Wire in the Blood
Wire in the Blood is a British crime drama television series and produced by Coastal Productions for Tyne Tees Television and broadcast on ITV from 14 November 2002 to 31 October 2008. The series is based on characters created by Val McDermid, including a university clinical psychologist, Dr Anthony "Tony" Valentine Hill, able to tap into his own dark side to get inside the heads of serial killers. Working with detectives, Hill takes on tough and impenetrable cases in an attempt to track down the killers before they strike again. ITV cancelled the series in 2009, citing high production costs and the large number of new series being broadcast on the network; the series is set in the fictional town of Bradfield, assumed to lie within West Yorkshire. It follows the Major Incident Team of Bradfield Metropolitan Police's CID and the assistance provided to the detectives by clinical psychologist and serial offender profiler Dr. Tony Hill. All of the main episodes revolve around a serial killer whom Hill helps to track down by means of a profile, based on the killer's actions.
From Series 1 to 3, the MIT is headed by Detective Inspector Carol Jordan. The two develop a close relationship, further explored in McDermid's novels, in which Jordan is always head of the MIT. In the first episode of Series 4, Jordan is replaced—without real explanation—by Detective Inspector Alex Fielding, who develops an close relationship. A constant theme is Carol's, Alex's, struggle with their senior officers, who are less trusting of Tony's eccentric methods and far-fetched theories than Carol and Alex. There is a romantic storyline showing a growing development in Tony's relationships with both Carol and Alex. Whilst starting as friendships, both detectives begin to develop romantic feelings for Tony, although these feelings never develop into a relationship. Robson Green as Dr. Anthony "Tony" Hill Hermione Norris as DCI Carol Jordan Simone Lahbib as DI Alex Fielding Mark Letheren as DS Kevin Geoffries Emma Handy as DC Paula McIntyre Tom Chadbon as ACC John Brandon Peter Sullivan as ACC Paul Eden Alan Stocks as DS Don Merrick Doreene Blackstock as DS Annie Reiss Mark Penfold as Dr. Ashley Vernon Michael Smiley as Dr. Liam Kerwin Jethro Skinner as Tim Eccles Dr. Tony Hill is a clinical psychologist whose expertise with damaged minds has proved invaluable to the police.
Intelligent and endearing, if somewhat eccentric, he is driven by a tangible sense of right and wrong and his understanding of human behaviour enables him to empathize with both victim and killer. Tony formed a close bond between them putting many serial killers behind bars; as such, he was devastated to learn. Despite his bizarre behavior, Tony's ability to get results when evidence is scarce has won him the support of Jordan's successor, Alex Fielding, who trusts him as part of her team, but Tony's involvement with the police affects him as he finds it difficult to distance himself from disturbing cases. The plastic "blue bag" that Tony is seen with was gleaned from Robson Green's research for Wire in the Blood, which involved spending time with revered criminal psychologist Julian Boon. Green described Boon in part as an "extraordinary, nice guy who carried his life in a blue bag and traveled on a double-decker bus. No one looked at him twice." D. C. I. Carol Jordan is a hardworking officer, who forms a close relationship with Tony working with him to secure the arrest of several killers.
In series two's Right to Silence, Carol is promoted from Detective Inspector to Detective Chief Inspector. Although the two soon grow close, they never achieve the romantic relationship that Carol desires with Tony and in the end, Carol leaves Bradfield to take a position in South Africa. Speaking of Hermione Norris' portrayal of Carol Jordan, Val McDermid said that she "brings real intelligence and insight to her role, demonstrating that there's a lot more to her skills than we got to see in Cold Feet." D. I. Alex Fielding is a senior detective and a dedicated professional, always willing to put in the hours to get the case solved, her warmth and down-to-earth style have gained her the respect of Tony. She has learned to trust that Tony's intuition can sometimes mean the key to cracking a case when physical evidence is hard to come by, but the pressure of working on murder investigations sometimes causes a strain at home where she is a single mum to young Ben. When the stresses of life take their toll, she finds it difficult to ask for help.
D. S. Kevin Geoffries has proved himself a worthy member of the team, despite a few indiscretions and lapses in judgement. After a rocky start he comes to respect Tony, believing he can offer an extra dimension to the investigations. Kevin works with Paula McIntyre, their professional bond has made them good friends. D. C. Paula McIntyre is feisty young detective. Paula doesn't get fazed easily, she is keen to take on more responsibility and pleased to have strong role-models in Carol and Alex. Paula has a deep respect for Tony, after he saved her life during an investigation. She'll do. A. C. C. John Brandon is an excellent and experienced senior officer, but one, shown to b
ITV plc is a British media company based in London, England. It holds 13 of the 15 regional television licences that make up the ITV network, the oldest and largest commercial terrestrial television network in the United Kingdom; the network, branded ITV by ITV plc, has vied with BBC One for the status of the UK's most watched channel since the 1950s. The company was formed by a corporate takeover by Granada plc of Carlton Communications. Granada acquired a 68% controlling interest of the newly formed company whilst Carlton retained the 32% remaining shares, it began trading on 2 February 2004. This was the most recent stage in a long process of mergers between the original ITV regional franchises, it acquired the remaining 25% of the Breakfast franchise holder, GMTV, from The Walt Disney Company in 2009, Channel Television from Yattendon Group plc in 2011 and UTV for £100 million in 2015, with ownership transferring to ITV on 29 February 2016. ITV plc is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. ITV plc was the result of a merger between Granada and Carlton following the various mergers between the companies of the ITV network that had taken place from 1993 when the ownership rules were relaxed.
The first wave of mergers began with Yorkshire Television acquiring Tyne Tees Television in 1992, forming a parent group called Yorkshire-Tyne Tees Television Holdings. In 1994, Carlton Communications – which had owned a 20% stake in Central Independent Television – acquired the remainder of the company and, because of Central's shareholdings, inherited a 20% stake in Meridian Broadcasting; that year, Granada acquired London Weekend Television through a hostile takeover worth in the region of £750 million. MAI, which controlled Meridian Broadcasting, acquired Anglia Television. Ownership rules, that restricted ownership of ITV licences by one company to two outright, plus 20% in a third, were relaxed, so Carlton went on to acquire Westcountry Television, Granada acquired Yorkshire-Tyne Tees Holdings and United acquired HTV; the idiosyncrasies and business model of the future ITV plc operation can be found in the way these new conglomerates operated their franchises. Carlton re-branded all of its stations with its own name, creating a single identity across the whole expanse of its territory.
By contrast and United, while keeping the franchisees names, centralised their continuity departments – Granada in Leeds and United in Southampton. All three, merged the network production operations of their franchises, creating Carlton Productions, Granada Content and United Productions. By the end of the 1990s, there were three dominating owners of the ITV franchises in England and Wales: Carlton Communications, Granada plc and United News and Media. In 2000, after an aborted merger attempt with Carlton, UNM decided to leave ITV and Granada bought all the UNM franchises, but sold HTV to Carlton in order to comply with the permitted audience percentage covered by a single broadcasting interest, it kept the production arm of HTV, renaming it Granada Bristol and moving it out of Bath Road to a new, smaller office in Whiteladies Road. This arm of the company closed in 2006, following rationalisation of ITV's production operations; the last remaining independent ITV franchise in England and Wales, Border Television, had been bought by Capital Group in 2000, was sold on to Granada in 2001, with Border's radio assets being retained by Capital Radio plc.
In 2004, Granada and Carlton merged, creating a single company for all ITV franchises in England and Wales. One of the consequences of the merger was an over-capacity of studio facilities and production units around the country, rivals, but were now all part of the same group. In order to make cost savings, several large regional headquarters, studio sites and programme departments closed and merged. Among the casualties were network production and studio facilities of Tyne Tees in Newcastle upon Tyne, Meridian in Southampton, Carlton Central in Nottingham and Anglia in Norwich. In all cases, ITV moved the regional franchisee to a new location complete with hi-tech facilities for news production, but with a minimal number of studios and the loss of many jobs. Tyne Tees' factual department merged with Yorkshire's in Leeds. Prior to the merger, despite being rivals within ITV, Granada and Carlton had been involved in several joint ventures, including the digital terrestrial television operator ITV Digital that went bankrupt, collapsed in 2002.
They owned the digital channel ITV2, which had launched on December 1998, 65% of the ITV News Channel owned by ITN and was launched as the ITN News Channel. As well as consolidating its shareholding in ITN itself, the newly merged company was able to buy the final 35% stake in the ITV News Channel from ITN's original partners NTL in April 2004. In November the same year, following a frantic last-minute deal with
The Royal is a British period medical drama produced by ITV and aired on Sundays in the early evening slot. The show consisted of eight series of one-hour episodes and was broadcast on ITV from 2003 until the show was cancelled in 2011, with repeats continuing on ITV3; the show is set in the 1960s and focuses on the fictional "St Aidan's Royal Free Hospital", an NHS hospital serving the fictional rural seaside town of Elsinby and its surrounding area. The show began as a spin-off of ITV's period police drama series, featuring characters from Heartbeat during the first three series, before becoming its own entity; the show itself was shot within Whitby, City of Bradford and the North Riding of Yorkshire, stars of The Royal included Ian Carmichael, Wendy Craig, Robert Daws, Amy Robbins. The show itself generated its own spin-off, entitled The Royal Today, which used the same settings but in the present day; the setting of The Royal was first introduced as part of the story for the 14th episode of the 12th series of Heartbeat entitled'Out of the Blue', in which the hospital was used to treat Heartbeat character Vernon Scripps and several people of Aidensfield.
The benefit of this and its connection to the show, helped it to gain its own series, though it began as a spin-off with several characters from Heartbeat appearing in episodes as part of its main plots or side story. By the end of the third series, the show's ties to Heartbeat were discontinued, with the show's production team working to make it into its own entity by the fourth series. Unlike its former parent show, The Royal uses the song "Somebody Help Me" by The Spencer Davis Group as it main theme tune, with an instrumental version playing over the ending credits; the majority of the plots in each episode centred around medical emergencies or a serious medical case, featured moral dilemmas created or exposed by these matters. Additional story-lines included staff members dealing with personal problems or issues, an occasional side-story in a similar vein to Heartbeat. While the show tended to avoid political topics on the whole, its main themes focused and centred upon the conflict between progressive and conservative social ideals, as well as the ethical challenges and social changes faced by the hospital's staff, a reflection of its setting and what was faced by the world in the 1960s.
Although the setting used includes references to 1960s events, such as the coming of colour television, like Heartbeat the show featured a number of anachronisms, such as the use of "a glass ceiling", an expression not coined until some years later. Set twenty years after the creation of the National Health Service, a theme running through the series is the independent hospital's attempts at preserving its methods and standards within a National Health Service portrayed as bureaucratic and concerned more with efficiencies than patient care. Filming of the interior scenes of "St. Aiden's" utilised both The Leeds Studios and St. Luke's Hospital, the latter of, chosen because it had not been updated in many years, retained the appearance of what a hospital would appear like in the 1960s; the exterior scenes of the fictional hospital used the Red Court building on Holbeck Road, within Scarborough's South Cliff, included the nearby park area and Holbeck Clock Tower. The remaining scenes outside the hospital covered the area of the North Riding of Yorkshire, including Whitby and Scarborough.
Julian Ovenden as Dr David Cheriton, a GP and the series' original protagonist. Zoie Kennedy as Meryl Taylor, a Senior Staff Nurse and Cheriton's primary love interest. Robert Daws as Dr Gordon Ormerod, a GP and Weatherill's husband. Amy Robbins as Dr Jill Weatherill, a GP and a staunch promoter of maternal medicine. Linda Armstrong as Sister Brigid, a nursing administrator and ward sister. Francis Matthews as Dr James'Jim' Alway Dr Cheriton's predecessor, seen. Ian Carmichael as T. J. Middleditch, Hospital Secretary, Chairman of the Middleditch Trust. Wendy Craig as Matron, nursing administrator, nicknamed "Toffee," a name she got whilst serving as an RAF nurse during the war; the name was bestowed on her by airmen at the RAF Station on which she was serving, thinking she was "toffee nosed". John Axon as Nigel Harper, District Health Authority administrator. Michelle Hardwick as Lizzie Hopkirk, receptionist. Denis Lill as Mr Rose, a consultant general surgeon assigned to St Aidan's. Andy Wear as a porter and theatre technician.
Michael Starke as Ken Hopkirk, St Aidan's head porter. Polly Maberly as Dr Lucy Klein, a consultant psychologist and a foil for Cheriton. Anna Madeley as Samantha Beaumont, a student nurse. Paul Fox as Dr Jeff Goodwin, a GP and Makori's primary love interest. Scott Taylor as Frankie Robinson, an ambulance driver and paramedic. Natalie Anderson as Stella Davenport, a senior staff nurse and Frankie's longtime love interest. Amelia Curtis as Catherine Deane, a senior staff nurse. Kananu Kirimi as Dr Joan Makori, a GP and a member of Doctors Without Borders Robert Cavanah as Adam Carnegie, hospital secretary. Sam Callis as Dr Mike Banner, a GP and sought-after locum p
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea, with a population of 260,700. Hull lies east southeast of York and northeast of Sheffield; the town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century by the monks of Meaux Abbey as a port from which to export their wool. Renamed Kings-town upon Hull in 1299, Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading hub and whaling centre and industrial metropolis. Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars, its 18th-century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, took a prominent part in the abolition of the slave trade in Britain. After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War, Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, gaining unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the late 2000s recession the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial and public service construction spending.
Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter, Hull Marina and The Deep aquarium. Sports teams include Championship League football club Hull City and rugby league clubs Hull F. C. & Hull Kingston Rovers. The University of Hull now enrols more than 16,000 students, it is ranked among the best in the Humber region. Hull was the 2017 UK City of Culture and in the same year the city's Ferens Art Gallery hosted the prestigious Turner Prize. Kingston upon Hull stands on the north bank of the Humber Estuary at the mouth of its tributary, the River Hull; the valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early Neolithic period but there is little evidence of a substantial settlement in the area of the present city. The area was attractive to people because it gave access to a prosperous hinterland and navigable rivers but the site was poor, being remote, low-lying and with no fresh water, it was an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton, named Wyke.
The name is thought to originate either from a Scandinavian word Vik meaning inlet or from the Saxon Wic meaning dwelling place or refuge. The River Hull was a good haven for shipping, whose trade included the export of wool from Meaux Abbey, which owned Myton. In 1293 the town of Wyke was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who on 1 April 1299 granted it a royal charter that renamed the settlement King's town upon Hull or Kingston upon Hull; the charter is preserved in the archives of the Guildhall. In 1440, a further charter incorporated the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff and twelve aldermen. In his Guide to Hull, J. C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's naming of the town, he writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke …, charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner.
He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, at the same time to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had a manor hall built for himself, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, bestowed upon it the royal appellation, King's Town; the port served as a base for Edward I during the First War of Scottish Independence and developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth, importing wine and timber. Hull established a flourishing commerce with the Baltic ports as part of the Hanseatic League. From its medieval beginnings, Hull's main trading links were with northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull's merchants. In addition, there was trade with France and Portugal; as sail power gave way to steam, Hull's trading links extended throughout the world.
Docks were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of New Zealand and South America. Hull was the centre of a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom. Sir William de la Pole was the town's first mayor. A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family. Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded Jesus College and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull; the increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of syphilis through Hull and on into Europe from the New World. The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of William Wilberforce. During the English Civil War, Hull became strategically important because of the large arsenal located there.
Early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the Earl of Newcastle governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once. Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for Parliament and denied Charles I entry into the town. Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town; this siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament a
ITV Yorkshire known as Yorkshire Television or YTV is the British television service provided by ITV Broadcasting Limited for the Yorkshire franchise area on the ITV network. Until 1974, this was the historic county of Yorkshire and parts of neighbouring counties served by the Emley Moor and Bilsdale transmitting station transmitters. Following a re-organisation in 1974 the transmission area was extended to include Lincolnshire, northwestern Norfolk and parts of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, served by the Belmont transmitter, but lost much of North Yorkshire served by the Bilsdale transmitter which covered Tyne Tees Television, with transmissions available as far south as Harrogate. Two consortia applied for the franchise, Telefusion Yorkshire Ltd and Yorkshire Independent Television, the former having large financial backing and the latter having the better plans but fewer resources. On 1 January 2007, the company transferred its programme production business to ITV Studios Limited; as a consequence, Yorkshire Television Limited ceased to trade on 1 January 2007.
Yorkshire Television Ltd still exists, but its licence is now owned and operated by ITV plc under the licence name of ITV Broadcasting Limited. Yorkshire Television Ltd is, along with most other regional companies owned by ITV plc, listed with Companies House as a dormant company. ITV Yorkshire known as Yorkshire Television, sometimes abbreviated to YTV or Yorkshire, has its origins in the 1967 franchise round; that round stipulated that the influential pan-North region, the licence, owned by Granada Television and ABC, both based in Manchester, had to be split up. It was decided that Granada would keep the North West franchise and a new franchise created for Yorkshire. On 28 February 1967, national and regional newspapers carried numerous advertisements from the Independent Television Authority, each requesting applicants for various new ITV contracts, one of, Programme Contractor for Yorkshire Area – All Week. Ten formal bids were received by the closing date. Telefusion Yorkshire Limited, created by the Blackpool-based TV rental chain Telefusion and led by Grampian TV Managing Director G E Ward Thomas, was selected as the winning bid.
It was chosen on the condition that it'merged' with another applicant Yorkshire Independent Television. The latter, backed by a consortium of Yorkshire Post Newspapers Ltd, other local newspaper groups such as the Huddersfield Examiner and the Scarborough Evening News, several Yorkshire-based Co-operative societies, trade unions and local universities, was deemed by the Authority to have the better talent but suffered a lack of funding, whereas Telefusion had the backing of a cash-rich parent; the new venture chose the name Yorkshire Television Network but decided to drop the word'Network' before going on air. A few days after winning, the chairman Sir Richard Graham said: "We see ourselves as having a particular responsibility to convey to a mature audience the particular qualities and strengths of one of the most populous and most important areas outside London."The station began broadcasting on 29 July 1968 from new studios at Kirkstall Road in Leeds. Although they were purpose-built for colour production and equipped with £2.2 million of equipment, the majority of initial broadcasts were in monochrome until the ITV network formally launched its colour output on 15 November 1969.
After an opening ceremony led by The Duchess of Kent, the station's first programme was live coverage of the Test cricket match between England and Australia at Headingley. Other programmes broadcast on YTV's opening day included the first edition of its regional news programme Calendar, the station's first networked production – the'Playhouse' drama Daddy Kiss it Better – and a light entertainment special, First Night, hosted by Bob Monkhouse; the station was hit hard financially when the transmitter mast at Emley Moor collapsed in March 1969 under a heavy build-up of ice. This left the major part of the region uncovered by Yorkshire Television plus BBC2 who broadcast from the same mast. A temporary mast was erected and television to the West Riding of Yorkshire resumed, albeit with reduced coverage. From this, the company grew and by May 1970 the company was making profits of over £689,000. After a series of temporary masts at Emley Moor, the current 275 metre reinforced concrete tower — topped by a 55-metre steel lattice mast — began transmitting in 1971, resuming full area coverage for the YTV region.
In June 1969, talks began between Yorkshire and Anglia about achieving a cost cutting exercise by sharing equipment and facilities. Neither company planned a merger; the decision to form an association was purely down to the costs of the increased levy on the companies' advertising revenue by the government, the cost of colour TV. The ITA stated there was no reason why the companies should not have talks about sensible economies that could be made, but would examine all details before any association were to be implemented. In January 1970, a warning was given that regionalism would be abandoned and a forced merger with Anglia Television would happen unless the chancellor reduced the levy applied on advertising revenues, not helped by the high cost with colour television and the introduction of UHF, which the government agreed to a few months later. With the introduction of UHF broadcasting, YTV had failed to gain the Bilsdale transmitter in North Yorkshire, allocated instead to Tyne Tees Televi
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co