Gainsborough Pictures was a British film studio based on the south bank of the Regent's Canal, in Poole Street, Hoxton in the former Metropolitan Borough of Shoreditch, north London. Gainsborough Studios was active between 1924 and 1951; the company was based at Islington Studios which were built as a power station for the Great Northern & City Railway and was converted to studios. Other films were made at Pinewood Studios; the former Islington studios were demolished in 2002 and flats built on the site in 2004. A London Borough of Hackney historical plaque is attached to the building; the studio is best remembered for the Gainsborough melodramas it produced in the 1940s. Gainsborough was founded in 1924 by Michael Balcon and was a sister company to the Gaumont British from 1927, with Balcon as Director of Production for both studios. Whilst Gaumont-British, based at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush produced the'quality' pictures, Gainsborough produced'B' movies and melodramas at its Islington Studios.
Both studios used continental film practices those from, with Alfred Hitchcock being encouraged by Balcon—who had links with UFA—to study there and make multilingual co-production films with UFA, before the war. In the 1930s, actors Elisabeth Bergner and Conrad Veidt, art director Alfred Junge, cinematographer Mutz Greenbaum and screenwriter/director Berthold Viertel, along with others, joined the two studios; the studio's opening logo was of a lady in a Georgian era period costume sitting in an ornate frame and smiling, based on the famous portrait of Sarah Siddons by Gainsborough. The short piece of music was called the Gainsborough Minuet. After the departure of Balcon to MGM-British, the Rank Organisation gained an interest in Gainsborough and the studio made such popular films as Oh, Mr Porter! and Hitchcock's The Lady Vanishes. By 1937, Gaumont-British were in financial crisis, closed their Lime Grove studios, moving all production to the Islington Poole Street studio. However, the tall factory chimney on the site was considered dangerous in the event of bombing during World War II, thus Gainsborough Studios were evacuated to Lime Grove for the duration of hostilities.
From 1942 to 1946, a series of morally ambivalent studio bound costume melodramas was produced by Gainsborough for the domestic market. They were based on recent popular books by female novelists. Prominent titles included The Man in Grey, Madonna of the Seven Moons, Fanny by Gaslight, The Wicked Lady and Caravan; the films featured a stable of leading British actors, among them Margaret Lockwood, James Mason, Stewart Granger and Patricia Roc. The studio made modern-dress comedies and melodramas such as Love Story, Two Thousand Women, Time Flies, Bees in Paradise, They Were Sisters, Easy Money. Subsequent productions, overseen by Betty Box, included the neo-realist Holiday Camp and the Huggett family series with Jack Warner, Kathleen Harrison, Petula Clark who were introduced in Holiday Camp. Unhappy with the performance of the studio, Rank closed it down in early 1949. Production was concentrated at Pinewood Studios. Although at first films continued to be made there under the Gainsborough banner, this stopped and no further Gainsborough films were released after 1951.
The original Lime Grove site was taken over by the BBC in 1949 and remained in use until it was closed in 1991. The buildings were demolished in the early 1990s, have been since replaced with housing presently called Gaumont Terrace and Gainsborough Court; the former Islington Studios, in Poole Street, remained derelict after their closure in 1949 apart from occasional art performances, including two epic Shakespearean productions by the Almeida Theatre Company, April–July 2000, directed by Jonathan Kent and starring Ralph Fiennes, a closing Hitchcock season in October 2003. The buildings began to be cleared in 2002, apartments named Gainsborough Studios were built on the site in 2004, by architects Munkenbeck and Marshall. Cook, Gainsborough Pictures. Gainsborough Pictures at the BFI's Screenonline London’s Hollywood: The Gainsborough Film Studio’s Silent Years article at Brenton Film
Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper was an unidentified serial killer believed to have been active in the impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. In both the criminal case files and contemporary journalistic accounts, the killer was called the Whitechapel Murderer and Leather Apron. Attacks ascribed to Jack the Ripper involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of the East End of London whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations; the removal of internal organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer had some anatomical or surgical knowledge. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October 1888, letters were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard from a writer or writers purporting to be the murderer; the name "Jack the Ripper" originated in a letter written by someone claiming to be the murderer, disseminated in the media. The letter is believed to have been a hoax and may have been written by journalists in an attempt to heighten interest in the story and increase their newspapers' circulation.
The "From Hell" letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee came with half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims. The public came to believe in a single serial killer known as "Jack the Ripper" because of the extraordinarily brutal nature of the murders, because of media treatment of the events. Extensive newspaper coverage bestowed widespread and enduring international notoriety on the Ripper, the legend solidified. A police investigation into a series of eleven brutal killings in Whitechapel up to 1891 was unable to connect all the killings conclusively to the murders of 1888. Five victims—Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly—are known as the "canonical five" and their murders between 31 August and 9 November 1888 are considered the most to be linked; the murders were never solved, the legends surrounding them became a combination of genuine historical research and pseudohistory. The term "ripperology" was coined to describe the analysis of the Ripper cases.
There are now over one hundred hypotheses about the Ripper's identity, the murders have inspired many works of fiction. In the mid-19th century, Britain experienced an influx of Irish immigrants who swelled the populations of the major cities, including the East End of London. From 1882, Jewish refugees from pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area; the parish of Whitechapel in London's East End became overcrowded. Work and housing conditions worsened, a significant economic underclass developed. Robbery and alcohol dependency were commonplace, the endemic poverty drove many women to prostitution. In October 1888, London's Metropolitan Police Service estimated that there were 62 brothels and 1,200 women working as prostitutes in Whitechapel; the economic problems were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions. Between 1886 and 1889, frequent demonstrations led to police intervention and public unrest, such as that of 13 November 1887. Anti-semitism, nativism, social disturbance, severe deprivation influenced public perceptions that Whitechapel was a notorious den of immorality.
In 1888, such perceptions were strengthened when the series of vicious and grotesque murders attributed to "Jack the Ripper" received unprecedented coverage in the media. The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this time adds uncertainty to how many victims were killed by the same person. Eleven separate murders, stretching from 3 April 1888 to 13 February 1891, were included in a London Metropolitan Police Service investigation and were known collectively in the police docket as the "Whitechapel murders". Opinions vary as to whether these murders should be linked to the same culprit, but five of the eleven Whitechapel murders, known as the "canonical five", are believed to be the work of Jack the Ripper. Most experts point to deep throat slashes and genital-area mutilation, removal of internal organs, progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of the Ripper's modus operandi; the first two cases in the Whitechapel murders file, those of Emma Elizabeth Smith and Martha Tabram, are not included in the canonical five.
Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted in Osborn Street, Whitechapel, on 3 April 1888. A blunt object was inserted into her vagina, she died the following day at London Hospital. She said that she had been attacked by three men, one of whom was a teenager; the attack was linked to the murders by the press, but most authors attribute it to gang violence unrelated to the Ripper case. Tabram was killed on 7 August 1888; the savagery of the murder, the lack of obvious motive, the closeness of the location and date to those of the Ripper murders led police to link them. The attack differs from the canonical murders in that Tabram was stabbed rather than slashed at the throat and abdomen, many experts do not connect it with the murders because of the difference in the wound pattern; the canonical five Ripper victims are Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly. Nichols' body was discovered at about 3:40 a.m. on Friday 31 August 1888 in Buck's Row, Whitechapel.
The throat was severed by two cuts, the lower part of the abdomen was ripped open by a deep, jagged wound. Several other incisions on the abdomen were caused by the same knife. Chapman's
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
Carlyle Blackwell was an American silent film actor and producer. He made his film debut in the 1910 Vitagraph Studios production of Uncle Tom's Cabin directed by J. Stuart Blackton. Between and 1930, when talkies ended his acting career, he appeared in more than 180 films. For his contributions to the film industry, Blackwell has a motion pictures star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard. In his years he was active as a producer and writer. After his final film in 1930, Blackwell turned to performing on stage in live theatre. Blackwell was born in New York, he was married three times, first to actress Ruth Hartman, the mother of his daughter and son. In 1923, he divorced Hartman for desertion. In 1926, he married his second wife Leah Barnato, known as the "Queen of Diamonds," the daughter of a South African diamond millionaire and sister of Woolf Barnato, his third wife was former Ziegfeld girl Avonne Taylor, whom he met on a transatlantic crossing and married in 1933 after divorcing Leah Blackwell in 1932.
He died in Miami, Florida in 1955, aged 71. His son, Carlyle Blackwell, Jr. an actor died in Hollywood Ca. in 1974 Uncle Tom's Cabin On Her Doorsteps Doctor Cupid Slim Jim's Last Chance The Wasp Over the Garden Wall The Blackfoot Halfbreed The Temptation of Rodney Vane Norma from Norway The Gun Smugglers The Ocean Waif The Crimson Dove The Page Mystery The Social Leper His Brother's Wife Stolen Orders Chasing the Smuggler - his first movie as a director The Man Who Could Not Lose The Good for Nothing Leap to Fame His Royal Highness Beyond the Cities Bedrock Carlyle Blackwell went to England in 1921 and played the first Bulldog Drummond in film, in a movie called Bulldog Drummond. He worked in England until 1931, both in the theater and in movies, his cinematic works in England include: The Virgin Queen Shadow of Egypt She Monte Carlo The Rolling Road The Wrecker Der Hund von Baskerville his only talkies: Bedrock Beyond the Cities He took part in many other productions which increased his popularity.
To his numerous appearances in front of the camera belong among others: The Lodger Blighty One of the Best The Rolling Road Bedrock Beyond the Cities Beyond the Cities Carlyle Blackwell on IMDb Carlyle Blackwell at the Internet Broadway Database Carlyle Blackwell at AllMovie Carlyle Blackwell at Find a Grave
A bootleg recording is an audio or video recording of a performance, not released by the artist or under other legal authority. The process of making and distributing such recordings is known as bootlegging. Recordings may be copied and traded among fans of the artist without financial exchange, but some bootleggers have sold recordings for profit, sometimes by adding professional-quality sound engineering and packaging to the raw material. Bootlegs consist of either unreleased studio recordings, live performances or interviews with an unpredictable level of quality; the concept of releasing unauthorised performances had been established before the 20th century, but reached new levels of popularity with Bob Dylan's Great White Wonder, a compilation of studio outtakes and demos released in 1969 using low-priority pressing plants. The following year, the Rolling Stones' Live'r Than You'll Ever Be, an audience recording of a late 1969 show, received a positive review in Rolling Stone. Subsequent bootlegs became more sophisticated in packaging the Trademark of Quality label with William Stout's cover artwork.
Compact disc bootlegs first appeared in the 1980s, internet distribution became popular in the 1990s. Changing technologies have affected the recording and varying profitability of the underground industry; the copyrights for the song and the right to authorise recordings reside with the artist, according to several international copyright treaties. The recording and sale of bootlegs continues to thrive, however as artists and record companies attempt to provide released alternatives to satisfy the demand; the word "bootleg" originates from the practice of smuggling illicit items in the legs of tall boots the smuggling of alcohol during the American Prohibition era. The word, over time, has come to refer to any illicit product; this term has become an umbrella term for illicit, unofficial, or unlicensed recordings, including vinyl LPs, silver CDs, or any other commercially sold media or material. The alternate term ROIO or VOI arose among Pink Floyd collectors, to clarify the recording source and copyright status was hard to determine.
Although unofficial and unlicensed recordings had existed before the 1960s, the first rock bootlegs came in plain sleeves with the title rubber stamped on it. However, they developed into more sophisticated packaging, in order to distinguish the manufacturer from inferior competitors. With today's packaging and desktop publishing technology the layman can create "official" looking CDs. With the advent of the cassette and CD-R, some bootlegs are traded with no attempt to be manufactured professionally; this is more evident with the ability to share bootlegs via the Internet. Bootlegs should not be confused with counterfeit or unlicensed recordings, which are unauthorised duplicates of released recordings attempting to resemble the official product as close as possible; some record companies have considered that any record issued outside of their control, for which they do not receive payment, to be a counterfeit, which includes bootlegs. However, some bootleggers are keen to stress that the markets for bootleg and counterfeit recordings are different, a typical consumer for a bootleg will have bought most or all of that artist's official releases anyway.
The most common type is the live bootleg, or audience recording, created with sound recording equipment smuggled into a live concert. Many artists and live venues prohibit this form of recording, but from the 1970s onwards the increased availability of portable technology made such bootlegging easier, the general quality of these recordings has improved over time as consumer equipment becomes sophisticated. A number of bootlegs originated with FM radio broadcasts of live or recorded live performances. Other bootlegs may be soundboard recordings taken directly from a multi-track mixing console used to feed the public address system at a live performance. Artists may record their own shows for private review, but engineers may surreptitiously take a copy of this, which ends up being shared; as a soundboard recording is intended to supplement the natural acoustics of a gig, a bootleg may have an inappropriate mix of instruments, unless the gig is so large that everything needs to be amplified and sent to the desk.
Some bootlegs consist of private or professional studio recordings distributed without the artist's involvement, including demos, works-in-progress or discarded material. These might be made from private recordings not meant to be shared, or from master recordings stolen or copied from an artist's home, a recording studio or the offices of a record label, or they may be copied from promotional material issued to music publishers or radio stations, but not for commercial release. A theme of early rock bootlegs was to copy deleted records, such as old singles and B-sides, onto a single LP, as a cheaper alternative to obtaining all the original recordings. Speaking, these were unlicensed recordings, but because the work required to clear all the copyrights and publishing of every track for an official release was considered to be prohibitively expensive, the bootlegs became popular; some bootlegs, did lead to official releases. The Who's Zoo bootleg, collecting early singles of The Who, inspired the official album Odds And Sods, which beat the bootleggers by issuing unreleased material, while various compilations of mid-1960s bands inspired the Nuggets series of albums.
According to enthusiast and author Clinton Heylin, the concept of a bootleg record can be traced back to
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
Malcolm Keen was an English actor of stage and television. He was sometimes credited as Malcolm Keane. Born in Bristol, he made his stage debut in 1902 and his first film in 1916. Keen was an early collaborator with the director Alfred Hitchcock, starring in his silent films The Mountain Eagle, The Lodger and The Manxman. In April 1927, Keen appeared in Packing Up, a short film made in the DeForest Phonofilm sound-on-film process; the film featured Mary Clare and was directed by Miles Mander. Keen was the father of actor Geoffrey Keen, the two both played Iachimo in Cymbeline opposite Peggy Ashcroft: Malcolm at the Old Vic in 1932, Geoffrey at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in 1957. Keen played the Caliph in a production of James Elroy Flecker's Hassan at His Majesty's Theatre in London in 1923. Incidental music for the play was by Frederick Delius, the ballet in the House-of-the-Moving Walls was created by Fokine. In the cast, Henry Ainley as Hassan, Isabel Jeans as Yasmin. Keen's U. S. theatre credits include Man and Superman in 1947 at the Alvin Theatre in New York, The Enchanted at the Lyceum Theatre in New York in 1950, Romeo and Juliet at the Broadhurst Theatre in New York in 1951, Much Ado About Nothing at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre in New York.
Malcolm Keen on IMDb Malcolm Keen at the Internet Broadway Database