The Road Goes Ever On
The Road Goes Ever On is a song cycle, published as a book of sheet music, as an audio recording. The music was written by Donald Swann, the words are taken from poems in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth writings The Lord of the Rings; the title of this opus is taken from "The Road Goes Ever On". The songs form a song cycle, designed to fit together. With Tolkien's approval, Donald Swann wrote the music for this song cycle, much of the music resembles English traditional music or folk music; the sole exception is the Quenya song "Namárië", based on a tune by Tolkien himself and which has some affinities to Gregorian chant. This book has been valued by those uninterested in the music, since it helps Tolkien's readers to better understand the cultures of the various mythological beings presented in Middle-earth, helps linguists analyse Tolkien's poetry. For example, it contains one of the longest samples of the language Quenya, as well as the Sindarin prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel" with grammatical explanations.
In addition to the sheet music, the book includes an introduction that contains additional information about Middle-earth. Prior to the publication of The Silmarillion, this introduction was the only publicly available source for certain information about the First Age of Middle-earth; the first edition of The Road Goes Ever On: a Song Cycle was published on 31 October 1967, in the United States. An LP record of this song cycle was recorded on 12 June 1967, with Donald Swann on piano and William Elvin singing. Side one of this record consisted of Tolkien himself reading five poems from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the first track on side two was Tolkien reading the Elvish prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel". The remainder of side two contained the song cycle performed by Elvin; this LP record, entitled Poems and Songs of Middle Earth and released by Caedmon Records, is long out of print and difficult to find. The second edition of The Road Goes Ever On, published in 1978, added music for "Bilbo's Last Song."
This song was published separately. The third edition, published in 1993, added music for "Lúthien Tinúviel" from The Silmarillion, which had earlier appeared in The Songs of Donald Swann: Volume I; the third edition of The Road Goes Ever On was packaged with a CD that duplicated the song cycle from the 1967 LP record. The CD included two new recordings; the third edition was reprinted in hardcover in 2002 by Harper Collins. On 10 June 1995, the song cycle was performed in Rotterdam under the auspices of the Dutch Tolkien Society, by the baritone Jan Krediet together with the chamber choir EnSuite and Alexandra Swemer on the piano. A CD of this concert was published in a limited edition; the complete list of songs in this song-cycle is as follows: "The Road Goes Ever On". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 1 and Chapter 3. "Upon the Hearth the Fire Is Red". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 3. "In the Willow-meads of Tasarinan".
From The Lord of the Rings vol. 2, The Two Towers, Book 3, Chapter 4. "In Western Lands". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 3, The Return of the King, Book 6, Chapter 1. "Namárië". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 8. "I Sit beside the Fire". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 3, including the text of "A Elbereth Gilthoniel", from The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 1. "Errantry". From The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the following additional songs were added after the first edition, but do not form part of the song cycle itself: "Bilbo's Last Song". Given to Donald Swann after Tolkien's death. Only in the second and third editions of the book. On the CD but not the LP. "Lúthien Tinúviel". From The Silmarillion, Chapter 19. Only in the third edition of the book. On the CD but not the LP; the Donald Swann website
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
John Howe (illustrator)
John Howe is a Canadian book illustrator, living in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. One year after graduating from high school, he studied in a college in Strasbourg, France at the École des arts décoratifs in the same town, he is best known for his work based on J. R. R. Tolkien's worlds. Howe and Tolkien artist Alan Lee served as chief conceptual designers for Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy, Howe did the illustration for the Lord of the Rings board game created by Reiner Knizia. Howe re-illustrated the maps of The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Silmarillion in 1996–2003, his work is however not limited to this, includes images of myths such as the Anglo Saxon legend of Beowulf. Howe illustrated many other books, amongst which many belong to the fantasy genre He contributed to the film adaptation of The Lion, the Witch, the Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis. In 2005 a limited edition of George R. R. Martin's novel A Clash of Kings was released by Meisha Merlin, complete with numerous illustrations by Howe.
Howe has illustrated cards for the Magic: The Gathering collectible card game. For The Hobbit films, original director Guillermo del Toro and replacement director Peter Jackson both consulted with Howe and fellow conceptual artist Alan Lee to ensure continuity of design. Howe is a member of the living history group the Company of Saynt George, has considerable expertise in ancient and medieval armour and armaments. John Howe was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, he was drawing with his mother's help. Around primary school age he found his mother's ability no longer living up to his expectations, got frustrated once at both his mother and himself at not being able to draw a cow to his expectations. Howe's school years were complicated by moves which took place with a timing that left the art classes full, left him in classes like power mechanics, he did find his ability as a draughtsman to be profitable in biology class though, where he and a friend would produce renderings of microscopic organisms for classmates at fifty cents each.
As a child, he collected the covers of paperbacks. His collection included items from Frank Frazetta, Barry Smith, Bernie Wrightson. In his adolescence, Howe read The Lord of the Rings trilogy by J. R. R. Tolkien, he said he got "a real spark" from the Hildebrandt calendars, which showed him that the books could be illustrated. Howe made drawings of his own versions of the scenes depicted in the calendar; these drawings, according to Howe, may not have survived. A year after his high school graduation, Howe found himself in France attending college; the following year, he enrolled into the École des arts décoratifs. He cites his experience of this period as follows: The first year was spent not understanding much, the second at odds with what I did manage to understand, the third eager to get out, although in retrospect I owe whatever clarity of thought I possess to the patience of the professor of Illustration. Throughout his first years in Europe, Howe was taking in as much as he could in the way of art and everything, "simultaneously ancient and novel."
He says the only piece of his art work that survived from this period is his "The Lieutenant of the Black Tower of Barad-dûr", a piece inspired by Tolkien's, The Lord of the Rings. He says if this is not his first published piece, it must be the earliest. Howe's earliest commissions included political cartoons, magazine illustrations, animated films, advertising, of which he says were nightmares, he said that he would end up redoing sketches so many times that there was nothing left of "his" in them. This frustrated him, he wondered how he would make it in the profession. Projects in which Howe worked include The Lord of the Rings, J. R. R. Tolkien's Books and Merchandise, Robin Hobb's books, The Lion, The Witch, The Wardrobe, Cards for Magic: The Gathering, The Hobbit, Pan's Labyrinth. Howe has written and illustrated children's books; the Fisherman & His Wife, transl. From Brothers Grimm. ISBN 0871919370 — picture book The Enchanted World: Night Creatures The Enchanted World: Water Spirits The Enchanted World: Dwarfs The Enchanted World: Giants and Ogres Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving, retold by John Howe ISBN 0316375780 Jack and the Beanstalk, retold by John Howe ISBN 0316375799 Knights: A 3-Dimensional Exploration ISBN 978-1-85707-071-2 The Knight With the Lion: The Story of Yvain ISBN 978-0-316-37583-2 A Diversity of Dragon by Anne McCaffrey with Richard Woods ISBN 978-0-689-31868-9 Images of Middle-Earth ISBN 978-0-261-10310-8 The Maps of Tolkien's Middle-earth by Brian Sibley ISBN 978-0-618-39110-3 The King of Winter's Daughter ISBN 978-0-316-88837-0 Fantasy Encyclopedia Wizardology: The Book of the Secrets of Merlin Myth and Magic: The Art of John Howe ISBN 978-0-7607-8686-4 Fantasy Art Workshop ISBN 978-1-60061-009-7 Forging Dragons: Inspirations and Techniques for Drawing and Painting Dragons ISBN 978-1-60061-323-4 Fantasy Drawing Workshop ISBN 978-1-60061-773-7 Lost Worlds ISBN 978-0-7534-6107-5 Works inspired by J. R. R. Tolkien Official website An interview with John Howe John Howe at the
Farmer Giles of Ham
Farmer Giles of Ham is a comic Medieval fable written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1937 and published in 1949; the story describes the encounters between Farmer Giles and a wily dragon named Chrysophylax, how Giles manages to use these to rise from humble beginnings to rival the king of the land. It is cheerfully anachronistic and light-hearted, set in Britain in an imaginary period of the Dark Ages, featuring mythical creatures, medieval knights, primitive firearms, it is only tangentially connected with the author's Middle-earth legendarium: both were intended as essays in "English mythology". The book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes; the story has appeared with other works by Tolkien in omnibus editions, including The Tolkien Reader and Tales from the Perilous Realm. Tolkien dedicated Farmer Giles of Ham to Cyril Hackett Wilkinson, a don he knew at Oxford University. Farmer Giles is not a hero, he enjoys a slow, comfortable life. But a rather deaf and short-sighted giant blunders on to his land, Giles manages to ward him away with a blunderbuss shot in his general direction.
The people of the village cheer: Farmer Giles has become a hero. His reputation spreads across the kingdom, he is rewarded by the King with a sword named Caudimordax —which turns out to be a powerful weapon against dragons; the giant, on returning home, relates to his friends that there are no more knights in the Middle Kingdom, just stinging flies—actually the scrap metal shot from the blunderbuss—and this entices a dragon, Chrysophylax Dives, to investigate the area. The terrified neighbours all expect the accidental hero Farmer Giles to deal with him; the story parodies the great dragon-slaying traditions. The knights sent by the King to pursue the dragon are useless fops, more intent on "precedence and etiquette" than on the huge dragon footprints littering the landscape; the only part of a'dragon' they know is the annual celebratory dragon-tail cake. Giles by contrast recognises the danger, resents being sent with them to face it, but hapless farmers can be forced to become heroes, Giles shrewdly makes the best of the situation.
It has been suggested that the Middle Kingdom is based on early Mercia, that Giles's break-away realm is based on Frithuwald's Surrey. Tolkien, by profession a philologist, sprinkled several philological jokes into the tale, including a variety of ingeniously fake etymologies. All the place-names are supposed to occur close to Oxford, along the Thames, or along the route to London. At the end of the story, Giles is made Lord of Tame, Count of Worminghall; the village of Oakley, burnt to the ground by the dragon early in the story, may be named after Oakley, near to Thame. Tolkien insists, tongue in cheek, that the village of Thame referred to the Tame Dragon housed in it, that "tame with an h is a folly without warrant." Another joke puts a question concerning the definition of blunderbuss to "the four wise clerks of Oxenford": A short gun with a large bore firing many balls or slugs, capable of doing execution within a limited range without exact aim. and satirises it with application to the situation at hand: However, Farmer Giles's blunderbuss had a wide mouth that opened like a horn, it did not fire balls or slugs, but anything that he could spare to stuff in.
And it did not do execution, because he loaded it, never let it off. The sight of it was enough for his purpose, and this country was not yet civilised, for the blunderbuss was not superseded: it was indeed the only kind of gun that there was, rare at that. As Tom Shippey points out: "Giles's blunderbuss... defies the definition and works just the same.". Chrysophylax Dives is a comically villainous dragon, he stands midway between Smaug and greedy, The Reluctant Dragon and timid. Chrysophylax is Greek for "gold-guard" and dīves is Latin for "rich".. Chrysophylax comes across as a pompous aristocrat—rich and arrogant, but capable of compromise if handled correctly. Farmer Giles is smart enough not to push him to desperation. Caudimordax is the sword of Farmer Giles; the sword can not be sheathed. Four generations earlier, the sword belonged to Bellomarius, "the greatest of all the dragon-slayers" in the Middle Kingdom. Farmer Giles is granted this antiquated sword—by become unfashionable—as a reward for driving off a giant from his fields with his blunderbuss.
He uses the sword to capture and control the dragon. Garm is the talking dog; the dog is both vain of his cowardly. The name is derived from the Norse mythological dog of Garm. Pauline Baynes drew Garm as a Greyhound; this 2008 reprint: includes a new Introduction by Tom Shippey. This special edition was published in 1999 to celebrate the Golden Anniversary of this classic; the publisher in the United States is Houghton Mifflin. The edition includes: Tolkien's original Latin title.
Fëanor is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium who plays an important part in The Silmarillion, he was the eldest son of Finwë, the High King of the Noldor, his first wife Míriel Serindë. Fëanor's mother, Míriel, died shortly after giving birth, having given all her strength and essence to him. For Fëanor was made the mightiest in all parts of body and mind: in valour, in endurance, in beauty, in understanding, in skill, in strength and subtlety alike: of all the Children of Ilúvatar, a bright flame was in him. Finwë remarried, had two more sons, Fëanor's half-brothers Fingolfin and Finarfin, two daughters, Findis and Írimë. Fëanor is best known as the creator of three gems, the Silmarils, which figure prominently in The Silmarillion and are mentioned in The Lord of the Rings, his name is a compromise between Faenor and Fëanáro, meaning "Spirit of fire". He was named Finwë or Finwion after his father and Curufinwë. Fëanor wedded Nerdanel daughter of Mahtan, who bore him seven sons: Maedhros, Celegorm, Caranthir and Amrod.
Fëanor was the student of his father-in-law Mahtan, himself a student of the Vala Aulë. He was inventor of the Tengwar script, he was the creator of the palantíri, was said to have created the Elfstone in one version of its history. Fëanor, at the pinnacle of his might, "in the greatest of his achievements, captured the light of the Two Trees to make the three Silmarils called the Great Jewels, though they were not mere glittering stones, they were alive and sacred."Even the Valar, including Aulë, could not copy them. In fact, Fëanor himself could not copy them, their worth, in Tolkien's universe, was close to infinite to the Valar, as they were unique and irreplaceable. So "Varda hallowed the Silmarils so that thereafter no mortal flesh, nor hands unclean, nor anything of evil will might touch them, for it would be scorched and withered."Fëanor prized the Silmarils above all else, grew suspicious that the Valar and other Eldar coveted them. Melkor released from three ages of imprisonment in the Halls of Mandos and now residing in Valinor, saw in this suspicion an opportunity to sow dissension among the Noldor.
Fëanor did not trust Melkor and refused to communicate with him, but was still caught in the evil Ainu's plot. Melkor used Fëanor's anger and pride against him, telling him that his own half-brother Fingolfin was planning to usurp his place as heir to Finwë. Fëanor threatened Fingolfin's life; as punishment for his threat, the Valar exiled Fëanor to Formenos. He took a substantial treasure including the Silmarils, which he put in a locked box. In support for his eldest son, Finwë withdrew to Formenos; the Valar learned that Melkor was manipulating Fëanor, sent Tulkas to capture Melkor, but he had escaped. With Finwë and Fëanor's absence, Fingolfin had become king, so it seemed that Melkor's lies were true. Melkor tried again to convince Fëanor of them, but Fëanor realised that Melkor's true goal was to obtain the Silmarils, "and he shut the doors of his house in the face of the mightiest of all the dwellers in Eä." In a rage, Melkor left. The Valar invited Fingolfin to Valinor to make peace. Fingolfin offered a hand to his half-brother.
He gave his pledge to follow Fëanor accepted. Meanwhile, Melkor went to Avathar in the south of Aman to seek out Ungoliant; the monstrous spider helped Melkor to destroy the Two Trees. Melkor and Ungoliant went to Formenos, slew Finwë, took the three Silmarils, they escaped by crossing Grinding Ice, in the north to Beleriand. The Trees were destroyed during the reunion of Fingolfin; the Valar, realising that now the light of the Trees survived only in the Silmarils, asked Fëanor to give them up so that they could restore the Trees. Fëanor said: "It may be that I can unlock my jewels, and it was after this. However, he wavered, some believed that at this point it may have still been possible to convince him to change his mind. However, messengers from Formenos arrived and told that Finwë the High King of the Noldor had been killed by Melkor. Melkor had stolen the Silmarils, as well as the other lesser jewels Fëanor had created. Without the living light from the Silmarils, Yavanna could not heal the Two Trees.
The Valar and Eldar now understood the extent of Melkor's treachery. Fëanor, upon learning of his father's murder and the theft of his prized Silmarils, named Melkor "Morgoth", or "Black Foe of the World". Now King of the Noldor in Tirion, Fëanor delivered the most impassioned speech given in Arda, which he unwittingly filled with Morgoth's corruption, he railed against the Great Enemy, but because of Morgoth's influence, he blamed the Valar for Morgoth's deeds. He persuaded most of his people that because the Valar had abandoned them, the Noldor must follow him to Middle-earth to wrest the Silmarils back from Morgoth and
Beren and Lúthien
The tale of Beren and Lúthien, told in several works by J. R. R. Tolkien, is the story of the love and adventures of the mortal Man Beren and the immortal Elf-maiden Lúthien. Tolkien wrote several versions of their story, the latest in The Silmarillion, the tale is mentioned in The Lord of the Rings; the story takes place during the First Age of Middle-earth, about 6,500 years before the events of The Lord of the Rings. Beren, son of Barahir, cut a Silmaril from Morgoth's crown as the bride price for Lúthien, daughter of the elf-king Thingol and Melian the Maia, he was slain by Carcharoth, the wolf of Angband. He lived with Lúthien on Tol Galen in Ossiriand, fought the Dwarves at Sarn Athard, he was the great-grandfather of Elrond and Elros, thus the ancestor of the Númenórean kings. After the fulfilment of the quest of the Silmaril and Beren's death, Lúthien chose to become mortal and to share Beren's fate; the first version of the story is the Tale of Tinúviel, written in 1917 and published in The Book of Lost Tales.
During the 1920s Tolkien started to reshape the tale and to transform it into an epic poem which he called The Lay of Leithian. He never finished it. After his death The Lay of Leithian was published in The Lays of Beleriand, together with The Lay of the Children of Húrin and several other unfinished poems; the latest version of the tale is told in prose form in one chapter of The Silmarillion and is recounted by Aragorn in The Fellowship of the Ring. The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen, told in the appendices of The Lord of the Rings, served as a sequel to this story. Indeed, both Aragorn and Arwen were descendants of Lúthien; as told in The Silmarillion, the version of the tale: Beren was the last survivor of a group of Men in Dorthonion led by his father Barahir that had still resisted Morgoth, the Dark Enemy, after the Battle of Sudden Flame, in which Morgoth had conquered much of northern Middle-earth. After the defeat of his companions he fled from peril into the elvish realm Doriath. There he met Lúthien, the only daughter of King Thingol and Melian the Maia, as she was dancing and singing in a glade.
Upon seeing her Beren fell in love. She fell in love with him as well, when he, moved by her beauty and enchanting voice, gave her the nickname "Tinúviel" As Thingol disliked Beren and regarded him as being unworthy of his daughter, he set a impossible task on Beren that he had to achieve before he could marry Lúthien. Thingol asked Beren to bring him one of the Silmarils, the three hallowed jewels made by Fëanor, which Morgoth had stolen from the elves. Beren set out on his quest to Angband, the enemy's fortress. Although Thingol tried to prevent it, Lúthien followed him. On his journey to the enemy's land Beren reached Nargothrond, an Elvish stronghold, was joined by ten warriors under the lead of King Finrod, who had sworn an oath of friendship to Beren's father. Although Fëanor's sons and Curufin, warned them not to take the Silmaril that they considered their own, the company was determined to accompany Beren. On their way to Angband they were seized by the servants of Sauron, despite the best efforts of Finrod to maintain their guise as Orcs, imprisoned in Tol-in-Gaurhoth.
One by one they were killed by a werewolf until only Beren and Finrod remained. When the wolf went for Beren, Finrod broke his chains and wrestled it with such fierceness that they both died; when she was following Beren, Lúthien was captured and brought to Nargothrond by Celegorm and Curufin. Aided by Huan, Celegorm's hound, she was able to flee. With his aid she came to Sauron's fortress where Huan defeated the werewolves of the Enemy, Draugluin the sire of werewolves, Sauron himself in wolf-form. Lúthien forced Sauron to give ownership of the tower to her, she freed the prisoners, among them Beren. Meanwhile, Sauron fled to Taur-nu-Fuin. Beren wanted to try his task once more alone; however they were attacked by Celegorm and Curufin, exiled from Nargothrond. Beren was wounded by Curufin. Through magic they took the shapes of the bat Thuringwethil and the wolf Draugluin that Huan had killed. Thereby they were able to enter the enemy's land and at last came to Angband and before Morgoth's throne.
There Lúthien sang a magical song which made his court fall asleep. As he tried to cut out the others, his knife broke and a shard glanced off Morgoth's face, awakening him; as they attempted to leave, the gate was barred by Carcharoth, a giant werewolf, bred as an opponent to Huan. He swallowed Beren's hand, in which Beren was holding the Silmaril. Carcharoth ran off madly. Eagles helped Beren and Lúthien escape. Beren and Lúthien returned to Doriath, where they told of their deeds and thereby softened Thingol's heart, he accepted the marriage of his daughter and the mortal Man, although Beren's task had not been fulfilled. Beren and Huan participated in the hunt for Carcharoth, who in his madness had come into Doriath and caused much destruction there. Both of them were killed by the wolf, but Carcharoth was slain. Before he d
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962; the book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring. The rest of the poems are an assortment of bestiary fairy tale rhyme. Three of the poems appear in The Lord of the Rings as well; the book is part of Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium. The volume includes The Sea-Bell, subtitled Frodos Dreme, which W. H. Auden considered Tolkien's best poem, it is a piece of metrical and rhythmical complexity that recounts a journey to a strange land beyond the sea. Drawing on medieval'dream vision' poetry and Irish'immram' poems the piece is markedly melancholic and the final note is one of alienation and disillusion; the book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and by Roger Garland. The book, like the first edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, is presented as if it is an actual translation from the Red Book of Westmarch, contains some background information on the world of Middle-earth, not found elsewhere: e.g. the name of the tower at Dol Amroth and the names of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.
There is some fictional background information of those poems, linking them to Hobbit folklore and literature and to their actual writers. The book uses the letter "K" instead of "C" for the /k/ sound in Sindarin, a spelling variant Tolkien used many times in his writings; the Adventures of Tom Bombadil Bombadil Goes Boating Errantry Princess Mee The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late* The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon The Stone Troll* Perry-the-Winkle The Mewlips Oliphaunt* Fastitocalon Cat Shadow-bride The Hoard The Sea-Bell The Last Ship*Poems featured in The Lord of the Rings The Adventures of Tom Bombadil was first published as a stand-alone book in 1962. Some editions, such as the Unwin Paperbacks edition and Poems and Stories, erroneously state that it was first published in'1961'. Tolkien's letters confirm. Beginning with The Tolkien Reader in 1966, it was included in a number of anthologies of Tolkien's shorter works; this trend continued after his death with Tales from the Perilous Realm.
In 2014 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond edited a new stand-alone edition, which includes for each poem detailed commentary, original versions and their sources. Barrow-wight Farmer Maggot Goldberry Old Forest Old Man Willow The Adventures of Tom Bombadil