Music recording certification
Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by nation or territory. All countries follow variations of the RIAA certification categories, which are named after precious materials; the threshold required for these awards depends upon the population of the territory where the recording is released. They are awarded only to international releases and are awarded individually for each country where the album is sold. Different sales levels, some 10 times lower than others, may exist for different music media; the original gold and silver record awards were presented to artists by their own record companies to publicize their sales achievements. The first silver disc was awarded by Regal Zonophone to George Formby in December 1937 for sales of 100,000 copies of "The Window Cleaner"; the first gold disc was awarded by RCA Victor to Glenn Miller and His Orchestra in February 1942, celebrating the sale of 1.2 million copies of single "Chattanooga Choo Choo".
Another example of a company award is the gold record awarded to Elvis Presley in 1956 for one million units sold of his single "Don't Be Cruel". The first gold record for an LP was awarded by RCA Victor to Harry Belafonte in 1957 for the album Calypso, the first album to sell over 1,000,000 copies in RCA's reckoning. At the industry level, in 1958 the Recording Industry Association of America introduced its gold record award program for records of any kind, albums or singles, which achieved one million dollars in retail sales; these sales were restricted to U. S.-based record companies and did not include exports to other countries. For albums in 1968, this would mean shipping 250,000 units; the platinum certification was introduced in 1976 for the sale of one million units for albums and two million for singles, with the gold certification redefined to mean sales of 500,000 units for albums and one million for singles. No album was certified platinum prior to this year. For instance, the recording by Van Cliburn of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto from 1958 would be awarded a platinum citation, but this would not happen until two decades after its release.
In 1999, the diamond certification was introduced for sales of ten million units. In the late 1980s, the certification thresholds for singles were dropped to match that of albums; the first official designation of a "gold record" by the Recording Industry Association of America was established for singles in 1958, the RIAA trademarked the term "gold record" in the United States. On 14 March 1958, the RIAA certified its first gold record, Perry Como's hit single "Catch a Falling Star"; the Oklahoma! Soundtrack was certified as the first gold album four months later. In 1976, RIAA introduced the platinum certification, first awarded to the Eagles compilation album Their Greatest Hits on 24 February 1976, to Johnnie Taylor's single "Disco Lady" on 22 April 1976; as music sales increased with the introduction of compact discs, the RIAA created the Multi-Platinum award in 1984. Diamond awards, honoring those artists whose sales of singles or albums reached 10,000,000 copies, were introduced in 1999.
In the 20th century, for a part of the first decade of the 21st, it was common for distributors to claim certifications based on their shipments – wholesale to retail outlets – which led to many certifications which outstripped the actual final retail sales figures. This became much less common once the majority of retail sales became paid digital downloads and digital streaming. In most countries certifications no longer apply to physical media but now include sales awards recognizing digital downloads. In June 2006, the RIAA certified the ringtone downloads of songs. Streaming from on-demand services such as Apple Music, Spotify and Napster has been included into existing digital certification in the U. S since 2013 and the U. K. and Germany since 2014. In the U. S. and Germany video streaming services like YouTube, VEVO, Yahoo! Music began to be counted towards the certification, in both cases using the formula of 100 streams being equivalent to one download. Other countries, such as Denmark and Spain, maintain separate awards for digital download singles and streaming.
The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry was founded in 1996, grants the IFPI Platinum Europe Award for album sales over one million within Europe and the Middle East. Multi-platinum Europe Awards are presented for sales in subsequent multiples of one million. Eligibility is unaffected by time, is not restricted to European-based artists; the Independent Music Companies Association was founded in 2000 to grow the independent music sector and promote independent music in the interests of artistic and cultural diversity. IMPALA sales awards were launched in 2005 as the first sales awards recognising that success on a pan-European basis begins well before sales reach one million; the award levels are Silver, Double Silver, Double Gold, Diamond and Double Platinum. Below are certification thresholds for the United States, United Kingdom and France; the numbers in the tables are in terms of "units", where a unit represents one sale or one shipment of a given medium. Certific
Miami University is a public research university in Oxford, United States. The university was founded in 1809, although classes were not held until 1824. Miami University is the second-oldest university in Ohio and the 10th oldest public university in the United States; the school's system comprises the main campus in Oxford, as well as regional campuses in Hamilton and West Chester. Miami maintains an international boarding campus, the Dolibois European Center in Differdange, Luxembourg; the Carnegie Foundation classifies Miami University as a research university with a high research activity. It is affiliated with the University System of Ohio. Miami University is well known for its liberal arts education. In its 2017 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the university 79th among national universities and the 30th top public university in the United States. Additionally, Miami University is ranked 2nd best national university for undergraduate teaching. Miami is one of the original eight Public Ivy schools, a group of publicly funded universities considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Miami University has a long tradition of Greek life. Today, Miami University hosts over 50 fraternity and sorority chapters, one-third of the undergraduate student population are members of the Greek community. Miami is renowned for its campus' beauty, having been called "The most beautiful campus that there was" by Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Robert Frost. Additionally, Forbes ranked the city of Oxford first on its 2016 list of the best college towns in the United States. Miami's athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and are collectively known as the Miami RedHawks, they compete in the Mid-American Conference in all varsity sports except ice hockey, which competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference. The foundations for Miami University were first laid by an Act of Congress signed by President George Washington, stating an academy should be Northwest of the Ohio River in the Miami Valley; the land was within the Symmes Purchase. Congress granted one township to be in the District of Cincinnati to the Ohio General Assembly for the purposes of building a college, two days after Ohio was granted statehood in 1803.
The Ohio Legislature appointed three surveyors in August of the same year to search for a suitable township, they selected a township off of Four Mile Creek. The Legislature passed "An Act to Establish the Miami University" on February 2, 1809, the state created a board of trustees; the township granted to the university was known as the "College Township," and was renamed Oxford, Ohio, in 1810. The University temporarily halted construction due to the War of 1812. Cincinnati tried—and failed—to move Miami to the city in 1822 and to divert its income to a Cincinnati college. Miami created a grammar school in 1818 to teach frontier youth, but it was disbanded after five years. Robert Hamilton Bishop, a Presbyterian minister and professor of history, was appointed to be the first President of Miami University in 1824; the first day of classes at Miami was on November 1, 1824. At its opening, there were two faculty members in addition to Bishop; the curriculum included Greek, Algebra and Roman history.
An "English Scientific Department" was started in 1825, which studied modern languages, applied mathematics, political economy as training for more practical professions. It offered a certificate upon completion of coursework, not a diploma. Miami students purchased a printing press, in 1827 published their first periodical, The Literary Focus, it promptly failed. The Miami Student, founded in 1867, traces its foundation back to the Literary Register and claims to be the oldest college newspaper in the United States. A theological department and a farmer's college were formed in 1829. William Holmes McGuffey joined the faculty in 1826, began his work on the McGuffey Readers while in Oxford. By 1834 the faculty had grown to seven professors and enrollment was at 234 students. Eleven students were expelled including one for firing a pistol at another student. McGuffey resigned and became the President of the Cincinnati College, where he urged parents not to send their children to Miami. Alpha Delta Phi opened its chapter at Miami in 1833, making it the first fraternity chapter West of the Allegheny Mountains.
In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was created. In 1839 Old Miami reached its enrollment peak, with 250 students from 13 states. President Bishop resigned in 1840 due to escalating problems in the University, although he remained as a professor through 1844, he was replaced as President by George Junkin, former President of Lafayette College.
Huddie William Ledbetter was an American folk and blues singer and songwriter notable for his strong vocals, virtuosity on the twelve-string guitar, the folk standards he introduced. He is best known as Lead Belly. Though many releases credit him as "Leadbelly", he himself wrote it as "Lead Belly", the spelling on his tombstone and the spelling used by the Lead Belly Foundation. Lead Belly played a twelve-string guitar, but he played the piano, harmonica, "windjammer". In some of his recordings, he sang while stomping his foot. Lead Belly's songs covered a wide range of topics including gospel music, he wrote songs about people in the news, such as Franklin D. Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, Jean Harlow, Jack Johnson, the Scottsboro Boys and Howard Hughes. Lead Belly was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988 and the Louisiana Music Hall of Fame in 2008. Lead Belly was born Huddie William Ledbetter to Sally and Wesley Ledbetter on a plantation near Mooringsport, Louisiana, on January 20, 1888.
The 1900 United States Census lists "Hudy Ledbetter" as 12 years old, born January 1888, the 1910 and 1930 censuses give his age as corresponding to a birth in 1888. The 1940 census lists his age with information supplied by wife Martha. However, in April 1942, when Ledbetter filled out his World War II draft registration, he gave his birth date as January 23, 1889, his birthplace as Freeport, Louisiana, his grave marker bears the date given on his draft registration. Ledbetter was the younger of two children born to Sallie Brown; the pronunciation of his name is purported to be "HYEW-dee" or "HUGH-dee". Leadbelly, can be heard pronouncing his name as "HUH-dee" on the track "Boll Weevil," from the Smithsonian Folkways album Lead Belly Sings for Children, his parents had cohabited for several years, but they married on February 26, 1888. When Huddie was five years old, the family settled in Texas; the 1910 census of Harrison County, shows "Hudy" Ledbetter living next door to his parents with his first wife, Aletha "Lethe" Henderson.
Aletha is married one year. Others say she was 15 when they married in 1908, it was in Texas that Ledbetter received an accordion, from his uncle Terrell. By his early twenties, having fathered at least two children, Ledbetter left home to make his living as a guitarist and occasional laborer; when Lead Belly was released from his last prison sentence, the United States was deep in the Great Depression, jobs were scarce. In September 1934, in need of regular work in order to avoid cancellation of his release from prison, Lead Belly asked John Lomax to take him on as a driver. For three months, he assisted the 67-year-old in his folk song collecting around the South. By 1903, Huddie was a "musicianer", a singer and guitarist of some note, he performed for nearby Shreveport audiences in St. Paul's Bottoms, a notorious red-light district there, he began to develop his own style of music after exposure to various musical influences on Shreveport's Fannin Street, a row of saloons and dance halls in the Bottoms, now referred to as Ledbetter Heights.
While in prison, Lead Belly may have first heard the traditional prison song "Midnight Special". He was "discovered" there three years during a visit by folklorists John Lomax and his son Alan Lomax. Impressed by Ledbetter's vibrant tenor and extensive repertoire, the Lomaxes recorded him in 1933 on portable aluminum disc recording equipment for the Library of Congress, they returned with better equipment in July 1934, recording hundreds of his songs. On August 1, Ledbetter was released after having again served nearly all of his minimum sentence, following a petition the Lomaxes had taken to Louisiana Governor Oscar K. Allen at his urgent request, it was on the other side of a recording of his signature song, "Goodnight Irene." A prison official wrote to John Lomax denying that Ledbetter's singing had anything to do with his release from Angola. However, both Ledbetter and the Lomaxes believed that the record they had taken to the governor had hastened his release from prison. In December 1934, Lead Belly participated in a "smoker" at a Modern Language Association meeting at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, where the senior Lomax had a prior lecturing engagement.
He was written up in the press as a convict. On New Year's Day, 1935, the pair arrived in New York City, where Lomax was scheduled to meet with his publisher, about a new collection of folk songs; the newspapers were eager to write about the "singing convict," and Time magazine made one of its first March of Time newsreels about him. Lead Belly attained fame; the following week, he began recording for the American Record Corporation, but these recordings achieved little commercial success. He recorded over 40 sides for ARC, but only five sides were issued. Part of the reason for the poor sales may have been that ARC released only his blues songs rather than the folk songs for which he would become better known. Lead Belly continued to struggle financially. Like many performers, what income he mad
The Ohio Express is an American bubblegum pop band, formed in Mansfield, Ohio in 1967. Though marketed as a band, it would be more accurate to say that the name "Ohio Express" served as a brand name used by Jerry Kasenetz's and Jeffry Katz's Super K Productions to release the music of a number of different musicians and acts; the best known songs of Ohio Express were the work of an assemblage of studio musicians working out of New York, including singer/songwriter Joey Levine. Several other "Ohio Express" hits were the work of other, unrelated musical groups, including the Rare Breed, an early incarnation of 10cc. In addition, a separate touring version of Ohio Express appeared at all live dates, recorded some of the band's album tracks; the question of, the "real" Ohio Express is difficult to answer. The first record credited to The Ohio Express was "Beg and Steal", a "Louie Louie" derivation which became a Top 40 hit in the US and Canada in late 1967; however the same record had been issued as by the Rare Breed in early 1966 on Attack Records.
This failed to chart nationally, though it did see regional chart action in New Utah. The Rare Breed issued one more single in 1966 on Attack, "Come and Take a Ride in My Boat", a minor chart hit in the US southwest though this single failed to chart nationally; the Rare Breed apparently had a dispute with Super K Productions and left the company, never to record again. The band's original recording of "Beg, Borrow & Steal" sung by former member Michael Fenneken, was re-mixed and re-issued in August 1967 on Cameo Parkway Records, now credited to the Ohio Express; the record was a No. 1 single in Columbus, Ohio, by early September, became a hit across Canada and the US through the following months. The otherwise exhaustively annotated Nuggets box set suggests the Rare Breed were from New York or New Jersey, but offers no other data. However, a 2003 interview and a 2009 YouTube post of a performance of "Beg and Steal" identifies the members of the Rare Breed as John Freno, Barry Stolnick, Joel Feigenbaum, Alexander "Bots" Narbut and Tony Cambria, all from Brooklyn and the Bronx, New York.
With no group available to promote the single by playing live dates, Super K Productions hired a Mansfield, band known as Sir Timothy & the Royals and renamed them the Ohio Express. The lineup consisted of Dale Powers, Dean Kastran, Jim Pfahler and Tim Corwin; this group toured as the Ohio Express, their touring commitments made it difficult for them to head into the New York-based Super K offices to record a follow-up single to "Beg and Steal". Of the "official" group members, only Dale Powers appeared on the second single credited to Ohio Express, a cover of the Standells' "Try It"; the single stalled well outside the US Top 40, peaking at No. 83. The group soon recorded an album called "Beg and Steal", it mixed the original Rare Breed title track with tracks recorded by the Ohio Express touring group, as well as tracks recorded by the Super K staff musicians with vocals by Powers. The LP came out on Cameo-Parkway Records of Philadelphia in the autumn of 1967; the record label went into bankruptcy shortly after that and was purchased by music business mogul Allen Klein, who owns the masters to this day.
Two songs on the "Beg and Steal" LP, "I Find I Think of You" and "And It's True", were recorded by the Kent, band the Measles, led by Joe Walsh of the Eagles and the James Gang. In addition, the Measles recorded an instrumental version of "And It's True", placed on the B-side of the "Beg and Steal" single; the Ohio Express moved to the home label of bubblegum pop, Buddah Records. At the same time, Joey Levine was coming up with new material for the Ohio Express at the behest of Super K Productions, he recorded a demo version of the track "Yummy Yummy Yummy" with Super K staff musicians and his own guide vocal for the Ohio Express to record over. However, Buddah head Neil Bogart liked the demo enough that he released the record "as is", with Levine's vocals intact and no input at all from the touring version of the Ohio Express; the song became an international smash hit, peaking at #4 US, #5 UK, #5 Ireland, #7 Australia and #1 Canada. Two months after its issue it had sold over one million copies, was granted gold disc status by the R.
I. A. A. in June 1968. The success of the Levine-led "Yummy Yummy Yummy" set a pattern for the Ohio Express, they released four LPs and a multitude of singles for Buddah between 1968 and 1970, but the "official" group that appeared on album sleeves and at live shows contributed not a single note to their hit singles. For the year following the release of "Yummy Yummy Yummy", all Ohio Express singles were co-written and sung by Levine, with musical accompaniment by anonymous New York session musicians. Under this arrangement, in 1968 and 1969 the group scored three further top 40 hits in the US, Canada and Australia with "Down at Lulu's", "Chewy Chewy" and "Mercy". "Chewy Chewy" was the group's second million seller by March 1969. Around this time, the group name lost the definite article, becoming "Ohio Express" for most releases from this point forward. There are no known occasions of Levine performing with the "official" Ohi
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
The Who are an English rock band formed in London in 1964. Their classic line-up consisted of lead singer Roger Daltrey and singer Pete Townshend, bass guitarist John Entwistle and drummer Keith Moon, they are considered one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century, selling over 100 million records worldwide. The Who developed from an earlier group, the Detours, established themselves as part of the pop art and mod movements, featuring auto-destructive art by destroying guitars and drums on stage, their first single as the Who, "I Can't Explain", reached the UK top ten, followed by a string of singles including "My Generation", "Substitute" and "Happy Jack". In 1967, they performed at the Monterey Pop Festival and released the US top ten single "I Can See for Miles", while touring extensively; the group's fourth album, 1969's rock opera Tommy, included the single "Pinball Wizard" and was a critical and commercial success. Live appearances at Woodstock and the Isle of Wight Festival, along with the live album Live at Leeds, cemented their reputation as a respected rock act.
With their success came increased pressure on lead songwriter Townshend, the follow-up to Tommy, was abandoned. Songs from the project made up 1971's Who's Next, which included the hit "Won't Get Fooled Again"; the group released the album Quadrophenia in 1973 as a celebration of their mod roots, oversaw the film adaptation of Tommy in 1975. They continued to tour to large audiences before semi-retiring from live performances at the end of 1976; the release of Who Are You in 1978 was overshadowed by the death of Moon shortly after. Kenney Jones replaced Moon and the group resumed activity, releasing a film adaptation of Quadrophenia and the retrospective documentary The Kids Are Alright. After Townshend became weary of touring, the group split in 1983; the Who re-formed for live appearances such as Live Aid in 1985, a 25th anniversary tour in 1989 and a tour of Quadrophenia in 1996–1997. They resumed regular touring with drummer Zak Starkey. After Entwistle's death in 2002, plans for a new album were delayed.
Townshend and Daltrey continued as the Who, releasing Endless Wire in 2006, continue to play live with Starkey, bassists Pino Palladino and Jon Button, guitarist Simon Townshend serving as touring players. A tour with a complete symphony orchestra, along with a planned studio album, are both scheduled for 2019; the Who's major contributions to rock music include the development of the Marshall stack, large PA systems, use of the synthesizer and Moon's lead playing styles, Townshend's feedback and power chord guitar technique, the development of the rock opera. They are cited as an influence by hard rock, punk rock and mod bands, their songs still receive regular exposure; the founder members of the Who, Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend and John Entwistle, grew up in Acton and went to Acton County Grammar School. Townshend's father, played saxophone and his mother, had sung in the entertainment division of the Royal Air Force during World War II, both supported their son's interest in rock and roll.
Townshend and Entwistle became friends in their second year of Acton County, formed a trad jazz group. Both were interested in rock, Townshend admired Cliff Richard's début single, "Move It". Entwistle moved to guitar, but struggled with it due to his large fingers, moved to bass on hearing the guitar work of Duane Eddy, he built one at home. After Acton County, Townshend attended Ealing Art College, a move he described as profoundly influential on the course of the Who. Daltrey, in the year above, had moved to Acton from Shepherd's Bush, a more working-class area, he had trouble fitting in at the school, discovered gangs and rock and roll. He found work on a building site. In 1959 he started the Detours, the band, to evolve into the Who; the band played professional gigs, such as corporate and wedding functions, Daltrey kept a close eye on the finances as well as the music. Daltrey spotted Entwistle by chance on the street carrying a bass and recruited him into the Detours. In mid-1961, Entwistle suggested Townshend as a guitarist, Daltrey on lead guitar, Entwistle on bass, Harry Wilson on drums, Colin Dawson on vocals.
The band played instrumentals by the Shadows and the Ventures, a variety of pop and trad jazz covers. Daltrey was considered the leader and, according to Townshend, "ran things the way he wanted them". Wilson was fired in mid-1962 and replaced by Doug Sandom, though he was older than the rest of the band, a more proficient musician, having been playing semi-professionally for two years. Dawson left after arguing with Daltrey and after being replaced by Gabby Connolly, Daltrey moved to lead vocals. Townshend, with Entwistle's encouragement, became the sole guitarist. Through Townshend's mother, the group obtained a management contract with local promoter Robert Druce, who started booking the band as a support act; the Detours were influenced by the bands they supported, including Screaming Lord Sutch, Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers, Shane Fenton and the Fentones, Johnny Kidd and the Pirates. The Detours were interested in the Pirates as they only had one guitarist, Mick Green, who inspired Townshend to combine rhythm and lead guitar in his style.
Entwistle's bass became more of a lead instrument. In February 1964, the Detours became aware of the group Johnny Devlin and the Detours and changed their name. Townshend and his room-mate Richard Barnes spent a night c
The James Gang was an American rock band formed in Cleveland, Ohio in 1966. The band enjoyed moderate success with the singles "Funk #49" and "Walk Away" and are best remembered as the first popular band to feature the guitarist/vocalist Joe Walsh, who would go on to become a successful solo musician, as well as a member of Eagles. Drummer Jim Fox first played with the Cleveland-area band The Outsiders but left them in 1965 to attend college. After they had a national hit the following year with "Time Won't Let Me", Fox returned temporarily to play with them after their drummer was drafted. After leaving them again to return to school, Fox influenced by the sound of British Invasion bands such as The Beatles, The Who and The Yardbirds, began to think about forming his own band and teamed up with schoolmate Ronnie Silverman, bassist Tom Kriss and keyboardist Phil Giallombardo in 1966; the James Gang's earliest lineup consisted of drummer Fox, Silverman and after auditioning some twenty five candidates for lead guitar, the band decided to go with Greg Grandillo, who played with another popular Cleveland band Rainbow Canyon.
He was soon replaced by Dennis Chandler, succeeded by John "Mouse" Michalski who, with the Count Five, had just enjoyed a national hit with "Psychotic Reaction". A short time Fox was invited to audition for a nine piece rhythm and blues band, being assembled. Fox declined the offer but changed his mind when he heard that local guitar legend Glenn Schwartz, fresh out of the army, was to be in attendance. After hearing Schwartz play, hearing that two of his influences were the Spencer Davis Group and Jeff Beck, Fox was impressed and invited Schwartz to join the James Gang. However, Michalski left the band immediately. Ronnie Silverman soon departed as well to enter the military. Bill Jeric was brought in to play alongside Schwartz. No recordings were released by any of these early lineups of the band. Around Christmastime of 1967, who turned out to be AWOL from the army and was breaking up with his wife, decided to leave the band and move to California, where he ended up forming the band Pacific Gas & Electric.
Just days shortly after the new year of 1968, a friend of Schwartz's, Joe Walsh, knocked on Fox's door and asked to be given a tryout as Glenn's replacement. Walsh was accepted and the band continued as a five piece for a short time until Giallombardo, still in high school at the time, left. Jeric and Walsh worked together on guitar parts but, in the spring of 1968, Jeric ended up leaving as well, he was replaced by a returning Ronnie Silverman, discharged from the military. On Sunday June 9, 1968 the group played a concert in Detroit at the Grande Ballroom opening for Cream. At the last minute, Silverman informed the others; the band in need of the money, took to the stage as a trio. They decided to remain that way. In 1968 the band signed with manager Mark Barger, handling the career of a fellow Ohio band, The Lemon Pipers, who had just scored a big hit with "Green Tambourine". Barger put the Gang in touch with ABC Records staff producer Bill Szymczyk, who got them signed to ABC's new Bluesway Records subsidiary in January 1969.
In March 1969 the band, now consisting of Fox and Walsh and produced by Szymczyk, released its debut LP, Yer' Album. In 1969, Szymczyk was music coordinator for the George Englund movie Zachariah, based on the novel Siddhartha by writer Hermann Hesse. Szymczyk arranged for the band to appear in the movie, with two James Gang songs, "Laguna Salada" and "Country Fever" being used. For the recording of these two songs, vocalist Kenny Weiss, a friend of Fox's, was brought in to allow Walsh to focus on his guitar playing. However, Weiss was gone by the time. "Laguna Salada" and "Country Fever" reappeared as bonus tracks on the 2000 re-release of The James Gang Greatest Hits. In November 1969 bassist Tom Kriss left the band after his father, was diagnosed with lung cancer after he had worked for Alcoa for years, where he was exposed to various industrial carcinogens involved in the production of aluminum. Kriss was replaced by Dale Peters, brought in from another group called Case of E. T. Hooley. In 1969 Roger Abramson went to JB's, a small club in Kent and advised Belkin Productions to start a Management division with the James Gang and the band Silk, which included Michael Stanley.
In July 1970 the band released its second album, James Gang Rides Again, which included the popular single "Funk #49." In the spring of 1970, Belkin Productions arranged for the band to open for The Who for six dates during a US tour and their guitarist Pete Townshend was so impressed with them he invited the band to open for him on their fall tour of the United Kingdom. Townshend and Joe Walsh started a long friendship with Pete telling Rolling Stone that Joe was the best American guitar player. In January 1971 they appeared on Top of the Pops in the United Kingdom. In July 1971 the Gang returned to tour Europe. During their heyday, the band shared the stage with artists like: Grand Funk Railroad, Humble Pie, Three Dog Night, Led Zeppelin and many more, but after two more albums, 1971's Thirds, the live album James Gang Live in Concert released that same year, tired of the pressure of doing the lion's share of the writing and singing and being the lone melodic instrument in the tri