OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Chatto & Windus
Chatto & Windus was an important publisher of books in London, founded in the Victorian era. Since 1987, it has been an imprint of publishers; the firm developed out of the publishing business of John Camden Hotten, founded in 1855. After his death in 1873, it was sold to Hotten's junior partner Andrew Chatto who took on the minor poet W. E. Windus as partner. Chatto & Windus published Mark Twain, W. S. Gilbert, Wilkie Collins, H. G. Wells, Richard Aldington, Frederick Rolfe, Aldous Huxley, Samuel Beckett, the famous'unfinished' novel Weir of Hermiston by Robert Louis Stevenson, the first translation into English of Marcel Proust's novel À la recherche du temps perdu, amongst others. In 1946, the company took over the running of the Hogarth Press, founded in 1917 by Leonard and Virginia Woolf. Active as an independent publishing house until 1969, when it merged with Jonathan Cape, it published broadly in the field of literature, including novels and poetry, it is not connected, with Pickering & Chatto Publishers.
Norah Smallwood was appointed to the board of Chatto & Windus when it became a limited company in 1953, succeeded Ian Parsons as chairman and managing director in 1975, serving until her retirement in 1982. The New Phoenix Library The Phoenix Library The Phoenix Living Poets Warner, Chatto & Windus: A Brief Account of the Firm's Origin and Development Knowlson, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett. Simon & Schuster, New York, John, The Stanford Companion to Victorian Fiction, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-1842-3, p. 118. Official website Chatto & Windus catalogs
Raymond Henry Williams was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic and critic. He was an influential figure in wider culture, his writings on politics, the mass media and literature made a significant contribution to the Marxist critique of culture and the arts. Some 750,000 copies of his books have sold in UK editions alone and there are many translations available, his work laid the foundations for the field of cultural studies and the cultural materialist approach. Born in Llanfihangel Crucorney, near Abergavenny, Williams was the son of a railway worker in a village where all of the railwaymen voted Labour, while the local small farmers voted Liberal, it was not a Welsh-speaking area: he described it as "Anglicised in the 1840s". There was a strong Welsh identity. "There is the joke that someone says his family came over with the Normans and we reply:'Are you liking it here?'". Williams attended King Henry VIII Grammar School in Abergavenny, his teenage years were overshadowed by the threat of war.
He was 14 when the Spanish Civil War broke out, was conscious of what was happening through his membership of the local Left Book Club. He mentions the Italian invasion of Abyssinia and Edgar Snow's Red Star Over China published in Britain by the Left Book Club. At this time, he was a supporter of the League of Nations, attending a League-organised youth conference in Geneva in 1937. On the way back, his group visited Paris and he went to the Soviet pavilion at the International Exhibition. There he read Karl Marx for the first time. Williams attended Trinity College, where he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain. Along with Eric Hobsbawm, he was given the task of writing a Communist Party pamphlet about the Russo-Finnish War, he says in that they "were given the job as people who could write from historical materials supplied for us. You were in there writing about topics you did not know much about, as a professional with words". At the time, the British government was keen to support Finland in its war against the Soviet Union, while still being at war with Nazi Germany.
Williams interrupted his education to serve in World War II. In winter 1940, he enlisted in the British Army, but stayed at Cambridge to take his exams in June 1941, the same month that Germany invaded Russia. Joining the military was against the Communist party line at the time. According to Williams, his membership in the Communist Party lapsed without him formally resigning; when Williams joined the army, he was assigned to the Royal Corps of Signals, the typical assignment for university undergraduates. He received some initial training in military communications, but was reassigned to artillery and anti-tank weapons, he was viewed as officer material and served as an officer in the Anti-Tank Regiment of the Guards Armoured Division in 1941–1945, being sent into the early fighting in the Invasion of Normandy after the Normandy Landings. In Politics and Letters he writes, "I don't think the intricate chaos of that Normandy fighting has been recorded." He commanded a unit of four tanks and mentions losing touch with two of them during fighting against Waffen-SS Panzer forces in the Bocage.
Williams was part of the fighting from Normandy in 1944 through Belgium and the Netherlands to Germany in 1945, where he was involved in the liberation of one of the smaller Nazi concentration camps, afterwards used to detain SS officers. He was shocked to find that Hamburg had suffered saturation bombing by the Royal Air Force, not just of military targets and docks, as they had been told. Williams received his M. A. from Cambridge in 1946 and served as a tutor in adult education at the University of Oxford for several years. In 1946, he founded the review Politics and Letters, a journal which he edited with Clifford Collins and Wolf Mankowitz until 1948. Williams published Reading and Criticism in 1950. In 1951 he was recalled to the army as a reservist to fight in the Korean War, he refused registering as a conscientious objector. Inspired by T. S. Eliot's 1948 publication Notes towards the Definition of Culture, Williams began exploring the concept of culture, he first outlined his argument that the concept emerged with the Industrial Revolution in the essay "The Idea of Culture", which resulted in the successful book Culture and Society, published in 1958.
This was followed in 1961 by The Long Revolution. Williams's writings received a wide readership, he was well known as a regular book reviewer for the Manchester Guardian newspaper. His years in adult education were an important experience and Williams was always something of an outsider at Cambridge University. Asked to contribute to a book called My Cambridge, he began his essay by saying: "It was never my Cambridge; that was clear from the start." On the strength of his books, Williams was invited to return to Cambridge in 1961, where he was elected a fellow of Jesus College becoming first Reader Professor of Drama. He was a visiting professor of political science at Stanford University in 1973, an experience that he used to good effect in his still useful book Television: Technology and Cultural Form. A committed socialist, he was interested in the relationships between language and society, published many books and articles on these and other issues. Among the most important is The Country and the City, in which chapters about literature alternate w