Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse. Cowboys and gunslingers wear Stetson hats, neckerchief bandannas, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins. Recurring characters include the aforementioned cowboys, Native Americans, lawmen, bounty hunters, gamblers and settlers; the ambience is punctuated with a Western music score, including American and Mexican folk music such as country, Native American music, New Mexico music, rancheras. Westerns stress the harshness of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains; the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a "...mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West". Specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Common plots include: The construction of a telegraph line on the wild frontier.
Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners or who build a ranch empire. Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone, wronged. Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans. Outlaw gang plots. Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry. Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution, dispensed through a shootout or quick-draw duel; the Western was the most popular Hollywood genre from the early 20th century to the 1960s. Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Ford's landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939 and it made John Wayne a mainstream screen star; the popularity of Westerns continued with the release of classics such as Red River. Westerns were popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time, including High Noon, The Searchers, Cat Ballou, The Wild Bunch and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.
Classic Westerns such as these have been the inspiration for various films about Western-type characters in contemporary settings, such as Junior Bonner, set in the 1970s, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, set in the 21st century. The Western genre sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original, Native American, inhabitants of the frontier; the Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–"frontier justice"–dispensed by gunfights. These honor codes are played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them; this Western depiction of personal justice contrasts with justice systems organized around rationalistic, abstract law that exist in cities, in which social order is maintained predominately through impersonal institutions such as courtrooms.
The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a semi-nomadic wanderer a cowboy or a gunfighter. A showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the literary descendants of the knight errant which stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian Romances. Like the cowboy or gunfighter of the Western, the knight errant of the earlier European tales and poetry was wandering from place to place on his horse, fighting villains of various kinds and bound to no fixed social structures but only to their own innate code of honor, and like knights errant, the heroes of Westerns rescue damsels in distress. The wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture; the Western takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, although some notable examples are more morally ambiguous.
Westerns stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Western films have specific settings such as isolated ranches, Native American villages, or small frontier towns with a saloon. Oftentimes, these settings appear deserted and without much structure. Apart from the wilderness, it is the saloon that emphasizes that this is the Wild West: it is the place to go for music, gambling, drinking and shooting. In some Westerns, where civilization has arrived, the town has a church, a general store, a bank and a school; the American Film Institute defines Western films as those "set in the American West that the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." The term Western, used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World magazine. Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th-century popular Western
Tropic Zone (film)
Tropic Zone is a 1953 American crime film written and directed by Lewis R. Foster and starring Ronald Reagan, Rhonda Fleming, Estelita Rodriguez, Noah Beery Jr. Grant Withers and John Wengraf, it was released on January 1953, by Paramount Pictures. Reagan's character, Dan McCloud, is an American who becomes the foreman of a Central American banana plantation. Learning that his employer, Lukats, is corrupt and trying to corner the market, McCloud joins with one of the smaller growers to organize the workers and stop Lukats' scheme. Ronald Reagan as Dan McCloud Rhonda Fleming as Flanders White Estelita Rodriguez as Elena Estebar Noah Beery Jr. as Tapachula Sam Grant Withers as Bert Nelson John Wengraf as Lukats Argentina Brunetti as Tia Feliciana Maurice Jara as Macario The film was based on a 1939 novel by Tom Gill called Gentlemen of the Jungle about a banana plantation in British Honduras. In May 1951 the producers at Pine-Thomas Productions read a copy of the novel en route to the premiere of their film The Last Outpost in Tuscon.
They bought the film rights intending to make it a vehicle for Rhoda Fleming, as the last of a four-picture deal she had with Pine-Thomas. Ronald Reagan signed to co star. Estelita Rodriguez was borrowed from Republic. Paramount built a large set for the film the studio's biggest new set in ten years. Designed by art director A. Earl Hedrick together with studio supervisor Hal Pereira, covering four stages, the set depicted "a complete Caribbean native village", with "16 buildings, irrigation ditches, five hilltops, a schoolhouse, two roads, two streams, a complicated powerhouse" and more. Edith Head, who had won the first four of her eight Academy Awards, handled the costumes for the film, highlighted by Fleming's fourteen different outfits, all of them in "jungle tones". Reagan dismissed the film as a "sand and banana" picture with a "hopeless" script. Ronald Reagan filmography Tropic Zone on IMDb Review of film at Variety
The Lucky Stiff
The Lucky Stiff is a 1949 American comedy crime film directed by Lewis R. Foster, starring Dorothy Lamour, Brian Donlevy, Claire Trevor; the film is based on the 1945 novel of the same name by Craig Rice. The Lucky Stiff was produced by famous comedian Jack Benny, the only feature film he produced, through his production company, Amusement Enterprises. Lawyer John Malone is an ardent admirer of the sultry night-club singer Anna Marie St. Clair. After meeting her at the club, he is present when her boss is killed, she is arrested for the crime. Anna Marie is sentenced to death, so Malone and his secretary Maggie Seaton set out to find the real murderer, also responsible for a protection racket Malone is investigating. At the last possible moment, Anna Marie is saved from execution; when she learns that the newspapers have reported that she is dead, she decides to use her status as a "corpse" to her advantage. Millie Dale, her replacement at the nightclub, is killed. Malone concludes that nightclub owner Eddie Britt has been behind the scheme all along but that Anna Marie, in love with Britt, was complicit.
Police inspector Von Flanagan ends up placing Anna Marie back under arrest, while Malone places a kiss on Maggie. Dorothy Lamour as Anna Marie St. Claire Brian Donlevy as John J. Malone Claire Trevor as Marguerite "Maggie" Seaton Irene Hervey as Mrs. Childers Marjorie Rambeau as Hattie Hatfield Robert Armstrong as Inspector Von Flanagan Warner Anderson as Eddie Britt Virginia Patton as Millie Dale Richard Gaines as District Attorney Logan Joe Sawyer as Tony Larry J. Blake as Louie Perez Billy Vine as Joe "The Angel" Di Angelo Bob Hopkins as MacDougal Sidney Miller as Bernstein Charles Meredith as Mr. Childers Jimmy Ames as Rico Di Angelo Craig Rice has turned many of her novels into films before like Having Wonderful Crime and Home Sweet Homicide. Rice’s “The Lucky Stiff,”, released in 1945 was another addition to the hit mystery series that included the famous character, John J. Malone. Amusement Enterprises, founded by the producer of the film, Jack Benny, did their first and only production on this film.
Lewis R. Foster was to write and direct the movie, Ernest Laszlo had the job of Cinematographer, Howard Smith was the Editor of the film. Furthermore, Lewis H. Creber was the art director, Alfred Kegerris was the set decorator, Odette Myrtil was in charge of costumes, music was handled by Heinz Roemheld and David Chudnow, the sound of the film was done by William Fox, the dance was staged by Eddie Prinz; the film included the song, "Loneliness" by Ned Washington. The film was released on January 22, 1949, in April of 1949, a Human Resource news item reported that the film lost $400,000, which caused CBS, who had purchased the production company from Benny, to sue Benny. Additionally, in August of 1948 Human Resources had Irmgard Dawson, Crane Whitely, Jack Shea, Bert Stevens, Barbara Stone, Jim Nolan in the cast for the film, but they were never seen on the released film. Lastly, this film was Billy Vine’s first appearance on the big screen; the Lucky Stiff on IMDb The Lucky Stiff at AllMovie The Lucky Stiff at the TCM Movie Database
Santa Fe Trail
The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along the Missouri River, the trail served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880. Santa Fe was near the end of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which carried trade from Mexico City; the route skirted the northern edge and crossed the north-western corner of Comancheria, the territory of the Comanches, who demanded compensation for granting passage to the trail, represented another market for American traders. Comanche raiding farther south in Mexico isolated New Mexico, making it more dependent on the American trade, provided the Comanches with a steady supply of horses for sale. By the 1840s, trail traffic along the Arkansas Valley was so heavy that bison herds could not reach important seasonal grazing land, contributing to their collapse, which in turn hastened the decline of Comanche power in the region.
The American army used the trail route in 1846 for the invasion of New Mexico during the Mexican–American War. After the U. S. acquisition of the Southwest ending the war, the trail helped open the region to U. S. economic development and settlement, playing a vital role in the expansion of the U. S. into the lands it had acquired. The road route is commemorated today by the National Park Service as the Santa Fe National Historic Trail. A highway route that follows the trail's path through the entire length of Kansas, the southeast corner of Colorado and northern New Mexico has been designated as the Santa Fe Trail National Scenic Byway; the Santa Fe Trail was a transportation route opened by the Spaniards at the end of the 18th century and used afterwards by the Americans in the 19th century, crossing the southwest of North America connecting Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. The French explorer Pedro Vial pioneered the route in 1792 and the Santa Fe Trail was established in 1822 to take advantage of new trade opportunities with Mexico, which had just won independence from Spain in the Mexican War of Independence.
The trail was used to haul manufactured goods from the state of Missouri in the United States to Santa Fe, in the northern Mexican state of Nuevo Mexico. The wagon trains followed various emigrant trails to points west as people responded to the opportunity to hold free land, as the political philosophy of Manifest Destiny dominated national political discussions. Connecting riverboat port cities and their wagon train outfitters to western destinations, the trail was a fundamentally important trade route, carrying manufactured products from the central plains of United States to the trail head towns St. Joseph and Independence, Missouri. In the 1820s–30s, it was sporadically important in the reverse trade, carrying foods and supplies to the fur trappers and mountain men opening the remote Northwest in the interior Northwest: Idaho, Wyoming and Montana, connecting via mule trail to points north to supply the lucrative overland fur trade. Santa Fe was near the northern terminus of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which led overland from Mexico City to San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico.
The limited trade traffic transited the site that would become Fort Bent in Colorado and the short-lived trading fort that sat astride the Trapper's Trail and Oregon Trail junction point. This post was only eight miles east of the site of Fort John on; the lost fort was on the same site where Fort Bernard was founded in the eastern Oregon Country. That Fort Bernard ran cargo mule trains to the Santa Fe is certain; the earlier Fort and its traders are less certain, suggesting that they might have been independents and not employees of the large fur companies. Regardless of the lack of explicit documents, it is known the light trading with Mexico used the trail and Trapper's Trail. In 1825, the merchant Manuel Escudero of Chihuahua was commissioned by New Mexico governor Bartolome Baca to negotiate in Washington for opening U. S. borders to traders from Mexico. Beginning in 1826, prominent aristocratic families of New Mexicans, such as the Chávezes, Armijos and Oteros entered into the commerce along the trail, such that by 1843, traders from New Mexico and Chihuahua had become the majority of traders involved in the traffic of goods over the Santa Fe Trail.
In 1835, Mexico City had sent Albino Pérez to govern the department of New Mexico as Jefe Politico and as commanding military officer. In 1837, the forces of Rio Arriba rebelled against Pérez' enforcement of the recent Mexican constitution, new revenue laws taxing Santa Fe commerce and entertainment, the large grants of New Mexico land to wealthy Mexicans. New Mexicans had grown to appreciate the relative freedoms of remote from Mexico City; the rebels defeated and executed governor Albino Perez, but were ousted by the forces of Rio Abajo led by Manuel Armijo. The Republic of Texas claimed Santa Fe as part of the territory north and east of the Rio Grande claimed by both Mexico and Texas following its secession from Mexico in 1836. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition departed from Austin, Texas representing the Republic of Texas and their president Mirabeau B. Lamar, their aim was to persuade the people of Santa Fe and New Mexico to relinquish control over the territory under dispute with Mexico, over the associated Santa Fe Trail
Lloyd Corrigan was an American film and television actor, producer and director who began working in films in the 1920s. The son of actress Lillian Elliott, Corrigan directed films mysteries such as Daughter of the Dragon starring Anna May Wong, before dedicating himself more to acting in 1938, his short La Cucaracha won an Academy Award in 1935. Corrigan was born in San Francisco, California, to actress Lillian Hiby Corrigan and actor James Corrigan. Corrigan studied drama at the University of California, from which he graduated in 1922. Follow Thru to Lady Behave!. Hands Up! to Night Work Corrigan's early roles: The Splendid Crime, It. Corrigan played both romantic villains throughout his career, he appeared in a number of Boston Blackie films as millionaire Arthur Manleder. He starred with William Frawley in the 1949 film, My Home in San Antone. In the 1950 film, Cyrano de Bergerac, he played Ragueneau, the lovable pastry cook, though in this version the role is combined with that of Ligniere, the drunken poet, omitted from the film.
Corrigan continued acting in films until the middle 1960s. He worked extensively in television, having appeared as Dean Dodsworth, a college administrator, in the second season of Meet Mr. McNutley, when the CBS sitcom was renamed The Ray Milland Show for its star, Ray Milland. Corrigan appeared on dozens of television programs, such as the uncle of Corky played by Darlene Gillespie in the Mickey Mouse Club serial, "Corky and White Shadow." He appeared in two episodes of the NBC western, The Restless Gun with John Payne. He was cast on Crossroads, he appeared in the role of Wally Dippel in ABC's The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, in the syndicated crime drama, City Detective, with Rod Cameron, on the television version of How to Marry a Millionaire, with Barbara Eden and Merry Anders. He appeared on NBC's Johnny Staccato with John Cassavetes, the syndicated western, Man Without a Gun, starring Rex Reason and Mort Mills. Six times Corrigan portrayed the western author Ned Buntline in ABC's The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp.
He guest starred on the CBS sitcom, Dennis the Menace, with Jay North in the series lead. In 1959, Corrigan was cast as John Jenkins, with Anne Baxter as Ellie Jenkins, in the episode "A Race to Cincinnati" of the NBC western series, starring Darren McGavin and Burt Reynolds. In the story line, three ruthless men try to prevent a peach farmer from getting his crop to market so that he cannot make the last payment on his valuable land, which he will otherwise forfeit. Corrigan appeared twice on Death Valley Days, he was cast as the lucky hobo Carl Herman in the 1960 episode, "Money to Burn". Helen Kleeb played a recipient of Herman's largess. Paul Sorensen and William Boyett played the thieves whose $50,000 Herman gave away. In 1962, Corrigan played Dorsey Bilger, the bearer of tall tales in Totem, Idaho, in the 1962 episode, "A Sponge Full of Vinegar". In the story line, the townspeople have begun to tire of Bilger's stories; the episode featured Chris Alcaide as Charlie Winslow and Paul Birch as Sheriff Lick.
From 1960 to 1961, Corrigan appeared as a series regular, Uncle Charlie, in the NBC sitcom Happy, with Ronnie Burns, adopted son of George Burns and Gracie Allen, Yvonne Lime Fedderson, Doris Packer. He made guest appearances on CBS's Perry Mason in 1962 as Rudy in "The Case of the Dodging Domino," in 1963 as land financier and murderer Harvey Forrest in "The Case of the Decadent Dean," and in 1965 as Attorney Gerald Shore in "The Case of the Careless Kitten". In 1963, Corrigan portrayed Captain Rembrandt Van Creel in "The Day of the Flying Dutchman" on ABC's western series, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters, starring child actor Kurt Russell. Dehl Berti portrayed the Little Buffalo. From 1965-66, Corrigan appeared in the NBC TV sitcom Hank as Professor McKillup. Corky and White Shadow A Mickey Mouse Club serial - 17 episodes, as Uncle Dan Father Knows Best as Myron, one of Jim's insured who has a car accident with Cornell Wilde, the guest star. My Three Sons as Smitty, one of Bub's card playing mates.
Perry Mason Episode: "The Case of the Dodging Domino" as Rudy Mahlsted Gunsmoke "The Magician" as Jeremiah Hank as Professor McKillup Lloyd Corrigan on IMDb Lloyd Corrigan at the Internet Broadway Database Lloyd Corrigan at Find a Grave https://catalog.afi.com/Person/99886-Lloyd-Corrigan http://www.bfi.org.uk/films-tv-people/4ce2b9f805f34 http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/person/39433%7C99886/Lloyd-Corrigan/ Lloyd Corrigan signatures
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri