Royal Standard of the United Kingdom
The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. Two versions of the flag exist, one for use in England, Northern Ireland and overseas. Although almost universally called a standard, such flags when used in the United Kingdom are banners of arms, since the 1960s, Queen Elizabeth II has had several personal flags designed for her use as sovereign of certain Commonwealth realms. It may be flown on any building, official or private, during a visit by the Queen, the Royal Standard was flown aboard the royal yacht when it was in service and the Queen was on board. The only church that may fly a Royal Standard, even without the presence of the Sovereign, is Westminster Abbey, the Royal Standard is flown at royal residences only when the sovereign is present. If the Union Flag flies above Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle or Sandringham House it signals that the Queen is not in residence, in 1934, King George V permitted his subjects in Scotland to display the ancient Royal Standard of Scotland as part of his silver jubilee.
Today, it flies above Holyrood Palace and Balmoral Castle when the Queen is not in residence, when the Queen attends Parliament at the Palace of Westminster, the Royal Standard flies from Victoria Tower. Unlike the Union Flag, the Royal Standard is never flown at half-mast, even after the demise of the Crown, controversy arose regarding the lack of a flag at half-staff over Buckingham Palace following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in 1997. The Queen was in residence at Balmoral, and according to established custom, no flag was displayed over Buckingham Palace. The Queen proposed a compromise whereby the Union Flag would be flown at half-staff on the day of Dianas funeral. The Union Flag was flown at half-mast over Buckingham Palace as a mark of respect on the first anniversary of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in England, Northern Ireland, and outside the United Kingdom, the flag is divided into four quadrants. The inclusion of the remains a issue for some in Ireland. The request was denied and the harp remains, the modern Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, apart from minor changes, dates to the reign of Queen Victoria.
The Hanoverian association terminated in 1837 with the accession of Queen Victoria who, being a female, the third quadrant, displaying the gold harp of Ireland, remains unaltered from that version used throughout the remainder of the United Kingdom and overseas. The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom used in Scotland differs from the ancient Royal Standard of Scotland in that the latter portrays the Lion Rampant in its entirety. The direct heir to the Throne has several distinct standards and banners for use throughout the United Kingdom in representation of this position, Prince of Wales currently has five standards at use for his various roles and titles. Historic Other members of the Royal Family have personal standards of their own and these are variants of the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, defaced with a white label and either three points or pendants, or five points. Traditionally all princes and princesses of royal blood are granted arms on their 18th birthday, in Scotland, a queen consort will use the Scottish version of the Royal Standard
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom. Variants of the Royal Arms are used by members of the British royal family. In Scotland, there exists a version of the Royal Arms. The crest is a statant guardant lion wearing the St Edwards Crown, the dexter supporter is a likewise crowned English lion, the sinister, a Scottish unicorn. According to legend a free unicorn was considered a dangerous beast, therefore the heraldic unicorn is chained. In the greenery below, a thistle, Tudor rose and shamrock are depicted, motto Dieu et mon Droit in the compartment below the shield, with the Union Rose and Thistle engrafted on the same stem. The Royal Arms as shown above may only be used by the Queen herself and they appear in courtrooms, since the monarch is deemed to be the fount of judicial authority in the United Kingdom and law courts comprise part of the ancient royal court.
Judges are officially Crown representatives, demonstrated by the display of the Royal Arms behind the bench in all UK courts. In Northern Ireland, the Royal Arms cannot be displayed in courtrooms or on court-house exteriors and they may be shown on the exterior of court buildings that had them in place prior to the 2002 law. However, when used by the government and not by the monarch personally and this is the case with the sovereigns Scottish arms, a version of which is used by the Scotland Office. The Royal Arms have regularly appeared on the produced by the Royal Mint including, for example, from 1663, the Guinea and, from 1983. In 2008, a new series of designs for all seven coins of £1 and below was unveiled by the Royal Mint, the monarch grant Royal Warrants to select businesses and tradespeople which supply the Royal Household with goods or services. This entitles those business to display the Royal Arms on their packaging and it is customary for churches throughout the United Kingdom whether in the Church of England or the Church of Scotland to display the Royal Arms to show loyalty to the Crown.
This protocol equally applies to the principal residences in Scotland. When the monarch is not in residence the Union Flag, or in Scotland the ancient Royal Standard of Scotland, is flown. The widely sold British newspaper The Times uses the Hanoverian Royal Arms as a logo, whereas its sister publication, The Sunday Times, displays the current Royal Arms. The Royal Arms are displayed in all courts in British Columbia, as well as in other Canadian provinces such as Ontario, the Royal Arms were displayed by all Viceroys of Australia as representation of their Crown authority
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer. He is noted for his facility at word play, There are societies in many parts of the world dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life. Dodgsons family was predominantly northern English, with Irish connections, most of Dodgsons male ancestors were army officers or Church of England clergy. His great-grandfather, named Charles Dodgson, had risen through the ranks of the church to become the Bishop of Elphin. His paternal grandfather, another Charles, had been an army captain, the older of these sons – yet another Charles Dodgson – was Carrolls father. He went to Westminster School and to Christ Church, Oxford and he reverted to the other family tradition and took holy orders. He was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career, instead, he married his first cousin Frances Jane Lutwidge in 1830 and became a country parson.
Dodgson was born in the parsonage at Daresbury in Cheshire near the towns of Warrington and Runcorn. When Charles was 11, his father was given the living of Croft-on-Tees in North Yorkshire, and this remained their home for the next 25 years. He was High Church, inclining to Anglo-Catholicism, an admirer of John Henry Newman and the Tractarian movement, Young Charles was to develop an ambiguous relationship with his fathers values and with the Church of England as a whole. During his early youth, Dodgson was educated at home and his reading lists preserved in the family archives testify to a precocious intellect, at the age of seven, he was reading books such as The Pilgrims Progress. He suffered from a stammer – a condition shared by most of his siblings – that often influenced his life throughout his years. At the age of twelve, he was sent to Richmond Grammar School at nearby Richmond, in 1846, Dodgson entered Rugby School where he was evidently unhappy, as he wrote some years after leaving, I cannot say.
That any earthly considerations would induce me to go through my three years again, I can honestly say that if I could have been. Secure from annoyance at night, the hardships of the daily life would have been comparative trifles to bear, though, he excelled with apparent ease. I have not had a promising boy at his age since I came to Rugby. He left Rugby at the end of 1849 and matriculated at Oxford in May 1850 as a member of his fathers old college, after waiting for rooms in college to become available, he went into residence in January 1851. He had been at Oxford only two days when he received a summons home and his mother had died of inflammation of the brain – perhaps meningitis or a stroke – at the age of 47
The Tudor rose is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the Tudor dynasty. When Henry VII took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, the white rose versus red rose juxtaposition was Henrys invention. The historian Thomas Penn writes, The Lancastrian red rose was an emblem that barely existed before Henry VII, contemporaries certainly did not refer to the traumatic civil conflict of the 15th century as the Wars of the Roses. For the best part of a quarter-century, from 1461 to 1485, there was one royal rose, and it was white. The roses were actually created after the war by Henry VII, on his marriage, Henry VII adopted the Tudor rose badge conjoining the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. The Tudor rose is occasionally seen divided in quarters and vertically red, more often, the Tudor rose is depicted as a double rose, white on red and is always described, heraldically, as proper. During his reign, Henry VIII had the legendary Round Table at Winchester Castle – believed to be genuine – repainted, the new paint scheme included a Tudor rose in the centre.
The Tudor rose may appear dimidiated to form a compound badge, james I of England and VI of Scotland used a badge consisting of a Tudor rose dimidiated with a thistle and surmounted by a royal crown. The crowned and slipped Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England, as Scotland uses the thistle, Ireland uses the shamrock, and Wales uses the leek. As such, it is seen on the uniforms of the Yeomen Warders at the Tower of London. It features in the design of the British Twenty Pence coin minted between 1982 and 2008, and in the coat of arms of the United Kingdom. It features on the coat of arms of Canada, the Tudor rose makes up part of the cap badge of the Intelligence Corps of the British Army. It is used as the symbol of the English Tourist Board. And as part of the badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, the Tudor Rose is used as the emblem of the Nautical Training Corps, a uniformed youth organisation founded in Brighton in 1944 with 20 units in South East England. The Corps badge has the Tudor Rose on the shank of an anchor with the motto For God, Queen and it is used as part of the Corps cap badge.
The borough of Queens in New York City uses a Tudor Rose on its flag, the Tudor rose is used in the badges of some Portuguese Army units, after William, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe, namely Lisbon Classification and Selection Cabinet and Graça Fort. The city of York, South Carolina is nicknamed The White Rose City, flag of England Red Rose of Lancaster Tudor dynasty Wars of the Roses White Rose of York Royal Badges of England Boutell, Charles, A. C. Fox-Davies, R B Utting. London and Edinburgh, T C and E C Jack https and Edinburgh, T C and E C Jack
Acts of Union 1707
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament, the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had agreed on 22 July 1706. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in two separate Crowns resting on the same head. The Acts took effect on 1 May 1707, on this date, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the Parliament of Great Britain, based in the Palace of Westminster in London, the home of the English Parliament. Hence, the Acts are referred to as the Union of the Parliaments, on the Union, the historian Simon Schama said What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world. It was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history, the first attempts at Union surrounded the foreseen unification of the Royal lines of Scotland and England.
In pursuing the English throne in the 1560s, Queen of Scots pledged herself to a union between the two kingdoms. England and Scotland were ruled by the king for the first time in 1603 when James VI of Scotland became the king of England. However they remained two separate states until 1 May 1707, the first attempt to unite the parliaments of England and Scotland was by Marys son, King James VI and I. On his accession to the English throne in 1603 King James announced his intention to unite his two realms so that he would not be guilty of bigamy. James used his prerogative powers to take the style of King of Great Britain and to give an explicitly British character to his court. In the meantime, James declared that Great Britain be viewed as presently united, and as one realm and kingdom, the Scottish and English parliaments established a commission to negotiate a union, formulating an instrument of union between the two countries. However, the idea of union was unpopular, and when James dropped his policy of a speedy union.
When the House of Commons attempted to revive the proposal in 1610, the ordinance was ratified by the Second Protectorate Parliament, as an Act of Union, on 26 June 1657. One united Parliament sat in Westminster, with 30 representatives from Scotland and 30 from Ireland joining the members from England. Whilst free trade was brought about amongst the new Commonwealth, the benefits were generally not felt as a result of heavy taxation used to fund Cromwells New Model Army. This republican union was dissolved automatically with the restoration of King Charles II to the thrones of England and Scotland, Scottish members expelled from the Commonwealth Parliament petitioned unsuccessfully for a continuance of the union. An abortive scheme for union occurred in Scotland in 1670, following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the records of the Parliament of Scotland show much discussion of possible union
In heraldry, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects usually placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. Early forms of supporters are found in medieval seals, unlike the coronet or helmet and crest, supporters were not part of early medieval heraldry. As part of the achievement, they first become fashionable towards the end of the 15th century. The arms of nutritionist John Boyd-Orr use two garbs as supporters, the arms of the USS Donald Cook, the arms of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil, letters of the alphabet are used as supporters in the arms of Valencia, Spain. Human supporters can be allegorical figures, or, more rarely, specifically named individuals, the arms of the Congo provide an extremely unusual example of two supporters issuing from behind the shield. While such single supporters are generally eagles with one or two heads, there are examples, including the cathedra in the case of some Canadian cathedrals. At the other extreme and even rarer, the Scottish chief Dundas of that Ilk had three supporters, two red lions and the whole supported by a salamander.
The coat of arms of Iceland even has four supporters, an example of whales non-rampant is the arms of the Dutch municipality of Zaanstad. However, medieval Scottish seals afford numerous examples in which the 13th and 14th century shields were placed between two creatures resembling lizards or dragons, further, on his retirement from office as Chief Herald, Robert Watt was granted supporters as an honour. Trees and other objects which are sometimes used are called Soutiens. Knights Grand Companion and Principal Companions of the New Zealand Order of Merit are granted the use of heraldic supporters, originally, in England, supporters were regarded as little more than mere decorative and artistic appendages. In the United Kingdom, supporters are typically an example of royal favour. Hereditary supporters are normally limited to hereditary peers, certain members of the Royal Family, knights banneret were granted non-hereditary supporters, but no such knight has been created since the time of Charles I.
Tom Brown was so knighted by George II at the Battle of Dettingen, supporters may be granted to corporations which have a royal charter
Arms of Canada
It is closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with French and distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British version. The maple leaves in the shield, blazoned proper, were originally drawn vert but were redrawn gules in 1957, the shield design forms the monarchs royal standard and is found on the Canadian Red Ensign. The Flag of the Governor General of Canada, which used the shield over the Union Flag. The arms are embossed on the cover of any citizens Canadian passport, in order to legally signify, prior to Confederation in 1867, the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom served in Canada as the symbol of royal authority. Arms had not been granted to any of the colonies in British North America, apart from 17th-century grants to Nova Scotia, the year after Confederation, arms were granted by Royal Warrant on 6 May to Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. That is why it was in this form Canada was represented on the first Red Ensign carried by Canadian troops at Vimy Ridge in 1917 and this eventually resulted in a shield with nine quarterings, an arrangement that had never been approved by the monarch.
Nine quarterings on a shield was considered too complex for a national symbol, the decision was settled by 1920, and the committee conferred with the College of Arms in London, only to face resistance to the use of the Royal Arms from the Garter King of Arms. The new layout closely reflected the arms of the United Kingdom with the addition of leaves in the base. The proclamation established red and white as the colours of Canada. In 1931, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster and these are the coat of arms of the Queen of Canada. While unsuccessful in this first attempt, Hicks continued his campaign and was joined by a number of other amateur and these letters patent carried the shield from the royal arms along with the annulus behind the shield bearing the motto of the Order of Canada—Desiderantes meliorem patriam. As soon as royal approval was forthcoming, the achievement was redesigned for use by the federal government within the Federal Identity Program. The present design of the arms of Canada was drawn by Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, the arms of Canada are the arms of the sovereign and signify national sovereignty and ownership.
It is present on all denominations of Canadian banknotes, as well as the 50¢ coin. Since 1962, a banner of the arms, defaced with a variant of the Queens cypher, has formed the standard for Canada. Since, six additional standards for use by members of the Canadian Royal Family have been created. The revised 1957 and 1994 Arms of Canada are both protected official government symbols used to represent the state under the Federal Identity Program. The full achievement of the coat of arms has been used by the Canadian government on occasion on a red flag
The unicorn is a legendary creature that has been described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead. The Bible describes an animal, the reem, which some versions translate as unicorn, in European folklore, the unicorn is often depicted as a white horse-like or goat-like animal with a long horn and cloven hooves. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, it was described as an extremely wild woodland creature, a symbol of purity and grace. In the encyclopedias its horn was said to have the power to render poisoned water potable, in medieval and Renaissance times, the tusk of the narwhal was sometimes sold as unicorn horn. The earliest description is from Ctesias, who in his book Indika described them as wild asses, fleet of foot, having a horn a cubit and a half in length, and colored white and black. Aristotle must be following Ctesias when he mentions two one-horned animals, the oryx and the so-called Indian ass, strabo says that in the Caucasus there were one-horned horses with stag-like heads.
Cosmas Indicopleustes, a merchant of Alexandria who lived in the 6th century, made a voyage to India and he gives a description of a unicorn based on four brass figures in the palace of the King of Ethiopia. He states, from report, that it is impossible to take this ferocious beast alive, and that all its strength lies in its horn. When it finds itself pursued and in danger of capture, it throws itself from a precipice, and turns so aptly in falling, that it all the shock upon the horn. A one-horned animal is found on seals from the Indus Valley Civilization. Seals with such a design are thought to be a mark of social rank. Medieval knowledge of the fabulous beast stemmed from biblical and ancient sources, the predecessor of the medieval bestiary, compiled in Late Antiquity and known as Physiologus, popularized an elaborate allegory in which a unicorn, trapped by a maiden, stood for the Incarnation. As soon as the unicorn sees her, it lays its head on her lap and this became a basic emblematic tag that underlies medieval notions of the unicorn, justifying its appearance in every form of religious art.
Interpretations of the myth focus on the medieval lore of beguiled lovers, whereas some religious writers interpret the unicorn. The myths refer to a beast with one horn that can only be tamed by a virgin, with the rise of humanism, the unicorn acquired more orthodox secular meanings, emblematic of chaste love and faithful marriage. The Throne Chair of Denmark is made of unicorn horns – almost certainly narwhal tusks, the same material was used for ceremonial cups because the unicorns horn continued to be believed to neutralize poison, following classical authors. The unicorn, tamable only by a woman, was well established in medieval lore by the time Marco Polo described them as scarcely smaller than elephants. They have the hair of a buffalo and feet like an elephants and they have a single large black horn in the middle of the forehead
Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There is a novel by Lewis Carroll, the sequel to Alices Adventures in Wonderland. Set some six months than the book, Alice again enters a fantastical world. Through the Looking-Glass includes such celebrated verses as Jabberwocky and The Walrus and the Carpenter, the mirror which inspired Carroll remains displayed in Charlton Kings. Climbing up on the mantel, she pokes at the wall-hung mirror behind the fireplace and discovers, to her surprise. In this reflected version of her own house, she finds a book with looking-glass poetry and she observes that the chess pieces have come to life, though they remain small enough for her to pick up. Elsewhere in the garden, Alice meets the Red Queen, who is now human-sized, and this is a reference to the chess rule that queens are able to move any number of vacant squares at once, in any direction, which makes them the most agile of pieces. This is a reference to the rule of Promotion. Chapter Four – Tweedledum and Tweedledee, She meets the fat twin brothers Tweedledum and Tweedledee, the brothers begin acting out their nursery-rhyme by suiting up for battle, only to be frightened away by an enormous crow, as the nursery rhyme about them predicts.
Chapter Five – Wool and Water, Alice next meets the White Queen, who is very absent-minded but boasts of her ability to remember future events before they have happened. Alice and the White Queen advance into the fifth rank by crossing over a brook together, but at the very moment of the crossing. Alice soon finds herself struggling to handle the oars of a small rowboat, unknown to Alice, these are standard terms in the jargon of rowing. Thus the Queen/Sheep was speaking in a logical and meaningful way. In the process, he introduces Alice to the concept of portmanteau words, in this chapter, the March Hare and Hatter of the first book make a brief re-appearance in the guise of Anglo-Saxon messengers called Haigha and Hatta. Escorting her through the forest towards the final brook-crossing, the Knight recites a poem of his own composition called Haddocks Eyes. Chapter Nine – Queen Alice, Bidding farewell to the White Knight, Alice steps across the last brook and she soon finds herself in the company of both the White and Red Queens, who relentlessly confound Alice by using word play to thwart her attempts at logical discussion.
They invite one another to a party that will be hosted by the newly crowned Alice—of which Alice herself had no prior knowledge. Chapter Ten – Shaking, Alice arrives and seats herself at her own party, Alice finally grabs the Red Queen, believing her to be responsible for all the days nonsense, and begins shaking her violently with all her might. By thus capturing the Red Queen, Alice unknowingly puts the Red King into checkmate, Chapter Twelve – Which dreamed it
College of Arms
The College is the official body responsible for matters relating to the flying of flags on land, and it maintains the official registers of flags and other national symbols. Though a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the College is self-financed, unsupported by any public funds, founded by royal charter in 1484 by King Richard III, the College is one of the few remaining official heraldic authorities in Europe. Within the United Kingdom, there are two authorities, the Court of the Lord Lyon in Scotland and the College for the rest of the United Kingdom. The College has had its home in the City of London since its foundation, the College of Arms undertakes and consults on the planning of many ceremonial occasions such as coronations, state funerals, the annual Garter Service and the State Opening of Parliament. Heralds of the College accompany the sovereign on many of these occasions, the College comprises thirteen officers or heralds, three Kings of Arms, six Heralds of Arms and four Pursuivants of Arms.
There are seven officers extraordinary, who take part in ceremonial occasions but are not part of the College, the entire corporation is overseen by the Earl Marshal, a hereditary office held by the Duke of Norfolk, currently Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. King Richard IIIs interest in heraldry was indicated by his possession of two important rolls of arms, while still Duke of Gloucester and Constable of England for his brother from 1469, he in the latter capacity supervised the heralds and made plans for the reform of their organisation. Soon after his accession to the throne he created Sir John Howard as Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal of England, who became the first Howard appointed to both positions. The charter goes on to state that the heralds for the time being, shall be in perpetuity a body corporate in fact and name and this charter titled Literæ de incorporatione heraldorum is now held in the British Museum. There has been evidence that prior to this charter, the royal heralds had already in some ways behaved like a corporation as early as 1420.
Nevertheless, the charter is the earliest surviving document to affirm the chapter as a body of heralds. The charter outlines the constitution of the officers, their hierarchy, the College was granted a house named Coldharbour on Upper Thames Street in the parish of All-Hallows-the-Less, for storing records and living space for the heralds. The house, built by Sir John de Pulteney, four times Lord Mayor of London, was said to be one of the greatest in the City of London. The defeat and death of Richard III at Bosworth field was a blow for the heralds. The victorious Henry Tudor was crowned King Henry VII soon after the battle, henrys first Parliament of 1485 passed an Act of Resumption, in which large grants of crown properties made by his two predecessors to their supporters were cancelled. Whether this act affected the status of the Colleges charter is debatable, Henry granted the house to his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort, for life. This was because it was supposed that the house was granted personally to John Writhe the Garter King of Arms, as a result, the heralds were left destitute and many of their books and records were lost.
Despite this ill treatment from the King, the position at the royal court remained
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae. Prickles often occur all over the plant – on surfaces such as those of the stem and these are an adaptation that protects the plant from being eaten by herbivores. Typically, an involucre with a shape of a cup or urn subtends each of a thistles flowerheads. The term thistle is sometimes taken to mean exactly those plants in the tribe Cynareae, especially the genera Carduus, however, plants outside this tribe are sometimes called thistles, and if this is done thistles would form a polyphyletic group. Thistle is the emblem of Scotland and Lorraine, as well as the emblem of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Some species, although not intensely poisonous, do affect the health of animals that swallow more than small amounts of the material, some species of Silybum that occur as weeds, are cultivated for seeds that yield vegetable oil and pharmaceutical compounds such as Silibinin.
Other thistles that nominally are weeds are important honey plants, both as bee fodder in general, and as sources of luxury monofloral honey products, Thistle flowers are favourite nectar sources of the pearl-bordered fritillary, small pearl-bordered fritillary, high brown fritillary, and dark green fritillary butterflies. Some thistles, have been introduced outside their native range. The thistle has been the emblem of Scotland since the reign of Alexander III and was used on silver coins issued by James III in 1470. It is the symbol of the Order of the Thistle, a chivalric order of Scotland. It is found in many Scottish symbols and as the name of several Scottish football clubs, the thistle, crowned with the Scottish crown, was the symbol of seven of the eight former Scottish Police Services, the sole exception being the former Northern Constabulary. The thistle is the emblem of Encyclopædia Britannica, which originated in Edinburgh and it is used to symbolise connection with Scotland overseas.
According to a legend, an invading Norse army was attempting to sneak up at night upon a Scottish armys encampment. During this operation one barefoot Norseman had the misfortune to step upon a thistle, causing him to cry out in pain, which species of thistle is referred to in the original legend is disputed. Other species, including dwarf thistle, musk thistle, and melancholy thistle have been suggested, the thistle, and more precisely Onopordum acanthium, is one of the symbols of Lorraine, together with its coat of arms which displays three avalerions, and the Cross of Lorraine. Lorraine is a located in northeastern France, along the border with Luxembourg. Before the French Revolution, a part of the region formed the Duchy of Lorraine. In the Middle Ages, the thistle was an emblem of the Virgin Mary and it was adopted as a personal symbol by René of Anjou, together with the Cross of Lorraine, known as the Cross of Anjou
Royal badges of England
In heraldry, the royal badges of England comprise the heraldic badges that were used by the monarchs of the Kingdom of England. Heraldic badges are distinctive to a person or family, similar to the arms, but unlike them, the badge is not an integral component of a coat of arms, although they can be displayed alongside them. Badges are in complete and independent and can be displayed alone. Badges are displayed on standards and personal objects, as well as on private, Royal badges have been in use since the earliest stages of English heraldry. They are invariably simple devices, and numerous examples were adopted and inherited by various sovereigns and these are found in the glass and fabric of royal palaces and memorial chapels, and sometimes in the houses of those who enjoyed or anticipated royal patronage. The earliest royal heraldic badge is a sprig of common broom, the broom plant or Plantegenest, thus became Geoffreys nickname, Plantagenet. The heraldic device became the name of the dynasty that was borne from him, the Plantagenet kings would use this badge, sometimes combining it with other more personal devices.
King Henry II used the planta genista as well as an escarbuncle, King Richard I used a star and crescent device, which was adopted by his brother King John. King Henry III adopted the broom sprig and the star and crescent and his son Edward I in addition to these, added the golden rose device that he inherited from his mother Eleanor of Provence. King Edward II further added the castle of Castile, inherited from his mother Eleanor of Castile. It was actually Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York who adopted the Plantagenet name for him and it is obscure why Richard choose the name but it emphasised Richards hierarchal status as Geoffreys, and six English kings, patrilineal descendant during the Wars of the Roses. Badges came into use by the reign of King Edward III. The king himself deployed many badges alluding to his lineage, as well as new personal devices, citations Bibliography Bedingfeld, Gwynn-Jones, Peter. Heraldic Badges in England and Wales, Thomas, Regal Heraldry, London, W. Wilson Heraldic badge Royal Standards of England Royal Supporters of England Queens Beasts Royal Arms of England Prince of Waless feathers