Battle of Langside
The Battle of Langside, fought on 13 May 1568, was one of the most unusual contests in Scottish history, bearing a superficial resemblance to a grand family quarrel, in which a woman fought her brother, defending the rights of her infant son. In 1567, Queen of Scots' short period of personal rule ended in recrimination and disaster when, after her capture at Carberry Hill, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her infant son. Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, while her Protestant half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray was appointed Regent on behalf of his nephew. In early May 1568 Mary escaped, heading west to the country of the Hamiltons, high among her remaining supporters, the safety of Dumbarton Castle with the determination to restore her rights as queen. Mary went into exile and captivity in England; the battle can be regarded as the start of the Marian civil war. Mary's abdication had not been universally popular among sections of the Protestant nobility, news of her escape were welcomed.
With an escort of fifty horse led by Lord Claud Hamilton she arrived in Lanarkshire, soon to be joined by a wide cross-section of the nobility, including the Earls of Argyll, Cassillis and Eglinton, the Lords Sommerville, Livingston, Fleming, numerous of the feudal barons and their followers. Within a few days Mary had managed to gather a respectable force of some 6000 men, it was declared that her abdication, her consent to the coronation of James, had been extorted from her under threat of death. An act of council was passed, declaring the whole process by which Moray had been appointed as Regent to be treasonable. A bond was drawn up by those present for her restitution, signed by eight earls, nine bishops, eighteen lords, twelve abbots and nearly one hundred barons, it was Mary's intention to avoid battle if possible, retiring instead to Dumbarton Castle, still held for her by John Fleming, 5th Lord Fleming. Here she would be in a impregnable position, well placed to receive the expected reinforcements from the north, recover her hold over the country by degrees.
With the intention of by-passing Moray she marched to Rutherglen castle meeting loyal supporters and on a wide circuit past Glasgow, intending to move by way of Langside and Paisley back towards the River Clyde, on to Dumbarton on the north side of the Clyde estuary. Moray drew up his army on the moor close to the village of Langside several miles south of Glasgow but now well within the city. Kirkcaldy, keeping an eye on the enemy movements, noted that they were keeping to the south of the River Cart, the Regent's army being on the opposite bank. In response he ordered hackbutters to mount behind each of his horsemen fording the river, placing them among the cottages and gardens of the village, which bordered each side of a narrow lane, through which Mary's army must defile. Meanwhile Moray continued to deploy the rest of the army, the vanguard under the command of the Earl of Morton leading the march across a nearby bridge; the whole army deployed the right around the village. No sooner was this complete than the Queen's vanguard, commanded by Lord Hamilton, began its advance through the village.
The battle was now under way. Mary's army was commanded by Argyll, to show little in the way of real military skill hoping to push Moray aside by sheer force of numbers: it is suggested in the sources that he fainted at one point, though this is certainly a rumour spread by his enemies. With her army now engaged the Queen stood some distance to the rear, close to Cathcart Castle on a mound since named as the Court Knowe; as Hamilton attempted to force a passage through Langside he was met by close fire from Grange's hackbutters. Many in the front ranks were killed, throwing the remainder back on those following, adding to the general confusion. Hamilton pushed on reaching the top of a hill, only to find the main enemy army drawn up in good order. Morton with the border pikemen advanced to intercept Mary's vanguard. Both sides now met in'push of pike'; the forest of inter-locked spears was now so thick it is said that if those behind threw their discharged pistols at the enemy the weapons rested on the shafts as on a carpet, rather than falling to the ground.
Grange, whom Moray had allowed considerable leeway, continued to act with distinction. The battle was now at its height and the outcome still doubtful, until Grange saw that the right wing of the Regent's army-consisting of the barons of Renfrewshire-was beginning to lose ground, he galloped to the main battalion and brought reinforcements. This was done so and the counter-attack pressed with such force, that it broke the enemy ranks. Moray, who hitherto had stood on the defensive, repulsing Mary's cavalry, now charged at the main enemy battalion, the fight now joined all along the line; the Queen's men crumbled, the fugitives being pursued by a party of Highlanders. The Battle of Langside, which had lasted for some forty-five minutes, was over. Mary's biographer, Antonia Fraser, describes the Battle of Langside a "colossal defeat" for Mary. Only one of Moray's men was killed, whereas over 100 of Mary's men were lost, a figure that certainly would have been much higher but for
Glasgow International Exhibition (1901)
The Glasgow International Exhibition was the second of 4 international exhibitions held in Glasgow, Scotland during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The land used is now a park, the 40 foot cast-iron Walter MacFarlane Saracen Fountain from the Saracen Foundry now resides in Alexandra Park and two cottages from Port Sunlight still exist; the exhibition took place during a period of half-mourning requested by Edward VII but was still popular and made more than £35000 profit. The exhibition followed the lead of the previous Glaswegian exhibition in 1888 and took place at Kelvingrove Park, it was opened by the Duchess of Fife. It marked the opening of the city's Art Gallery and commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the first world's fair held in the UK doubled its attendance with 11.5 million visits. Following the style popularised at the 1893 Chicago and 1901 Buffalo world's fairs the main exhibition building was in Renaissance-Baroque style, but the large industrial hall contrasted having a large white facade with Spanish and Venetian ornamentation and a large golden dome atop.
This design by Scottish architect James Miller won him one of his many awards. Countries with close ties to Glasgow exhibited including Japan and Russia; the Russian exhibition was the largest, a'Russian village' of 4 pavilions reported to have cost the Tsar of Russia £30 000 and included several brightly coloured buildings designed by Fyodor Schechtel. Whilst Charles Mackintosh's designs for the major exhibition halls were rejected, he did design four pavilions for commercial organisations, one for the Glasgow School of Art. Many art works were displayed, including Danae by Edward Burne-Jones, a plaster version of Rodin's Burghers of Calais and 160 works loaned by William Burrell. Entertainments included a water chute, an Indian theatre and soap sculptures; as well as the opening by the Duchess of Fife, the fair was visited by the King of Siam and by Empress Eugenie. Glasgow International Exhibition Cup International Exhibition of Science and Industry Scottish Exhibition of National History and Industry Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 Glasgow Garden Festival http://www.theglasgowstory.com/imageview.php?inum=TGSA00363 image of the opening of the exhibition
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland. It reopened in 2006 after a three-year refurbishment and since has been one of Scotland's most popular visitor attractions; the gallery is located on Argyle Street, in the West End of the city, on the banks of the River Kelvin. It is adjacent to Kelvingrove Park and is situated near the main campus of the University of Glasgow on Gilmorehill; the construction of Kelvingrove was financed by the proceeds of the 1888 International Exhibition held in Kelvingrove Park. The gallery was designed by Sir John W. Simpson and E. J. Milner Allen and opened in 1901, as the Palace of Fine Arts for the Glasgow International Exhibition held in that year, it is built in a Spanish Baroque style, follows the Glaswegian tradition of using Locharbriggs red sandstone, includes an entire program of architectural sculpture by George Frampton, William Shirreffs, Francis Derwent Wood and other sculptors. The centrepiece of the Centre Hall is a concert pipe organ installed by Lewis & Co..
The organ was commissioned as part of the Glasgow International Exhibition, held in Kelvingrove Park in 1901. The organ was installed in the concert hall of the exhibition, capable of seating 3,000 people; the Centre Hall of the newly completed Art Gallery and Museum was intended from the beginning to be a space in which to hold concerts. When the 1901 exhibition ended, a Councillor urged the Glasgow Corporation to purchase the organ, stating that without it, "the art gallery would be a body without a soul". Purchase price and installation costs were met from the surplus exhibition proceeds, the organ was installed in the Centre Hall by Lewis and Co; the present case front in walnut with non-functional display pipes was commissioned at this time from John W. Simpson. Simpson was the senior partner of architects of the gallery building. There is an urban myth in Glasgow that the building was accidentally built back-to-front, the architect jumped from one of the towers in despair upon realising his mistake.
In reality, the grand entrance was always intended to face into Kelvingrove Park. The museum's collections came from the McLellan Galleries and from the old Kelvingrove House Museum in Kelvingrove Park, it has one of the finest collections of arms and armour in the world and a vast natural history collection. The art collection includes many outstanding European artworks, including works by the Old Masters, French Impressionists, Dutch Renaissance, Scottish Colourists and exponents of the Glasgow School; the museum houses Christ of Saint John of the Cross by Salvador Dalí. The copyright of this painting was bought by the curator at the time after a meeting with Dalí himself. For a period between 1993 and 2006, the painting was moved to the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art; the museum contains a large gift of the decorative arts from Anne Hull Grundy, an art collector and philanthropist, covering the history of European jewellery in the 18th and 19th centuries. Kelvingrove was reopened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on 11 July 2006 after a three-year closure for major refurbishment and restoration.
The work cost around £28 million and includes a new restaurant and a large basement extension to its display space to accommodate the 8,000 exhibits now on display. A new display layout and wayfinding scheme was introduced to make the building more visitor-friendly. After its 2003–06 refurbishment, the museum was the most popular free-to-enter visitor attraction in Scotland, recording 2.23 million visitors in 2007. These numbers made it the most visited museum in the United Kingdom outside London. In 2015 there were 1,261,552 visitors; the Kelvingrove Museum is mentioned in the lyrics of the Irish ballad "Hot Asphalt", a song about Irish navvies laying asphalt in Britain. During the course of the song, the singer'catches his death of cold', is taxidermied and displayed in the museum'as a monument to the Irish making hot asphalt'. Museum website
The Riverside Museum is the current location of the Glasgow Museum of Transport, at Pointhouse Quay in the Glasgow Harbour regeneration district of Glasgow, Scotland. The building opened in June 2011. On 18 May 2013, the museum was announced as the Winner of the 2013 European Museum of the Year Award, it received 1,131,814 visitors in 2017. The Riverside Museum building was designed by engineers Buro Happold; the internal exhibitions and displays were designed by Event Communications. The purpose-built Museum replaced the previous home for the city's transport collection, at the city's Kelvin Hall, was the first museum to be opened in the city since the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art in 1993; the location of the museum is on the site of the former A. & J. Inglis Shipyard within Glasgow Harbour, on the north bank of the River Clyde and adjacent to its confluence point with the River Kelvin; this site enabled the Clyde Maritime Trust's SV Glenlee and other visiting craft to berth alongside the museum.
Of the £74 million needed for the development of the Riverside Museum, Glasgow City Council and the Heritage Lottery Fund have committed £69 million. The Riverside Museum Appeal is a charitable trust established to raise the final £5 million in sponsorship and donations from companies and individuals for the development of the museum; the Riverside Museum Appeal Trust is recognised as a Scottish Charity SC 033286. Major patrons of the project include: BAE Systems Surface Ships, Weir Group, Rolls-Royce plc, FirstGroup, Strathclyde Partnership for Transport, Caledonian MacBrayne, Arnold Clark and Southern Energy, Bank of Scotland and Optical Express. On 13 November 2007 the Lord Provost of Bob Winter cut the first turf. During the summer of 2008, foundational work was carried out, with massive underground trenches created to house the services for the building. By late September 2008, the steel framework of the structure was taking shape. During 2010 the cladding of the building was put in place and internal fitting-out work continued along with external landscaping works.
The building was structurally completed by late autumn 2010 and work continued to prepare the Riverside Museum for its opening on 21 June 2011. The main contractors for the project were BAM Construct UK Ltd with a range of trade subcontractors including the services installations being delivered by BBESL's team of Jordan Kerr, Gordon Ferguson & Jamie Will and FES, project management being the responsibility of Capita Symonds and Buro Happold providing Resident Engineering Services; the building was completed on 20 June 2011 and the next day it opened to the public. As well as housing many of the existing collections of the Glasgow Museum of Transport, the city has acquired additional items to enhance the experience: L. S. Lowry: Cranes and Ships, Glasgow Docks – acquired at Christie's in November 2005 for £198,400, the painting is on display at the Kelvin Hall; the 1947 work was bought with the help of Glasgow businessman Willie Haughey of City Refrigeration Holdings, a £20,000 grant from the National Art Collections Fund.
SAR Class 15F 4-8-2 steam locomotive, No.3007 - built by the Glasgow-based North British Locomotive Company at its Polmadie Works in 1945, the locomotive was bought in late 2006 from Transnet. It was on display in George Square for a short time in 2007, as part of the effort to raise the £5million public contribution funding. Since opening the Riverside Museum has received positive reviews; however its layout continues to be criticised by visitors. Visitor reviews indicate that this has been disappointing for car enthusiasts and for Glaswegians with fond memories of visiting the Transport Museum at its previous location, which displayed the exhibits at ground level allowing visitors to see the cars up close and look inside them. In 2013, the museum had 740,276 visitors during the year. In 2015, the annual number of visitors had increased to 1,131,814, making it the fifth most popular attraction in Scotland. Culture in Glasgow Scottish Tramway and Transport Society Glasgow Corporation Tramways - history of trams in Glasgow A. & J. Inglis shipyard at Pointhouse Quay, where more than 500 ships have been built Titan Clydebank Scottish Maritime Museum Summerlee, Museum of Scottish Industrial Life Media related to Riverside Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Riverside Museum - Clyde Waterfront project details
The McLellan Galleries are an exhibition space in the city of Glasgow, situated behind a frontage of shops in Sauchiehall Street. It has been closed since 2006; the Galleries were built in 1855-6 to a design by architect James Smith at a cost of £40,000 and are named after their founder, Archibald McLellan, a coach builder and patron of the arts. Following his death, Glasgow Corporation acquired the galleries and collection, for a time they were known as the Corporation Halls before reverting to their former owner's name; the Galleries housed Glasgow School of Art from 1869 to 1899. In October 1986, the shop frontage building housing the Galleries was ravaged by fire, but they re-opened in 1990 as the largest quality, climate-controlled, temporary exhibition gallery in Scotland. While Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum was closed for refurbishment between 2003 and 2006, the McLellan Galleries hosted a display of its best-loved works; the McLellan Galleries was leased to the Glasgow School of Art as studio and storage space in preparation for the planned redevelopment of the Glasgow School of Art campus.
Since 2012 there has been public discussion involving user organisations such as the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts with a view to re-establishing the McLellan Galleries as a major feature in Glasgow’s cultural life. The galleries have been protected as a category B listed building since 1970. Glasgow Museums' website on the McLellan Glasgow City Council's page on the McLellan Galleries
Holmwood House is the finest and most elaborate residential villa designed by the Scottish architect Alexander "Greek" Thomson. It is rare in retaining much of its original interior decor, being open to the public; the villa is located at Cathcart in the southern suburbs of Glasgow. Holmwood is considered to be immensely influential by several architectural historians, because the design as published in Villa and Cottage Architecture: select examples of country and suburban residence erected in 1868 may have influenced Frank Lloyd Wright and other proto-modernist architects. Holmwood was constructed for James Couper, a paper manufacturer in 1857-1858. Couper owned the Millholm paper mill in the valley of the White Water of Cart below the villa; the principal rooms of Holmwood were orientated towards the view of Cathcart Castle. The cost of the house was £2,608:4:11d; the most notable survival is in the dining room which has a frieze of panels enlarged from John Flaxman's illustrations of Homer's Iliad.
The sculpture on the hall chimneypiece was by George Mossman. Holmwood was altered in the 1920s by James Gray. After World War II it was purchased by a local vet, James McElhone and his family, wife Betty and children: Rosemary, James and Paul. Holmwood was sold to the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions who obliterated much of the original decoration with plain paint; the gardener's cottage was demolished in the 1970s. The nuns put the property on the market in the early 1990s, there was a danger that the grounds would be developed for housing, destroying the setting of the villa. Following an appeal, Holmwood was acquired by the National Trust for Scotland in 1994 with the support of £1.5million from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. It was restored by Page\Park Architects in 1997-1998, their work included rebuilding the connecting wall. Patrick Baty carried out the paint analysis. In 1999, the Clydesdale Bank issued a £20 note to mark Glasgow's celebrations as UK City of Architecture and Design which featured an illustration of the dome of Holmwood House, along with the Lighthouse building on the reverse.
The obverse side carried a portrait of Thomson. A second'Holmwood' was constructed in 1885 for the wealthy mining magnate and politician, William Austin Horn, at North Walkerville, Adelaide; the house was built posthumously from Thomson designs published in Villa and Cottage Architecture: select examples of country and suburban residence erected by Blackie & Son Publishing in 1868. This published work included other Thomson designs, including his Romanesque Craig Ailey Villa at Cove on the Firth of Clyde. Although Holmwood was based on Thomson's designs and resembles Holmwood House, modifications were made to the internal design making the room layouts different. Another property named. Alexander Thomson's Holmwood House Features photographs of Holmwood House. Detailed history on National Trust for Scotland Education website Holmwood visitor details on National Trust for Scotland general website Photographs of Holmwood House, Glasgow'Scotland’s hidden wonders: Holmwood House, Glasgow by Sofiane Kennouche' in The Scotsman, 22 October 2015
The River Clyde is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde in Scotland. It is the eighth-longest river in the United Kingdom, the second-longest in Scotland. Traveling through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire. To the Romans, it was Clota, in the early medieval Cumbric language, it was known as Clud or Clut, was central to the Kingdom of Strathclyde; the Clyde is formed by the confluence of the Daer Water and the Potrail Water. The Southern Upland Way crosses both streams before they meet at Watermeetings to form the River Clyde proper. At this point, the Clyde is only 10 km from Tweed's Well, the source of the River Tweed, is near Annanhead Hill, the source of the River Annan. From there, it meanders northeastward before turning to the west, its flood plain used for many major roads in the area, until it reaches the town of Lanark. On the banks of the Clyde, the industrialists David Dale and Robert Owen built their mills and the model settlement of New Lanark.
The mills harness the power of the Falls of Clyde, the most spectacular of, Cora Linn. A hydroelectric power station still generates electricity here, although the mills are now a museum and World Heritage Site. Between the towns of Motherwell and Hamilton, the course of the river has been altered to create an artificial loch within Strathclyde Park. Part of the original course can still be seen, lies between the island and the east shore of the loch; the river flows through Blantyre and Bothwell, where the ruined Bothwell Castle stands on a defensible promontory. Past Uddingston and into the southeast of Glasgow, the river begins to widen, meandering a course through Cambuslang and Dalmarnock. Flowing past Glasgow Green, the river is artificially straightened and widened through the centre, although the new Clyde Arc now hinders access to the traditional Broomielaw dockland area, seagoing ships can still come upriver as far as Finnieston, where the PS Waverley docks. From there, it flows past the shipbuilding heartlands, through Govan, Whiteinch and Clydebank, all of which housed major shipyards, of which only two remain.
The river flows out west of Glasgow, past Renfrew, under the Erskine Bridge past Dumbarton on the north shore to the sandbank at Ardmore Point between Cardross and Helensburgh. Opposite, on the south shore, the river continues past the last Lower Clyde shipyard at Port Glasgow to Greenock, where it reaches the Tail of the Bank as the river merges into the Firth of Clyde. A significant issue of oxygen depletion in the water column has occurred at the mouth of the River Clyde; the valley of the Clyde was the focus for the G-BASE project from the British Geological Survey in the summer of 2010. The success of the Clyde at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was driven by the location of Glasgow, being a port facing the Americas. Tobacco and cotton trade began the drive in the early 18th century. However, the shallow Clyde was not navigable for the largest ocean-going ships, so cargo had to be transferred at Greenock or Port Glasgow to smaller ships to sail upstream into Glasgow itself. In 1768, John Golborne advised the narrowing of the river and the increasing of the scour by the construction of rubble jetties and the dredging of sandbanks and shoals.
A particular problem was the division of the river into two shallow channels by the Dumbuck shoal near Dumbarton. After James Watt's report on this in 1769, a jetty was constructed at Longhaugh Point to block off the southern channel; this being insufficient, a training wall called the Lang Dyke was built in 1773 on the Dumbuck shoal to stop water flowing over into the southern channel. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, hundreds of jetties were built out from the banks between Dumbuck and the Broomielaw quay in Glasgow itself. In some cases, this resulted in an immediate deepening as the constrained water flow washed away the river bottom. In the mid-19th century, engineers took on a much greater dredging of the Clyde, removing millions of cubic feet of silt to deepen and widen the channel; the major stumbling block in the project was a massive geological intrusion known as Elderslie Rock. As a result, the work was not completed until the 1880s. At this time, the Clyde became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw and James Kay, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world.
The completion of the dredging was well-timed. Shipbuilding replaced trade as the major activity on the river, shipbuilding companies were establishing themselves on the river. Soon, the Clyde gained a reputation for being the best location for shipbuilding in the British Empire, grew to become the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. Clydebuilt became an industry benchmark of quality, the river's shipyards were given contracts for prestigious ocean-going liners, as well as warships, including the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth 2 in years, all built in the town of Clydebank. From the founding of the Scott family's shipyard at Greenock in 1712 to the present day, over 25,000 ships have been built on the River Clyde and its Firth and on the tributary River Kelvin and River Cart together with boatyards at Maryhill and Kirkintilloch on the Forth & Clyde Canal and Blackhill on the Monkland Canal. In the same time, an estimated over 300 firms have engaged in shipbuilding on Clydeside