London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University is a public university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is based on two sites; the university is the 11th largest university in the UK with 30,815 students, 4,494 staff and 708 courses. In 1843 as the industrial revolution gathered pace and Sheffield was on the verge of becoming the steel and cutlery making capital of the world, the Sheffield School of Design was founded following lobbying by artist Benjamin Haydon; the day-to-day running was controlled by the local council, whilst the Board of Trade in London appointed the head. Tuition began in a 60x40ft rented room off Glossop Road. In 1850 the School of Design was renamed Sheffield School of Art. In 1905 the City of Sheffield Training College on Collegiate Crescent admitted its first 90 students. In 1967 the Owen Building was constructed. Built in a functional 1960s design, it has since been modernised and comprehensively renovated with an atrium linking it to four adjacent buildings. In 1969 the Sheffield School of Design merged with the city's College of Technology to form Sheffield Polytechnic.
In 1976 Sheffield Polytechnic merged with the city's two teacher training colleges and was renamed Sheffield City Polytechnic. In 1987 Sheffield City Polytechnic became a founding member of the Northern Consortium. In 1992 Sheffield City Polytechnic became Sheffield Hallam University, with the right to award its own degrees. In 2005 SHU was reorganised into four faculties; the new Faculty of Development and Society, with an emphasis on'people and spaces', brought together education, humanities and social sciences. At the same time, with the intention of further developing research and teaching in the new Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, a new Clinical Academic Group was launched; the building, designed and constructed to house the National Centre for Popular Music became the university's students' union building. The Nelson Mandela Building, the former students' union building, was sold and has since been demolished. In 2007 SHU took over the teaching of midwifery from the University of Sheffield.
These activities are now based at the Collegiate Crescent Campus. The following year the Psalter Lane campus was closed, the activities transferred to the City Campus; the £ 26 million energy-efficient. The building, which includes teaching spaces and an art gallery has been described as "the impressive new entry point to the campus". SHU is divided into four faculties: Faculty of Science and Arts Formally known as the Faculty of Arts, Computing and Sciences: Art & Design. Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Formally known as the Faculty of Development and Society: Architecture. Faculty of Health and Wellbeing Biosciences. Sheffield Business School Formerly known as the Faculty of Organisation and Management: Business & Management. SHU has 30 research centres, including: Art & Design Research Centre Biomedical Research Centre Centre for Education and Inclusion Research Centre for Health and Social Care Research Centre for Professional and Organisational Development Centre for Regional Economic & Social Research Centre for Science Education Centre for Sport and Exercise Science Centre for Sports Engineering Research Centre for Sustainable Consumption Centre for Tourism and Environmental Change Culture and Computing Research Institute Facilities Management Graduate Centre National Centre of Excellence for Food Engineering Materials and Engineering Research Institute Sport Industry Research CentreThrough the research centres a number of spin-off companies have been formed, including: Sheaf Solutions – automotive and aerospace organisation Hallam Biotech – biotech analysis and synthesis Materials Analysis & Research Services – materials analysis and solutions Bodycote – materials coating Design Futures – product design, packaging design, research & strategy British barrister and life peer of the House of Lords Helena Kennedy was installed as Chancellor in a ceremony at Cutlers' Hall on Thursday 26 July 2018.
Bryan Nicholson 1992-2001 Robert Winston 2001-2018 Helena Kennedy 2018-present SHU is the lead partner for Higher Futures, the Lifelong Learning Network for South Yorkshire, North Derbyshire and North Nottinghamshire. In the National Student Survey, several subject areas at SHU have performed well in terms of overall student satisfaction with their courses: for example and geography have both been placed first, planning has been placed second. In the 2013/14 university league tables, Sheffield Hallam University was placed 73rd out of 1
A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. Literary magazines publish short stories and essays, along with literary criticism, book reviews, biographical profiles of authors and letters. Literary magazines are called literary journals, or little magazines, terms intended to contrast them with larger, commercial magazines. Nouvelles de la république. Literary magazines became common in the early part of the 19th century, mirroring an overall rise in the number of books and scholarly journals being published at that time. In Great Britain, critics Francis Jeffrey, Henry Brougham and Sydney Smith founded the Edinburgh Review in 1802. Other British reviews of this period included the Westminster Review, The Spectator, Athenaeum. In the United States, early journals included the Philadelphia Literary Magazine, the Monthly Anthology, which became the North American Review, the Yale Review, The Knickerbocker and the New Orleans-based De Bow's Review. Several prominent literary magazines were published in Charleston, South Carolina, including The Southern Review and Russell's Magazine.
The North American Review, founded in 1815, is the oldest American literary magazine. However, it had its publication suspended during World War II, the Yale Review did not. Begun in 1889, Poet Lore is considered the oldest journal dedicated to poetry. By the end of the century, literary magazines had become an important feature of intellectual life in many parts of the world. Among the literary magazines that began in the early part of the 20th century is Poetry magazine. Founded in 1912, it published T. S. Eliot's first poem, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." Other important early-20th century literary magazines include The Times Literary Supplement, Southwest Review, Virginia Quarterly Review, Southern Review, New Letters. The Sewanee Review, although founded in 1892, achieved prominence thanks to Allen Tate, who became editor in 1944. Two of the most influential—though radically different—journals of the last-half of the 20th century were The Kenyon Review and the Partisan Review; the Kenyon Review, edited by John Crowe Ransom, espoused the so-called New Criticism.
Its platform was avowedly unpolitical. Although Ransom came from the South and published authors from that region, KR published many New York-based and international authors; the Partisan Review was first associated with the American Communist Party and the John Reed Club, however, it soon broke ranks with the party. Politics remained central to its character, while it published significant literature and criticism; the middle-20th century saw a boom in the number of literary magazines, which corresponded with the rise of the small press. Among the important journals which began in this period were Nimbus: A Magazine of Literature, the Arts, New Ideas, which began publication in 1951 in England, the Paris Review, founded in 1953, The Massachusetts Review and Poetry Northwest, which were founded in 1959, X Magazine, which ran from 1959–62, the Denver Quarterly, which began in 1965; the 1970s saw another surge in the number of literary magazines, with a number of distinguished journals getting their start during this decade, including Columbia: A Journal of Literature and Art, The Iowa Review, Agni, The Missouri Review, New England Review.
Other regarded print magazines of recent years include The Threepenny Review, The Georgia Review, Shenandoah, The Greensboro Review, ZYZZYVA, Glimmer Train, Tin House, Half Mystic Journal, the Canadian magazine Brick, the Australian magazine HEAT, Zoetrope: All-Story. Some short fiction writers, such as Steve Almond, Jacob M. Appel and Stephen Dixon have built national reputations in the United States through publication in literary magazines; the Committee of Small Magazine Editors and Presses was founded by Hugh Fox in the mid-1970s. It was an attempt to organize the energy of the small presses. Len Fulton and founder of Dustbook Publishing and published the first real list of these small magazines and their editors in the mid-1970s; this made it possible for poets to pick and choose the publications most amenable to their work and the vitality of these independent publishers was recognized by the larger community, including the National Endowment for the Arts, which created a committee to distribute support money for this burgeoning group of publishers called the Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines.
This organisation evolved into the Council of Literary Presses. Many prestigious awards exist for works published in literary magazines including the Pushcart Prize and the O. Henry Awards. Literary magazines provide many of the pieces in The Best American Short Stories and The Best American Essays annual volumes. SwiftCurrent, created in 1984, was the first online literary magazine, it functioned as more of a database of literary works than a literary publication. In 1995, the Mississippi Review was the first large literary magazine to launch a online issue. By 1998, Fence and Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern were published and gained an audience. Around 1996, literary magazines began to appear more online. At first, some writers and readers dismissed online literary magazines as not equal in quality or prestige to their print counterparts, while others said that these
Penny (British pre-decimal coin)
The pre-decimal penny was a coin worth 1/240 of a pound sterling. Its symbol was d, from the Roman denarius, it was a continuation of the earlier English penny, in Scotland it had the same monetary value as one pre-1707 Scottish shilling. The penny was minted in silver, but from the late 18th century it was minted in copper, after 1860 in bronze; the plural of "penny" is "pence" when referring to a quantity of money and "pennies" when referring to a number of coins. Thus 8d is eight pence, but "eight pennies" means eight individual penny coins. Before Decimal Day in 1971 twelve pence made a shilling, twenty shillings made a pound, hence 240 pence in one pound. Values less than a pound were written in terms of shillings and pence, e.g. 42 pence would be three shillings and sixpence, pronounced "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d. This version of the penny was made obsolete in 1971 by decimalisation, was replaced by the decimal penny, worth 2.4 old pence.
The kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged by the 1707 Act of Union to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. The exchange rate between the pound scots and the English pound sterling had been fixed at 12:1 since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, in 1707 the pound Scots ceased to be legal tender, with the pound sterling to be used throughout Great Britain; the penny replaced the shilling of the pound scots. The design and specifications of the English penny were unchanged by the Union, it continued to be minted in silver after 1707. Queen Anne's reign saw pennies minted in 1708, 1709, 1710, 1713; these issues, were not for general circulation, instead being minted as Maundy money. The prohibitive cost of minting silver coins had meant the size of pennies had been reduced over the years, with the minting of silver pennies for general circulation being halted in 1660; the practice of minting pennies only for Maundy money continued through the reigns of George I and George II, into that of George III.
However, by George III's reign there was a shortage of pennies: things had got so bad that a great many merchants and mining companies issued their own copper tokens e.g. the Parys Mining Company on Anglesey issued huge numbers of tokens. In 1797, the government authorised Matthew Boulton to strike copper pennies and twopences at his Soho Mint in Birmingham. At the time it was believed that the face value of a coin should correspond to the value of the material it was made from, so they had to contain one or two pence worth of copper; this requirement meant that the coins would be larger than the silver pennies minted previously. The large size of the coins, combined with the thick rim where the inscription was incuse i.e. punched into the metal rather than standing proud of it, led to the coins being nicknamed "cartwheels". These pennies were minted over the course of several years, but all are marked with the date 1797. By 1802, the production of issued provincial tokens had ceased. However, in the next ten years the intrinsic value of copper rose.
The return of minted token coinage was evident by 1811 and endemic by 1812, as more and more of the Government-issued copper coinage was melted down. The Royal Mint undertook a massive recoinage programme in 1816, with large quantities of gold and silver coin being minted. To thwart the further issuance of private token coinage, in 1817 an Act of Parliament was passed which forbade the manufacture of private token coinage under severe penalties. Copper coins continued to be minted after 1797, through the reigns of George III, George IV and William IV, the early reign of Queen Victoria; these coins were smaller than the cartwheel pennies of 1797, contained a smaller amount of copper. In 1857 a survey by the Royal Mint found that around one third of all copper coinage was worn or mutilated by advertisements. Two years Thomas Graham, the Master of the Mint, convinced William Ewart Gladstone Chancellor of the Exchequer, that so large a part of the copper coinage must be taken out of circulation that it was worth introducing a whole new coinage which would be "much more convenient and agreeable in use".
These new coins were minted in bronze, their specifications were no longer constrained by the onerous requirement that their face value should match the value of the base metal used to make the coin. These new coins were introduced in 1860 and a year the withdrawal of the old copper coinage began; the specifications of the bronze version of the penny were a mass of 9.45 g and a diameter of 30.86 mm, remained as such for over a hundred years. Pennies were minted every year of Queen Victoria's reign, every year of Edward VII's reign. George V pennies were produced every year to the same standard until 1922, but after a three-year gap in production the alloy composition was changed to 95.5% copper, 3% tin, 1.5% zinc, although the weight and size remained unchanged. Thereafter, pennies were minted every year for the remainder of George V's reign, although only six or seven 1933 coins were minted for the king to lay under the foundation stones of new buildings. A few pennies of Edward VIII exist, dated 1937, but technically they are pattern coins i.e. coins produced for official approval, which it would have been due to receive about the time that the K
William Paulet Carey
William Paulet Carey was an Irish art critic and publicist, known as an engraver and dealer. He spent half a century promoting most of his writings being distributed gratuitously. Carey was born into an Irish Catholic family in the brother of John Carey and Mathew Carey, his father Christopher Carey was a newspaper owner. Of two other brothers, James became a newspaper editor in Philadelphia. Carey studied drawing at the Royal Dublin Society's school, he began life as a painter and became an engraver. After an accident to his eyes he had to abandon his career in art, he edited in Masonic Magazine. In 1791, with his brother James, Carey began to publish Rights of Irishman, or National Evening Star, an Irish nationalist paper that ran to 1795. In 1792 he joined the Dublin Society of the United Irishmen, he associated with William Drennan, whose Address to the Volunteers he published in 1792. Carey did not fit into the Dublin Society, he was unusual in the United Irishmen, for example, in that he took the side of the journeymen in the contemporary labour agitation.
Politically, he was aligned with James Napper John Binns. He wished to promote the influence of the Catholic Society of Dublin, formed in 1791 and a radical group of about 40, displace the traditional leadership group of Catholics of high social rank. A clash with Theobald Mackenna made his first application to join the United Irishmen problematic. In November 1792 Carey reprinted from the United Irishmen's Northern Star, published in Belfast, a paragraph on local rejoicing at the outcome of the Battle of Valmy, Arthur Wolfe warned him of a prosecution for seditious libel; the printing of Drennan's Address in December caused Carey further trouble with the Dublin administration. His creditors called in their debts, he sold the Star to Randal McAllister, went into hiding. An attempt to get help from the United Irishmen led to his arrest and release on bail in March 1793. Expecting more support from the Society than he received, Carey made public complaints under a pseudonym, was expelled from the Society in November 1793.
This move followed exhaustive attempts by Carey to have the Society stand bail for him. Durey argues that Carey analysed the use of the existing funds, to support leaders of higher social rank than he had. In 1794 he was the chief witness in the treason trial of Drennan. On that occasion, he identified himself as a United Irishman, his evidence was broken down by cross-examining. Drennan was acquitted. Having published his side of the story in late 1794, Carey spent some time in Philadelphia in 1795, came back to Dublin to run a government-subsidised paper, the General Evening Post, its sale dwindled, according to Francis Higgins, to under 20 copies, intimidation was used against those selling it or buying space for advertisements. Carey took part in the yeomanry volunteer force, there ran into trouble, thought to be inciting the lower ranks against the officers. During the Irish Rebellion of 1798 he left Ireland in June, for self-preservation. Carey left Dublin for England permanently, around the middle of 1799.
A dealer in pictures and other works of art, he was one of the main agents used by John Leicester, 5th Baronet in the formation of his collection. For some years he had an establishment in London, he became chief art critic to the Literary Gazette. Carey saluted the talent of Francis Chantrey the sculptor in the Sheffield Iris, in 1805. At the end of 1816 he praised the graphical work of William Blake little known, wondered aloud what posterity would make of his lack of patrons, he praised Washington Allston and his work Uriel Standing in the Sun to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1818. Carey brought James Montgomery the poet into prominence. After a visit to Cork in 1824, he wrote letters in the Cork and Dublin papers to promote the work of John Hogan the sculptor. Hogan was able to visit Italy, to study art. Carey settled in Birmingham about 1834, he spent time in Philadelphia, about 1836 to 1838, when he spoke there on National and Commercial Utility and Profit of the Arts of Design.
He sold items from one of the purchasers being John Neagle. Carey died in Birmingham on 21 May 1839, aged 80. Carey produced some satirical and political engravings for the British general election, 1784, working with William Holland of Drury Lane. In 1787 he turned to Ireland and the matter of religion, Arthur O'Leary and William Campbell, who had joined sides in controversy with Richard Woodward. In 1789 he collected his political verse in The Nettle, aimed at the Marquess of Buckingham, published it under the pseudonym "Scriblerus Murtough O'Pindar" He did the copperplates in Geoffrey Gambado's Annals of Horsemanship, he made several plates for a collection of ethical maxims, the Morals of Horace translated by Elizabeth Grattan in Dublin in 1785. In 1806 Carey wrote a pamphlet in defence of the Princess of Wales. In 1834 he contributed to The Analyst, a Birmingham quarterly journal
Literaturnaya Gazeta is a weekly cultural and political newspaper published in Russia and the Soviet Union. The current newspaper bears a name with proud literary roots dating back to the 19th century, claims to be a continuation of the original publication; the first paper to bear the name of Literaturnaya Gazeta was founded by a literary group led by Anton Delvig and Alexander Pushkin, whose profile to this day adorns the paper's masthead. The first issue appeared on January 1, 1830; the paper appeared until June 30, 1831, reappearing in 1840–1849. Pushkin himself published some of his most famous works in this paper. Literaturnaya Gazeta was the first to publish Gogol, published works by Baratynsky, Belinsky and many other well-known Russian authors. After the Russian Revolution, the Soviet literary establishment decided to resume Pushkin's venture on April 22, 1929, the paper has been published ever since. From 1929 to 1932, Literaturnaya Gazeta was the official organ of the Federation of Unions of Soviet Writers, which had as its stated aim "...to foster in the area of creative writing the principle of free competition of the various groupings and tendencies".
In 1932, Literaturnaya Gazeta became the official organ of the Union of Soviet Writers, the government-controlled organization responsible for most literary publication and employment of writers in the USSR. In 1947, the format of Literaturnaya Gazeta was changed from a purely literary publication into a newspaper with political and social content as well, it was published weekly in an edition of sixteen pages, the first "thick newspaper" in a country where most newspapers were four to eight pages in length. The expanded newspaper not only took on a new look, but acquired greater influence, becoming one of the most authoritative and influential publications. Though Literaturnaya Gazeta, like all newspapers during the Soviet period, faithfully reflected government policy, it showed, as much as possible, the human face of Soviet society, was the national paper most to "push the limits"; the newspaper published stories and poems that were mundane and unimpressive, but published poetry and prose of quality.
Most interesting to its readers were reports on the international political scene, on cultural life in countries outside the Soviet sphere of influence. Popular was the last page of each issue, which contained a variety of satirical articles and cartoons under the rubric "Twelve Chairs Club". Under the protective guise of good-natured, constructive satire, various frustrating and unsavory aspects of Soviet life could be discussed that were scarcely acknowledged in other publications. In 1990, with the end of the Soviet Union, the newspaper became an independent collective, in 1997 formed itself into a publicly traded company. Much of the factual content of this article was translated and adapted from www.lgz.ru/about_lg/aboutus.htm Literaturnaya Gazeta website