Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window
Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window is an oil painting by Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer. Completed in approximately 1657–59, the painting is on display at the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden. After World War II, the painting was briefly in possession of the Soviet Union, the painting depicts a young Dutch blonde standing at an open window, in profile, reading a letter. A red drapery hangs over the top of the glass, which has opened inward. A tasseled ochre drapery in the left, partially closed. The color of the drape reflects the green of the womans gown, on the table beside the bowl, a peach is cut in half, revealing its pit. He concludes that the letter is a love letter either planning or continuing her illicit relationship and this conclusion, he says, is supported by the fact that x-rays of the canvas have shown that at one point Vermeer had featured a Cupid in the painting. This putto once hung in the right of the piece before, for whatever reason. The draperies themselves, hanging in the foreground, are not an uncommon element for Vermeer.
Even more common, the repoussoir appears in 25, with Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window and it was the last painting in which Vermeer featured this device. This painting and Officer and Laughing Girl represent the earliest known examples of the pointillé for which Vermeer became known, Vermeer completed the painting in approximately 1657–59. In 1742, Augustus III of Poland, Elector of Saxony, in 1826, it was mis-attributed again, to Pieter de Hooch. It was so labeled when French art critic Théophile Thoré-Bürger came upon it, recognizing it as one of the works of the Dutch painter. Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window was among the rescued from destruction during the bombing of Dresden in World War II. The painting was stored, with works of art, in a tunnel in Saxony. The Soviets portrayed this as an act of rescue, some others as an act of plunder, the Germans did not take to the idea, and the painting was returned. Well-preserved, it is on display at the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden, the painting was investigated by Hermann Kühn together with several other works of Vermeer in 1968.
The pigment analysis has shown that Vermeers choice of painting materials did not reveal any peculiarities as he used the usual pigments of the baroque period
The Astronomer (Vermeer)
The Astronomer is a painting finished in about 1668 by the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. It is oil on canvas,51 cm x 45 cm, portrayals of scientists were a favourite topic in 17th-century Dutch painting and Vermeers oeuvre includes both this astronomer and the slightly The Geographer. Both are believed to portray the man, possibly Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. A2017 study indicated that the canvas for the two came from the same bolt of material, confirming their close relationship. The astronomers profession is shown by the globe and the book on the table. The provenance of The Astronomer can be traced back to 27 April 1713, in 1940 it was seized from his hotel in Paris by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg für die Besetzten Gebiete after the German invasion of France. A small swastika was stamped on the back in black ink, the painting was returned to the Rothschilds after the war, and was acquired by the French state as giving in payment of inheritance taxes in 1983 and exhibited at the Louvre since 1983.
Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School, Institutiones Astronomicae Geographicae by Adriaan Metius
Girl with a Pearl Earring
Girl with a Pearl Earring is an oil painting by 17th-century Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. It is a tronie of a girl with a headscarf and a pearl earring, the painting has been in the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague since 1902. The painting is a tronie, the Dutch 17th-century description of a head that was not meant to be a portrait and it depicts a European girl wearing an exotic dress, an oriental turban, and an improbably large pearl earring. The work is oil on canvas and is 44.5 cm high and 39 cm wide and it is signed IVMeer but not dated. It is estimated to have been painted around 1665, after the most recent restoration of the painting in 1994, the subtle color scheme and the intimacy of the girls gaze toward the viewer have been greatly enhanced. During the restoration, it was discovered that the dark background and this effect was produced by applying a thin transparent layer of paint, called a glaze, over the present-day black background. However, the two organic pigments of the glaze and weld, have faded.
At the time, it was in poor condition, des Tombe had no heirs and donated this and other paintings to the Mauritshuis in 1902. Later in 2014 it was exhibited in Bologna, Italy, in June 2014, it returned to the Mauritshuis museum which stated that the painting will not leave the museum in the future. The painting was investigated by the scientists of the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage and FOM Institute for Atomic, the ground is dense and yellowish in color and is composed of chalk, lead white and very little black. The dark background of the painting contains bone black, chalk, small amounts of red ochre, the face and draperies were painted mainly using ochres, natural ultramarine, bone black, charcoal black and lead white. Tracy Chevalier wrote a novel, entitled Girl with a Pearl Earring, fictionalizing the circumstances of the paintings creation. In the novel, Johannes Vermeer becomes close with a servant named Griet. The novel inspired a 2003 film and 2008 play of the same name, the 2003 film stars Scarlett Johansson as Griet, the girl with the pearl earring.
Johansson was nominated for awards including a Golden Globe Award. The painting appears in the 2007 film St Trinians, when a group of unruly schoolgirls steal it to raise funds to save their school. English street artist Banksy has recreated the painting as a mural in Bristol, replacing the pearl earring with an alarm box, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School. In-depth view of the Girl with a Pearl Earring An investigation into the illumination of Vermeer’s Girl with a Pearl Earring Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, ColourLex
The Lacemaker (Vermeer)
The Lacemaker is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, completed around 1669–1670 and held in the Louvre, Paris. The work shows a woman dressed in a yellow shawl. At 24.5 cm x 21 cm, the work is the smallest of Vermeers paintings, the canvas used was cut from the same bolt as that used for A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals, and both paintings seem to have had identical dimensions originally. The girl is set against a wall, probably because the artist sought to eliminate any external distractions from the central image. As with his The Astronomer and The Geographer, it is obvious that the artist undertook careful study before he executed the work, the art of lacemaking is portrayed closely and accurately. Vermeer probably used a camera obscura while composing the work, many optical effects typical of photography can be seen, by rendering areas of the canvas as out-of-focus, Vermeer is able to suggest depth of field in a manner unusual of Dutch Baroque painting of the era. In The Lacemaker, the artist presents in a manner the various elements which compose the girls face and body.
The girls hands, the curls of her hair and the T-cross which form her eyes, in addition, the red and white of the lace is shown as spilling from the sewing cushion with physical properties suggesting a near liquid form. The blurring of these threads contrasts sharply with the precision of the lace she is working on. Vermeers painting is compared to a 1662 canvas of the same name by the Dutch portrait. However, Vermeers work is different in tone. In the earlier work, both the girls shoes and the mussel shells near her feet have sexual connotations, in addition, the discarded shoes in Netschers painting are unlikely to be the girls own, hinting again at a sexual overtone. According to the art historian Lawrence Gowing, The achievement of Vermeers maturity is complete and it is not open to extension, no universal style is discovered. We have never the sense of abundance that the jewels of his century gives us. There is only one Lacemaker, we cannot imagine another and it is a complete and single definition.
New York, Konecky & Konecky,1992, ISBN 0-8387-5538-0 Huerta, Robert D. Vermeer and Plato, Painting the Ideal. ISBN 0-8387-5606-9 Wheelock, Arthur K. Vermeer, The Complete Works, new York, Harry N. Abrams,1997. ISBN 0-8109-2751-9 Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School
Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, to the north of Rotterdam, the city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the Delf, which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court, from a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century received its charter. The towns association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, at the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years War. By Delft was one of the cities of Holland. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled, after the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The Delft Explosion, known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district, cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague, Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include, Oude Kerk, buried here, Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496 and it contains the Dutch royal familys burial vault, which between funerals is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius made by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886 and this is the only remaining gate of the old city walls.
The Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645, the Vermeer Centre in the rebuilt Guild house of St. Luke. Windmill De Roos, a mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013, another windmill that formerly stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century, the city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft
Lady Seated at a Virginal
Lady Seated at a Virginal, known as Young Woman Seated at a Virginal, is a genre painting created by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer in about 1670–72 and now in the National Gallery, London. Another painting, probably by Johannes Vermeer known as A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals and this painting and Lady Seated at a Virginal are quite separate works and are each known by alternate names and confusion between those two pieces may exist. The picture shows a woman facing left and playing a virginal, in the left foreground is a viola da gamba holding a bow between its strings. Vermeer had already featured this painting in The Concert, perhaps six years earlier, at the upper left, a tapestry is used to frame the scene, and in the lower right the foot of the back wall is decorated with Delft tiles. Because of its style, the painting has been dated to about 1670 and it has been suggested that it and Lady Standing at a Virginal may have been created as pendants, because their sizes and subject matter are all similar. A recent study has shown that the canvas for the two came from the same bolt.
In addition, the applied to the canvas appears identical to that used for both the Lady Standing and the New York Young Woman Seated. However their provenances before the 19th century differ, and Vermeer sometimes varied a theme in otherwise unrelated paintings, in the 19th century, both paintings were owned by the art critic Théophile Thoré, whose writings led to a resurgence of interest in Vermeer starting in 1866. The painting entered the National Gallery with the Salting Bequest in 1910, list of paintings by Johannes Vermeer Dutch Golden Age painting Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
Officer and Laughing Girl
It was painted in oil on canvas, typical of most Dutch artists of the time, and is 50.5 by 46 cm. It now resides in The Frick Collection in New York and Laughing Girl includes many of the characteristics of Vermeers style. The main subject is a woman in a dress, light is coming from the left hand side of the painting from an open window. Each of these occur in some of his other paintings. The main subject is the woman, and soft, direct light falls on her face and she resembles Vermeers wife, Catharina Bolnes, who is believed to have posed for many of his paintings. With x-ray photographs, art historians can see that Vermeer had planned to paint the woman with a white collar which would have hid much of her yellow dress. Also, her cap was extended to cover all of her hair, in order to draw attention to her face. This yellow bodice with braiding has appeared in many of Vermeers other portraits and it is called a schort and was usually worn as an everyday, common dress. The woman is wearing a blue apron over her dress.
Blue aprons were common attire at that time because they hid stains well, art historians have interpreted this to mean that the soldier surprised the girl with an impromptu visit during her morning chores. The woman is holding a glass, usually used for white wine. Because at that time, wine cost more than beer, it illustrates her wealth, the man in the painting is a cavalier wearing a red coat and an expensive hat, showing his wealth and rank. His hat is wide- brimmed and made of beaver pelt, which was resistant and good for snowy. The pelts for these hats were imported from the New World and this hat was probably from New Netherlands, which was under the Dutch West India Companys control. The red in his uniform is associated with power and passion, bringing a passionate and his rank as an officer is identified by the black sash he wears. However, his presence in the foreground is what the viewers notice first. His striking presence adds drama and mystery to the mood of the composition and this artistic device—in which an object is placed in the foreground to increase the depth of field of the overall painting—is called repoussoir.
Caravaggio often used this technique and Vermeer probably learned it from a Caravaggists painting, the meaning of the interaction between the woman and the soldier is unknown
The Procuress (Vermeer)
The Procuress is a 1656 oil-on-canvas painting by the 24-year-old Johannes Vermeer. It can be seen in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden and it is his first genre painting and shows a scene of contemporary life, an image of mercenary love perhaps in a brothel. It differs from his biblical and mythological scenes. It is one of three paintings Vermeer signed and dated. There is a resemblance with the painter in Vermeers The Art of Painting, the man, a soldier, in the red jacket is fondling her breast and dropping a coin into the young womans outstretched hand. According to Benjamin Binstock the painting could be understood as a portrait of his adopted family. Vermeer is in the painting as a musician, in the employ of the madam, in his rather fictional book Binstock explains Vermeer used his family as models, the whore could be Vermeers wife Catherina and the lewd soldier her brother Willem. The three-dimensional jug on the rug is a piece of Westerwald Pottery. The kelim thrown over a barrister, probably produced in Uşak, covers a third of the painting and showes medaillons, the instrument is probably a cittern.
The dark coat with five buttons was added by Vermeer in a stage, in 1696 the painting, being sold on an auction in Amsterdam, was named A merry company in a room. According to Binstock this dark and gloomy painting does not represent a didactic message, some critics have thought the painting is atypical of Vermeers style and expression, because it lacks the typical light. Pieter Swillens wrote in 1950 that—if the work was by Vermeer at all—it showed the artist seeking and groping to find a suitable mode of expression. The painting was exhibited in 1980 at the Restaurierte Kunstwerke in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republic exhibit in the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, the technical investigation of this painting was done in 1968 by Hermann Kühn. The pigment analysis revealed Vermeers use of his usual pigments such as ultramarine in the wine jug. He employed smalt in the parts of the tablecloth. Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School
Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid
Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, completed in 1670–1671 and held in the National Gallery of Ireland. The work shows a middle-class woman attended by a housemaid who is acting as messenger and go-between for the lady. The work is seen as a bridge between the quiet restraint and self-containment of Vermeers work of the 1660s and his relatively cooler work of the 1670s and it may have been partly inspired by Ter Borchs painting Woman Sealing a Letter. The paintings canvas was almost certainly cut from the bolt used for Woman with a Lute. Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid is the first of the experiments with centrifugal composition. In addition, it is his work in which the drama. The maid is shown standing in the mid-ground, behind her lady, with her hands crossed, the positions of their bodies indicates that the two women are disconnected. The folded arms of the maid seem outwardly as an attempt to display a sense of self-containment, the maids gaze towards the half-visible window indicates an inner restlessness and boredom, as she waits impatiently for the messenger to carry her ladys letter away.
Vermeer had experimented with this painterly device earlier in his career, notably in his View of Delft, The Lacemaker and The Art of Painting. Lady Writing was stolen on 27 April 1974, along with a Goya, led by the British heiress Dr. Rose Dugdale, the thieves used screwdrivers to cut the paintings from their frames. However, the Vermeer and other works were recovered eight days at a cottage in County Cork, the work was again taken in 1986 by a gang led by the Dublin gangster Martin Cahill. Along with a number of other art-works, Cahill held the painting for a ransom of £20 million, the money was not paid, and Cahill lacked contacts or knowledge to otherwise pass it on to international art thieves. The painting was recovered during an August 1993 exchange at Antwerp airport which turned out to be a sting operation organised by the Irish police. It had already been donated in absentia to the National Gallery in Dublin, new York, Konecky & Konecky,1992. Vermeer and Plato, Painting the Ideal, ISBN 0-415-06699-9 Wheelock, Arthur K.
Vermeer, The Complete Works. New York, Harry N. Abrams,1997, ISBN 0-8109-2751-9 Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer and the Delft School
A Girl Asleep
A Girl Asleep, known as A Woman Asleep, A Woman Asleep at Table, and A Maid Asleep, is a painting by the Dutch master Johannes Vermeer,1657. It is housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, according to Liedtke, the presence of the dog would have alluded to the sort of impromptu relationships canine suitors strike up on the street. The idea that she was together with someone is reinforced by the wine pitcher, the glass on its side. The painting was among the collection of Vermeer works sold on May 16,1696 from the estate of Jacob Dissius. The works history from that point is unknown until its ownership by John Waterloo Wilson in Paris after 1873. It was sold on March 14,1881 in Paris, when the Sedelmeyer Gallery in Paris bought it and sold it that year to Rodolphe Kann, Kann owned the work until 1907. It was sold in 1908 through the Duveen Brothers of London to Benjamin Altman, Altman owned the work until 1913, when it passed into the hands of the Metropolitan Museum of Art as a bequest.
List of paintings by Johannes Vermeer Dutch Golden Age painting Liedtke, Walter A. Vermeer, Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on A Girl Asleep. The Milkmaid by Johannes Vermeer, exhibition catalog fully online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on A Girl Asleep