The Thanhouser Company was one of the first motion picture studios, founded in 1909 by Edwin Thanhouser, his wife Gertrude and his brother-in-law Lloyd Lonergan. It operated in New York City until 1918, producing over a thousand films, Edwin Thanhouser constructed a studio in New Rochelle, New York. The company thrived under his leadership and by the summer of 1910, frank E. Woods of the American Biograph Company would pen an editorial in The New York Dramatic Mirror as The Spectator, praising the Thanhouser company to this effect. It was sold to Mutual Film Corporation on April 15,1912, on January 13,1913, a fire destroyed the main facility in New Rochelle, much equipment and many costumes and negatives of films in production were lost. However, subsidiary studios that had set up were able to meet distributors needs while it was being rebuilt. After Hites death in an accident, the company continued for another three years. After a period of floundering under inexperienced leadership, Edwin Thanhouser was hired to take charge, the film industry had evolved and was more competitive by this time, and although films featuring star Florence La Badie were still successful, other ventures were not.
La Badie left Thanhouser Corporation in 1917, only weeks before her own death on October 13,1917, in 1918, Thanhouser Corporation was liquidated. The Thanhouser Companys first release was The Actors Children on March 15,1910, the plot focused on a family of theater actors who struggle to pay the rent. While the parents are out, their kids are out on the street where they dance to the music of an organ grinder. They are rescued by a manager and are reunited with their parents at the theater. The films conclusion is an example of the deus ex machina dramatic technique, though it was the first release, it was not the first film to be produced, it was The Mad Hermit. Produced in the autumn of 1909, the film would not be released until August 1910, according to Lloyd Lonergan, the first script he wrote was for Aunt Nancy Telegraphs. The film was shot in December 1909 and it was never released, the next release would be an adaptation of Augusta Jane Evanss novel St. Elmo. The Thanhouser version of St.
Elmo would bring the company some recognition and would prove to be a success, Thanhouser would release two more original scenarios, Shes Done it Again and Daddys Double, before attempting two productions on the same reel. Released on April 15,1910, A 29-Cent Robbery was included with The Old Shoe Came Back, the main subject, A 29-Cent Robbery, was the debut of Marie Eline, soon to be famously known as the Thanhouser Kid. Two more split reels would follow before the release of Jane Eyre, productions adapted from novels included Shakespeares The Winters Tale, Marie Corellis Thelma and Mary Jane Holmess Tempest and Sunshine. More adaptations of works, like Uncle Toms Cabin, would be interspersed with several original scenarios like The Mermaid
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning action, which is derived from I do, the two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia was the Muse of comedy, while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the mode has been contrasted with the epic. The use of drama in a narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example and it is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe drama as a genre within their respective media. Radio drama has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production, the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception.
The early modern tragedy Hamlet by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama, a modern example is Long Days Journey into Night by Eugene O’Neill. Closet drama describes a form that is intended to be read, in improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance, performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience. Western drama originates in classical Greece, the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama, tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of celebrating the god Dionysus. The competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BCE, tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was officially recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BCE, five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia, each offering a single comedy.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between old comedy, middle comedy and new comedy, following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BCE, Rome encountered Greek drama. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, from the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments. The first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BCE, five years later, Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived, by the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, drama was firmly established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed
William Russell (American actor)
William Russell, born William Francis Lerche, was an American actor, director and screenwriter. He appeared in two hundred silent era motion pictures between 1910 and 1929, directing five of them in 1916 and producing two through his own production company in 1918 and 1925. Born in the Bronx borough of New York City, Russell began his career on the stage when he was eight years old. He appeared with such notables as Ethel Barrymore, Chauncey Olcott, Blanche Bates, Maude Adams and his career came to a stop at age 16, when he became an invalid. Through rigorous physical therapy, he became well again six years and he became an amateur boxing champion. Russell began his career in New York with the Biograph Company. He was part of the company of players for the American Film Manufacturing Company, in 1917, he and actress Charlotte Burton were married. He and actress Helen Ferguson were married on June 21,1925, at the Wilshire Boulevard Congregational Church, William Russell died at age 44 from pneumonia at Hollywood Hospital in Los Angeles.
He is entombed in the Great Mausoleum, Sanctuary of Love, at Forest Lawn Cemetery and his brother, director Albert Russell, died two weeks from pneumonia. Soul Mates The Highest Bid The Strength of Donald McKenzie The Man Who Would Not Die The Torch Bearer Hearts or Diamonds, big Pal Pride and the Man William Russell at the Internet Movie Database William Russell Photo at New York Public Library
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. The silent film era lasted from 1895 to 1936, in silent films for entertainment, the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures and title cards which contain a written indication of the plot or key dialogue. During silent films, a pianist, theatre organist, or, in large cities and organists would either play from sheet music or improvise, an orchestra would play from sheet music. The term silent film is therefore a retronym—that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively, the early films with sound, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were referred to as talkies, sound films, or talking pictures. A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent feature films are believed to be completely lost, the earliest precursors of film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern. This utilized a glass lens, a shutter and a persistent light source, such as a powerful lantern and these slides were originally hand-painted, but still photographs were used on after the technological advent of photography in the nineteenth century.
The invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years, the next significant step towards film creation was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828 and only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called Persistence of Vision. This experience was further demonstrated through Rogets introduction of the thaumatrope, the first projected primary proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horses gallop, the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a film of people walking in Oakwood streets garden. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, due to Edisons lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were invented around the world. The Lumière brothers, for example, created the Cinématographe in France, the Cinématographe proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edisons as it combined a camera, film processor and projector in one unit.
In contrast to Edisons peepshow-style kinetoscope, which one person could watch through a viewer. Their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture, the invention of celluloid film, which was strong and flexible, greatly facilitated the making of motion pictures. This film was 35 mm wide and pulled using four sprocket holes and this doomed the cinematograph, which could only use film with just one sprocket hole. From the very beginnings of film production, the art of motion pictures grew into maturity in the silent era. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that virtually every style, the silent era was pioneering era from a technical point of view
Marguerite Snow was an American silent film and stage actress. Snow was born in Savannah and her father, Billie Snow, was a comedian and a minstrel. She was educated in Denver, Colorado at the Loretta Heights Academy, Snow became an actress at an early age. She played many parts while still a child, but her stage career did not begin until she was sixteen years old. Her first engagement was with James ONeill and her formal stage debut was in 1907 in the play Monte Cristo. She played in The College Widow, Mrs. Temples Telegram, as Elsa in The Devil, and at the Bijou Theater, one of her theatrical efforts was a Broadway production. In 1911 she starred in such as The Moth and The Buddhist Priestess. In Broadway Jones Snow played a pretty stenographer at the Jones gun factory as the leading lady. This was the first Artcraft photoplay of George M. Cohan and she never made a movie after the introduction of sound to films. Her first wedding was in January 1913 to James Bosen, a director and he was affiliated with Famous Players-Lasky and was one of the best-known directors in motion pictures.
During divorce proceedings in October 1923, Snow testified that her husband beat her. A public beating was responsible for their separation, the couple were at a party in 1921 when the actress requested that James take one of her women friends home. The ensuing quarrel ended with Cruze beating his wife about her face and she was knocked to the floor and one of her teeth was dislodged. The couple had one daughter, Julie Jane, Cruze married silent film actress Betty Compson. After divorcing Cruze, Snow married Neely Edwards, a film comedian, Edwards became master of ceremonies of the local company of The Drunkard. This play ran continuously in Hollywood, from 1933 until the late 1950s, in 1933 Snows daughter, Julie Jane Cruze, was given nine pieces of property by her father at a time when he feared he might die of a heart ailment. The properties were located in Flintridge, California and La Canada, Julie Jane shared some of the $150,000 in income derived from the bequest with her mother, who was destitute and was living in a trailer.
The daughter filed a complaint in October 1938 to block a suit by James Cruze to quiet title to the property
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
In motion pictures, an intertitle is a piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of the photographed action at various points. Intertitles used to convey character dialogue are referred to as dialogue intertitles, film scholar Kamilla Elliott identifies one of the earliest uses of intertitles in the 1901 British film Scrooge, or, Marleys Ghost. The first Academy Awards presentation in 1929 included an award for Best Title Writing that went to Joseph W. Farnham for no specific film, the award was never given again, as intertitles went out of common use due to the introduction of talkies. In modern film, intertitles are used to supply an epigraph, such as a poem, they are most commonly used as part of a historical dramas epilogue to explain what happened to the depicted characters and events after the conclusion of the story proper. The development of the soundtrack slowly eliminated their utility as a narrative device, for instance, intertitles were used as a gimmick in Frasier. The BBCs drama Threads uses them to location, date.
Law & Order used them to not only the location. Guy Maddin is a filmmaker known for recreating the style of older films. Some locally produced shows, such as quiz bowl game shows, intertitles have had a long history in the area of amateur film as well. The efforts of home movie aficionados to intertitle their works post-production have led to the development of a number of approaches to the challenge. Frequently lacking access to high quality film dubbing and splicing equipment, intertitles may be printed neatly on a piece of paper, a card, or a piece of cardboard and filmed, or they may be formed from adhesive strips and affixed to glass. In the early 1980s, digital recording technology improved to the point where intertitles could be created in born-digital format, several specialty accessories from this period such as Sonys HVT-2100 Titler and cameras such as Matsushitas Quasar VK-743 and Zenith VC-1800 could be used to generate intertitles for home movies. Early 1980s video game consoles and applications catering to the scene were adapted for the generation.
Among these were included the ColecoVision, the Magnavox Odyssey², the Bally Astrocade, acknowledgment Billing Character generator Closing credits Credit Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Opening credits Subtitle Supertitle Title sequence WGA screenwriting credit system
Madeline and Marion Fairbanks
Madeline and her twin sister Marion Fairbanks were stage and motion picture actresses active in the silent era. The two sisters were seemingly inseparable, their Thanhouser filmographies are slightly different, as on occasion one twin appeared in a film without the other. Born in New York City, the twins were educated by private tutors at home. Their mother was actress Jennie M. Fairbanks, a. k. a, Jane Fairbanks, and their father was the son of Nathaniel Fairbanks, who served in the American Civil War, and a descendant of Jonathan Fairbanks, a Massachusetts hero of the Revolution. Madeline and Marion had a brother, Robert. The twins began their career on the stage in productions as Alias Jimmy Valentine, Salomy Jane, Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch. Starting in 1909 they performed with Nora Bayes in The Jolly Bachelors, Madeline wrote a note to President William Howard Taft, who received the twins at a private reception when they performed in Washington, D. C. After the meeting, he presented them with an autographed picture, at first Marion desired to be a dramatic actress while Madeline aspired to playing comedic roles.
They entered films with Biograph circa 1910 and they joined the Thanhouser Film Corporation in 1912, where they were billed as The Thanhouser Twins, and remained there until 1916. The Fairbanks sisters appeared with Teddie Gerard in the cast of the Florenz Ziegfeld Midnight Frolic in August 1920, in 1923, Madeline decided to pursue dramatic roles, while Marion continued in musical revues, touring in the title role with the Little Nellie Kelly company. Madeline landed roles in Mercenary Mary, The Grab Bag, by 1924, the girls had felt their separation too keenly, and they rejoined on stage in George Whites Scandals, followed in early 1927 by parts in Oh, Kay. By 1932, Marion was on stage separately at the Waldorf Theatre and she succeeded Eleanor King as leading lady in Whistling in the Dark. 1930s news accounts reported that she operated a beauty parlor and directed a branch of a cosmetics manufacturer, in her years she knew much unhappiness and struggled with the temptations of alcohol. Marion Fairbanks died in Georgia in 1973 and her name was Marion Fairbanks Delph.
She had no other than her sister. Madeline married Leonard Sherman in 1937, the union ended in divorce in 1947. She lived in New York until early 1989, where she died of respiratory failure, New York Times, Theatrical Notes, August 9,1920, Page 6. Syracuse Herald, Juvenile Performers Are Stage Veterans, May 5,1912, Page 48
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
William Davis Garwood, Jr. was an American stage and film actor and director of the early silent film era in the 1910s. In total, he starred in more than 150 short and feature films, William Davis Garwood, Jr. was born in Springfield, Missouri. He attended public schools in Springfield before moving to New Mexico at the age of 15 and he moved back to Springfield to attend Drury College, where he was awarded prizes for his abilities in dramatic reading and literature. While at Drury, Garwood ran the 100-yard dash in 10.20 seconds and his father hoped that he would follow a career in metallurgy and secured a position for his son with a zinc company in Joplin, Missouri but Garwood pursued acting instead. Garwood began his career in 1903 for $3.50 per week with the Lakeside Theatre at Elitchs Gardens in Denver. After living in Denver for two seasons, he moved to New York City in 1905 where he worked with Virginia Harned, later, he was with Kyrle Bellew in Brigadier Girard and with S. Miller Kent in Raffles.
Between productions, he worked with a number of companies including those at the Alcazar Theatre in San Francisco. Among his appearances on stage, Garwood considered his work with Dustin Farnum in the company of Cameo Kirby. This was his last appearance on stage prior to his debut in films, in November 1909, Garwood joined Thanhouser Company in New Rochelle, New York and was seen in his first Thanhouser film by 1910. He departed from Thanhouser in the autumn of 1911, by time he was one of the studios most popular actors. On March 21,1914, Garwood moved from Majestic to American Studios, in which he starred with Vivian Rich under the direction of Sidney Ayres, Garwood left American Studios after eight months and signed a two-year contract with Universal Film Manufacturing Company in late May 1914. Garwoods first picture for Universal was On Dangerous Ground, released in 1915, by this time, Garwoods popularity had risen and he became a popular leading man with a sizable female fan base. During this time, he worked exclusively with an actress of the time, Violet Mersereau.
During his time at Universal, Garwood starred as the character in Lord John in New York. Based on the story by A. M. Williamson, the proved to be popular with audiences and Garwood starred in four more Lord John films over the following months. Garwood remained with Universal, where by 1916 he had moved in directing and was one of several dozen directors at Universal City, in December 1916, he signed with Kay-Bee Pictures. In 1917 Garwood starred in the films A Magdalene of the Hills, for the next two years he was involved in many films both in acting and directing, including acting for Ince and the Authors Film Company
In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.
Actors and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie database