnston is appointed as Puyi's tutor and gives him a Western-style education. Puyi becomes desirous to leave the Forbidden City. Johnston, wary of the courtiers' expensive lifestyle, convinces Puyi that the best way of achieving this is by marrying. Now the master of his own home, Puyi sets about reforming the Forbidden City, including expelling the thieving palace eunuchs. However, in 1924, he himself is expelled from the palace and exiled to Tientsin following the Beijing Coup, he leads a decadent life as a playboy and Anglophile, when the Japanese invade Manchuria he sides with them. During this time Wenxiu divorces him, but Wanrong remains and succumbs to opium addiction. In 1934 the Japanese crown him "Emperor" of their puppet state of Manchukuo, though his supposed political supremacy is undermined at every turn, he remains nominal ruler of the region until his capture by the Red Army at the end of the Second World War. Under the "Communist re-education programme" for political prisoners, Puyi is coerced by his interrogators to formally renounce his forced collaboration with the Japanese invaders for war crimes during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
After a heated discussion with the camp commandant and upon watching a film detailing the wartime atrocities committed by the Japanese, Puyi recants his previous stance and is considered rehabilitated by the government. The final minutes of the film show a flash-forward to 1967 during the rise of Mao Zedong's cult of personality and the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. By now, Puyi has become a simple gardener. On his way home from work, he happens upon a Red Guard parade, complete with children playing pentatonic music on accordions en masse and dancers who dance the rejection of landlordism by the Communists, his prison camp commander, who helped him during his rehabilitation, is forced to wear a dunce cap and a sandwich board bearing punitive slogans, is one of the political prisoners now punished as an anti-revolutionary in the parade. Puyi visits the Forbidden City as an ordinary tourist, he meets an assertive little boy wearing the red scarf of the Pioneer Movement. The young Communist orders Puyi to step away from the throne.
However, Puyi proves to the boy that he was indeed the Son of Heaven, proceeding to approach the throne. Behind it, Puyi finds a 60-year-old pet cricket that he was given by palace official Chen Baochen on his coronation day and gives it to the child. Amazed by the gift, the boy turns to talk to Puyi. In 1987, a tour guide is leading a group through the palace. Stopping in front of the throne, the guide sums up Puyi's life in a few, brief sentences, concluding that he died in 1967. Bernardo Bertolucci proposed the film to the Chinese government as one of two possible projects – the other was an adaptation of La Condition humaine by André Malraux; the Chinese preferred The Last Emperor. Producer Jeremy Thomas managed to raise the $25 million budget for his ambitious independent production single-handedly. At one stage, he scoured the phone book for potential financiers. Bertolucci was given complete freedom by the authorities to shoot in The Forbidden City, which had never before been opened up for use in a Western film.
For the first ninety minutes of the film and Storaro made full use of its visual splendour. 19,000 extras were needed over the course of the f