The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II
The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II is a real-time strategy video game developed and published by Electronic Arts. It is based on the fantasy novels The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien and its live-action film trilogy adaptation, it is the sequel to Electronic Arts' 2004 title The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth. The Windows version of the game was released on March 2, 2006 and the Xbox 360 version was released on July 5, 2006. Along with the standard edition, a Collector's Edition of the game was released, containing bonus material and a documentary about the game's development; the official game servers were shut down for Windows in 2010 and Xbox 360 in 2011, however Windows users may still play online using unofficial game servers. The story for The Battle for Middle-earth II is divided into Evil Campaigns; the Good Campaign focuses on Glorfindel, an Elf, alerted to a planned attack on the Elven sanctuary of Rivendell. With help from the Dwarves and other Good forces, the Elves attempt to eliminate Sauron and his army to restore peace in Middle-earth.
In the Evil Campaign, Sauron sends the Nazgûl to muster wild Goblins. With his army, Sauron moves forward with his plan to destroy the remaining Good forces in the North; the Battle for Middle-earth II received favorable reviews from video game critics. Reviews praised the game's integration of the Lord of the Rings universe into a real-time strategy title, while criticism targeted the game's unbalanced multiplayer mode; the Battle for Middle-earth II received numerous awards, including the Editors' Choice Award from IGN. At the end of March 2006, The Battle for Middle-earth II reached fourth in a list of the month's best-selling PC games. A Windows expansion pack for the game was released on November 28, 2006, called The Rise of the Witch-king, which features a new faction known as Angmar, new units, several gameplay improvements; the Battle for Middle-earth II is a real-time strategy game. Similar to its predecessor, the game requires that the player build a base with structures to produce units, gather resources, research upgrades, provide defenses.
Units are used to defend the player's base. Players win. Unlike the first game, the player can build an unlimited number of structures anywhere on the map, allowing for more freedom in base building and unit production. Players can build walls to defend their base, they can construct arrow and catapult towers on building plots around a fortress to provide defensive support and basic protection. Along with this, each factions' fortress is uniquely equipped with a special power reached only by purchasing necessary upgrades; the game's HUD, called the Palantír, shows the player's hero units and their abilities, a mini-map, objectives. Units are classified into one of several classes: infantry, pikemen, cavalry, or siege; each unit class has unique strengths and weaknesses, emphasizing the importance of properly matching up units in battle to increase their effectiveness. Hero units are unique in. If the player kills Gollum, a non-player character, they are rewarded with the One Ring; the item can be used to summon one of two ring heroes for a price of 10,000 resources and Sauron, depending on the player's faction.
Ring heroes have strong armor and powerful attacks, making them among the game's most over-powered units. The War of the Ring mode carried over from the first game in the series combines turn-based strategy elements with real-time skirmishes. Middle-earth is divided into territories. During each turn, the player can move their armies into neutral and enemy territories to take control of them. While neutral territories are conquered by entering them, enemy territories must be wrested from the other player by defeating them in a skirmish. Troops can be garrisoned in conquered territories to defend against enemy attacks; when the player chooses to attack another territory, or one of their territories is being invaded by an enemy, they can either simulate the match and let the computer determine the outcome, or play the match by commanding the units in real time. The winner of the skirmish gains the territory, all surviving units gain experience points. To win the game, players must either control the enemy's capital territory, or take over a given number of territories in Middle-earth.
The Battle for Middle-earth II introduces three new factions with unique units and heroes: Goblins and Elves. Rohan and Gondor are combined into one faction called Men of the West. Along with Mordor and Isengard from the first game, there are six playable factions; the troops of Gondor provide a solid offense and defense with standard infantry and archers, the Rohirrim of Rohan act as elite cavalry. The Elven archers are effective at inflicting damage from a distance, their support units, the Ents, can perform a combination of melee and siege attacks, they are considered the strongest defensive faction due to their strong missile units and powerful'silverthorn arrows'. Although slow and expensive, Dwarven infantry and axe-throwers are powerful and well-armored allowing them to prevail in the longest clashes with enemy troops. A collection of wild creatures and beasts of Middle-earth make up the Goblin faction, this
The Lord of the Rings (film series)
The Lord of the Rings is a film series of three epic fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson, based on the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien; the films are subtitled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. They are a New Zealand-American venture, produced by WingNut Films and The Saul Zaentz Company and distributed by New Line Cinema; the trilogy was one of the biggest and most ambitious film projects undertaken, with a reported budget of $281–330 million. The three films were shot and in Jackson's native New Zealand. One in every 160 New Zealanders participated in the production. A special extended edition of each film was released on DVD a year after its theatrical release. While the films follow the book's general storyline, they omit some plot elements and include additions to and deviations from the source material. Set in the fictional world of Middle-earth, the films follow the hobbit Frodo Baggins as he and the Fellowship embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring, to ensure the destruction of its maker, the Dark Lord Sauron.
The Fellowship splits up and Frodo continues the quest with his loyal companion Sam and the treacherous Gollum. Meanwhile, heir in exile to the throne of Gondor, along with Legolas, Merry and the wizard Gandalf, unite to rally the Free Peoples of Middle-earth in the War of the Ring in order to aid Frodo by weakening Sauron's forces; the series was met with overwhelming praise. It was a major financial success, is among the highest-grossing film series of all time; each film was critically acclaimed and awarded, winning 17 out of their 30 Academy Award nominations. The series's final film, The Return of the King, won all 11 of its Academy Award nominations including Best Picture, tying with Ben-Hur and Titanic for the record of most Academy Awards won by a single film; the series received wide praise for its innovative visual effects. Director Peter Jackson first came into contact with The Lord of the Rings when he saw Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film The Lord of the Rings. Jackson "enjoyed the film and wanted to know more."
Afterwards, he read a tie-in edition of the book during a twelve-hour train journey from Wellington to Auckland when he was seventeen. In 1995, Jackson was finishing The Frighteners and considered The Lord of the Rings as a new project, wondering "why nobody else seemed to be doing anything about it". With the new developments in computer-generated imagery following Jurassic Park, Jackson set about planning a fantasy film that would be serious and feel real. By October, he and his partner Fran Walsh teamed up with Miramax Films boss Harvey Weinstein to negotiate with Saul Zaentz who had held the rights to the book since the early 1970s, pitching an adaptation of The Hobbit and two films based on The Lord of the Rings. Negotiations stalled when Universal Studios offered Jackson a remake of King Kong. Weinstein was furious, further problems arose when it turned out Zaentz did not have distribution rights to The Hobbit. By April 1996, the rights question was still not resolved. Jackson decided to move ahead with King Kong before filming The Lord of the Rings, prompting Universal to enter a deal with Miramax to receive foreign earnings from The Lord of the Rings while Miramax received foreign earnings from King Kong.
It was revealed that Jackson wanted to finish King Kong before The Lord of the Rings began. But due to location problems, he decided to start with The Lord of the Rings franchise instead; when Universal cancelled King Kong in 1997, Jackson and Walsh received support from Weinstein and began a six-week process of sorting out the rights. Jackson and Walsh asked Costa Botes to write a synopsis of the book and they began to re-read the book. Two to three months they had written their treatment; the first film would have dealt with what would become The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, the beginning of The Return of the King, ending with Saruman's death, Gandalf and Pippin going to Minas Tirith. In this treatment and Gandalf visit Edoras after escaping Saruman, Gollum attacks Frodo when the Fellowship is still united, Farmer Maggot, Radagast and Elrohir are present. Bilbo attends the Council of Elrond, Sam looks into Galadriel's mirror, Saruman is redeemed before he dies and the Nazgûl just make it into Mount Doom before they fall.
They presented their treatment to Harvey and Bob Weinstein, the latter of whom they focused on impressing with their screenwriting as he had not read the book. They agreed upon a total budget of $75 million. During mid-1997, Jackson and Walsh began writing with Stephen Sinclair. Sinclair's partner, Philippa Boyens, was a major fan of the book and joined the writing team after reading their treatment, it took 13 -- 14 months to write the two film scripts, which were 144 pages respectively. Sinclair left the project due to theatrical obligations. Amongst their revisions, Sam is caught eavesdropping and forced to go along with Frodo, as occurs in the original novel. In the final treatment Sam and Pippin infer the existence of One Ring and voluntarily go along after confronting Frodo about it. Gandalf's account of his time at Orthanc was pulled out of flashback and Lothlórien was cut, with Galadriel doing what she does in the story at Rivendell. Denethor attends the Council with his son. Other changes included having Arwen rescue Frodo, the action sequence involving the cave troll.
The writers considered having Arw
A palantír is a fictional magical artefact from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. A palantír is described as a crystal ball, used for both communication and as a means of seeing events in other parts of the world or in the distant past or in the future; when one looks into a palantír, one can mentally communicate with other such stones and anyone who might be looking into them. Fashioned of a dark crystal, they were indestructible by any means men possessed at the end of the Third Age, they were of various sizes. The Stone of Osgiliath had power over other stones including the ability to eavesdrop; the smaller stones required one to move around them, thereby changing the viewpoint of its vision, whereas the larger stones could be turned on their axis. A wielder of great power such as one of the Maiar like Sauron could dominate a weaker user through the stone, the experience of Peregrin Took and Saruman. According to Gandalf, it is beyond the skill of both Sauron and Saruman to create the palantíri, while Sauron cannot make the palantíri "lie", or create false images, he could show selective images to create a false impression in the viewer.
The stones' gaze can pierce anything except darkness and shadow. A technique called. Knowledge of this technique was lost long ago; the palantíri were made by the Elves of Valinor in the Uttermost West, by the Noldor even Fëanor himself. Many palantíri were made, but only eight are mentioned in Tolkien's published works; the Master Stone was kept in the tower of Avallónë on Tol Eressëa, but no record is made of successful communication from any palantír of Middle-earth to this one. Seven stones were given to the Elf-friends, the Faithful Dúnedain of Númenor as a gift, during the Second Age. Elendil took them with him on his flight to Middle-earth on the nine ships; the stones of Arnor were at Elostirion, Amon Sul, Annuminas. After the destruction of Arnor and its successor states by the Witch-King of Angmar, the stones of Amon Sul and Annuminas were lost in Arvedui's shipwreck in the Bay of Forochel; the stone of Elostirion remained at the Emyn Beraid throughout the Third Age but was aligned only with the Master Stone on Tol Eressëa.
It could only look to the West. The stone of Osgiliath was lost during the Kin-strife when the Dome of the Stars was among the places sacked and burned in the city; the stone was not recovered. As for the other stones of Gondor, Sauron captured the palantír of Minas Ithil in 2002 T. A when the Ring-wraiths took it a second time. Saruman found the palantir of Orthanc when he was given possession of the Angrenost by Beren the Steward; the Anor-stone was used only by the Steward Denethor when he inherited his father's position in Minas Tirith. At the end of the Third Age, the use of palantíri influenced events of The Lord of the Rings. Saruman looked through the Orthanc stone, saw what he thought was an unassailable strength in Mordor, helping to corrupt him; when Pippin touched the Orthanc-stone, he encountered Sauron, attempting to contact Saruman using the Ithil-stone. Sauron thought; when Aragorn, exercising his lawful authority as heir to the Kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor, used the stone, he revealed himself to Sauron and wrenched the stone's power free of Sauron's will.
As a lawful user of the stone, Aragorn used the stone to see many things and most the attack on the Falas, which he intercepted by riding the Paths of the Dead with Rangers of the North. Denethor's constant use of the Anor-stone in Minas Tirith since becoming Steward of Gondor aged him as he battled with Sauron; the images that he saw steered by Sauron in part plus Faramir's mortal wound convinced him that there was no hope for Gondor, which resulted in his attempted murder of Faramir and his own suicide in the tomb of the Stewards off the Rath Dinen, the Silent Way. After the War of the Ring, only the stone of Orthanc remained in the possession of the king of the Reunited Kingdom as the elves took the stone of Elostirion with them into the West; the Ithil-stone had been lost in the fall of Barad-dûr, the Anor-stone would only show burning hands unless one possessed sufficient strength of will to turn its images elsewhere. One Stone, called Elendil's Stone, was placed in the tower of Elostirion in the Tower Hills, just west of the Shire.
Its location was only known to a few and it remained hidden there until it was taken back to the West with the three Elven Rings. It was unique among the stones brought to Middle-earth, in that it did not communicate with the others and would only look west along the Straight Road to the Master-stone of Avallónë; the palantír of Amon Sûl, most powerful of the three in Arnor, was kept for centuries in the Watchtower of Amon Sûl. When Arnor was divided into three kingdoms, all of them claimed Amon Sûl because of the palantír. Just before Angmar captured and destroyed the Watchtower in T. A. 1409, the Stone was taken to Fornost. It remained there, it w
In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria named Khazad-dûm, is a fabulous and ancient subterranean complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast labyrinthine network of tunnels, chambers and huge halls; the complex ran under and through the Misty Mountains. Moria is one of the wonders of the world of Middle-earth. Moria is introduced in Tolkien's novel The Hobbit, is a major scene of action in the sequel, The Lord of the Rings. In much of Middle-earth's fictional history, which spanned many millennia, Moria was the greatest city of Dwarves in Middle-earth; the Dwarves had founded and built Moria, giving it the name Khazad-dûm, inhabiting it for thousands of years. The city's wealth was founded on its mines, which produced mithril, a metal of high value and versatility; however by the times in which The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set, Moria had been abandoned by the Dwarves long ago. It was now a place with an evil repute; this is the situation. Tolkien deploys his constructed languages to translate a number of names for Moria.
The relative frequency of these various names in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings reflects the usage in the fictional times in which those novels are set. Moria is thus by far the most common name of the place in Tolkien's writings; the name means "the Black Chasm" or "the Black Pit", from Sindarin mor ='dark, black' and iâ ='void, pit'. The element mor had the sense'sinister, evil' by association with infamous names such Morgoth and Mordor; the name Moria had applied only to the Black Chasm itself. However after the Dwarves were forced to abandon Khazad-dûm, its many bright lamps were destroyed, the whole subterranean complex was drowned in darkness: a veritable Black Pit. Tolkien borrowed the name Moria itself, but not its meaning, from a book. Khazad-dûm is the second-most used name, tends to be limited in application to the fabulous city-kingdom of the Dwarves in an historical or nostalgic context. In the fictional history, Khazad-dûm was Moria's original name, that given it by the Dwarves in their own language.
It is translated as the Dwarrowdelf,'dwarrows' being an archaic English plural of'dwarf', and'delf' an archaic alternative to'delving', from the verb'delve', to dig. However whilst'delf' connotes an ancient excavation, it does not capture the sense'large halls' in the Dwarvish dûm. Tolkien rhymes dûm with tomb; such was Khazad-dûm's splendour and long history that it was well known by many peoples in Middle-earth. Some of them translated Khazad-dûm into their own languages: Hadhodrond by the Sindar, Casarrondo by the Noldor and Phurunargian in the Common Speech; however by the times in which The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set, these translated names are little used: the name Moria is dominant. Moria was a system of natural caves located in Dimrill Dale, a great valley on the eastern side of the central Misty Mountains; the caves led to an immeasurably-deep subterranean abyss: the Black Chasm. Three of the Misty Mountains' most massive peaks embayed Dimrill Dale: the Mountains of Moria.
In the Common Tongue they are named Silvertine and Cloudyhead. The caves of Moria, where the Dwarf city-kingdom of Khazad-dûm was founded, were situated under Silvertine; the area was discovered by Durin the Deathless, one of the Fathers of the Dwarves and the first King of Khazad-dûm. He named its main natural features. Durin gave the names in Khuzdul, the language of Dwarves, but the main features became better known by their translations in Sindarin and the Common Tongue; the first feature encountered by Durin was the great valley itself: "a glen of shadows between two great arms of the mountains, above which three white peaks were shining". Within this valley, a long series of short waterfalls led down to a long, oval lake, which appeared to have a magical quality: "There, like jewels sunk in the deep shone glinting stars, though sunlight was in the sky above". Perceiving these stars as a crown glittering above his head, Durin took this as an auspicious sign, named the lake Kheled-zâram, the'Mirrormere'.
The three peaks overshadowing the lake he named Barazinbar'the Redhorn', Zirakzigil'the Silvertine' and Bundushathûr,'Cloudyhead'. The icy-cold springs below the lake he called Kibil-nâla, the valley itself he gave the name Azanulbizar, the Dimrill Dale. Durin chose the eastward-facing caves above Kheled-zâram as the earliest beginnings of his new stronghold. All of these places became revered by Durin's Folk. A rune-carved stone monolith – Durin's Stone — was erected on the site where Durin had first looked into the Mirrormere, it was still standing, although much worn at the end of the Third Age. Not far within Moria's original caves, thus not far within the city of Khazad-dûm, lay a subterranean abyss of vast depth: the Black Chasm, whose Sindarin translation Moria was applied to the whole subterranean complex; the Black Chasm was some fifty feet wide. The Black Chasm was a second line of defence to Khazad-dûm's Great Gates, it lay at the eastern end of Khazad-dûm's Second Hall, where ther
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Battle of the Hornburg
The Battle of the Hornburg is a fictional battle in J. R. R. Tolkien's epic The Lord of the Rings; the battle pitted the forces of the Wizard Saruman against the Rohirrim under King Théoden, who had taken refuge in the mountain fortress of the Hornburg at Helm's Deep. The engagement is informally known as Battle of Helm's Deep or Helm's Deep after that location. An account of the battle is recorded in the climactic chapter "Helm's Deep" of the volume The Two Towers; the Battle of the Hornburg commenced after nightfall on 3rd'March' T. A. 3019, continued overnight into the morning of the next day. In the book The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, the size of the initial garrison at Helm's Deep for Rohan was nearly 1,000, but many more were coming into the fort from across Rohan; the estimated number of total Rohirrim defenders was 2,000 by the time. Merry says that the force that left Isengard numbered 10,000 at least, most marching towards Helm's Deep and others heading off to the Fords of Isen.
This number is qualified by Gandalf: "I have about ten thousand Orcs to manage", so more than 10,000 when the Men of Dunland are added. Though the battle appears lopsided, as Uruk-hai were much better in battle than simple orcs, the defenders managed to hold the fort until a force of 1,000 men on foot led by Gandalf along with a forest of Huorns arrived at dawn in the rear of the hosts of Isengard and surround the Uruks. Théoden was released by the benevolent Wizard Gandalf from the influence of Gríma Wormtongue, his malevolent adviser, he set out to the Fords of Isen, where his marshal Erkenbrand was fighting Saruman's forces. However, Théoden found out. Gandalf advised him to take refuge in the Hornburg fortress of Helm's Deep, an area named after one of their kings. Gandalf left on an unexplained errand. Théoden's army went to the area, where local people were commanded by a captain called Gamling the Old. Many of the forces there were old or young; the women and children of Théoden's capital Edoras were safe in Dunharrow, led by the King's niece Éowyn.
The forces of Saruman, common Orcs and Uruk-hai, along with some orc-human hybrids and human Dunlendings, arrived at the valley of Helm's Deep in the middle of the night during a storm. Meanwhile, Legolas the Elf and Gimli the Dwarf agreed to compete to see which one could kill the most orcs; the attackers scaled over the first defence, Helm's Dike, forcing the defenders there to fall back to the fortress. When the Orcs were close, the defenders drove them back with arrows and stones, but they managed to get close to the wall after multiple charges, they attempted to break down the gate with a battering ram, but a sortie led by Aragorn and Éomer scattered the forces. The Orcs and Dunlendings raised hundreds of ladders to scale the wall. Aragorn and Éomer motivated the tired defenders to repel the Orcs coming up the ladders. However, some Orcs had crept in through a culvert which let a stream out of Helm's Deep, while the defenders were busy with the assault on the wall, they were attacked from behind.
This was repulsed and the culvert was blocked up under Gimli's supervision. However, the enemies re-entered the culvert and blasted a wide hole in the wall using an ambiguous explosive device invented by Saruman, a "blasting-fire"; some defenders retreated to the Glittering Caves, Éomer and Gimli among them, while others including Aragorn and Legolas retreated to the burg itself. Soon Saruman's forces gained entrance to the fortress. At this moment however, Helm's horn was sounded, a cavalry charge led by Théoden and Aragorn rode forth, followed by all the Rohirrim left inside, they drove them back from the fortress walls. Both armies noticed that a strange forest had sprung up which blocked the escape route for the Orcs. Gandalf arrived on Shadowfax, with Erkenbrand and a thousand infantry – the remaining strength of the Rohirrim, routed at the Fords of Isen, they charged into the fray. The Dunlendings were so terrified of Gandalf; the surviving Orcs fled into the "forest" of Huorns, where they were annihilated.
After the battle, those Dunlendings who surrendered were given amnesty by Erkenbrand and allowed to return home. The Rohirrim required that all hostilities cease, that the Dunlendings retreat behind the River Isen again and never recross while bearing arms. Before they were freed, the Dunlending captives were put to work in repairing the fortress. Among the Rohirrim dead was Háma, captain of Théoden's personal guard and doorward of his hall. Háma had fallen defending the gate and the Orcs had hewed his body after he died, an atrocity that Théoden did not forget during the upcoming parley with Saruman. Gimli was wounded, but had killed 42 to Legolas's 41; the "forest" of Huorns had disappeared the next morning, the Orcs had been buried in an earthen-works hill known as "Death's Down". The event is sometimes called the Battle of Helm's Deep, a title, never used by Tolkien but, used by readers and other fans, this has led to the misconception that the term "Helm's Deep" refers to the fortress. Properly speaking, the fortress is the Hornburg and Helm's Deep is the ravine behind it.
In one of his letters regarding a proposed film
Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's writings, described as the greatest realm of Men in the west of Middle-earth by the end of the Third Age; the third volume of The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, is concerned with the events in Gondor during the War of the Ring and with the restoration of the realm afterward. The history of the kingdom is outlined in the appendices of the book. According to the narrative, Gondor was founded by the brothers Isildur and Anárion, exiles from the downfallen island kingdom of Númenor. Along with Arnor in the north, the South-kingdom, served as a last stronghold of the Men of the West. After an early period of growth, Gondor declined as the Third Age progressed, being continually weakened by internal strife and conflict with the allies of the Dark Lord Sauron; the kingdom's ascendancy was restored only with the crowning of Aragorn. Based upon early conceptions, the history and geography of Gondor were developed in stages as a part of the major extension of Tolkien's legendarium that he undertook during the writing of The Lord of the Rings.
The role of the kingdom emerged when a side adventure in the plot became the focus of writings. The textual history was traced by Christopher Tolkien in The History of Middle-earth, the subject has gained attention from researchers and fans; the history of Gondor is described with different levels of detail. Within the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, the kingdom is first introduced at the Council of Elrond, with a brief summary of the Second and Third Ages; the events of the latter are elaborated in the appendices to the book, those of the former in the last parts of The Silmarillion. Retellings at an ample scale of some particular episodes are included in Unfinished Tales; the first people in the region that would become Gondor were the Drúedain. They were a hunter-gatherer people of Men, they were marginalized by settlers, surviving in isolated pockets such as Drúwaith Iaur and the Drúadan Forest. The next people to settle in the region were more advanced, they established a realm in the White Mountains, became known as the Men of the Mountains.
The centre of their culture was at Dunharrow, where they built a megalithic subterranean complex which led all the way to the other side of the mountains. The Men of the Mountains became subject to the Dark Lord Sauron in the Dark Years of the Second Age. Erech and Dunharrow were sacred sites in the pre-Númenórean cultures. Fragments of pre-Númenórean languages survived in ages in place-names such as Erech and Umbar, the beacon hills Eilenach and Rimmon. Forlong, the lord of Arnach in the War of the Ring, was "a name of the same sort." The shorelands of Gondor had been colonized by the Númenóreans from around the middle of the Second Age by the Elf-friends loyal to the house of Elendil. When his sons Isildur and Anárion landed in Middle-earth after the drowning of Númenor, they co-founded the Kingdom of Gondor in S. A. 3320. They were welcomed by the colonists living there, their claim of lordship was accepted. Elendil, who had founded the Kingdom of Arnor to the north, was held to be the High King of all lands of the Dúnedain.
Within the South-kingdom, the hometowns of Isildur and Anárion were Minas Ithil and Minas Anor and the capital city Osgiliath was situated between them. Sauron, had survived the destruction of Númenor and secretly returned to his realm of Mordor just to the east of Gondor. Soon he launched a war against the Númenórean kingdoms, hoping to destroy them before their power was established, he captured Minas Ithil. Elendil and the Elven-king Gil-galad formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men, together with Isildur and Anárion, they besieged and defeated Mordor. In S. A. 3441, Sauron was overthrown. Both Elendil and Anárion had been slain in the war, so Isildur conferred rule of Gondor upon Anárion's son Meneldil and went north to ascend to the kingship of Arnor, retaining suzerainty over Gondor as High King of the Dúnedain; however and his three elder sons were ambushed and killed by Orcs in the Gladden Fields. Isildur's remaining son Valandil did not attempt to claim his father's place as Gondor's monarch, therefore the kingdom was ruled by Meneldil and his descendants until their line died out with Eärnur.
During the first millennium of the Third Age, Gondor was victorious in war and its wealth and power grew. After Sauron's defeat, Gondor watched over Mordor. In T. A. 490, Gondor's centuries-old peace was ended by the first of many Easterling invasions. That war lasted into the following century, from it Gondor conquered much territory in Rhûn north of Mordor. Under the rule of the four "Ship-kings", Gondor established a powerful navy and extended along the coast from the Mouths of Anduin. In 933, Gondor captured the southern port city Umbar held by the hostile Black Númenóreans; the Haradrim defeated Gondor on land and besieged Umbar. A. 1050. Gondor reached its peak during the reign of Hyarmendacil, controlling a vast territory and holding suzerainty over neighbouring nations such as the Haradrim and the northern Men of the Vales of Anduin. Mordor was desolate and guarded by fortresses. Under Hyarmendacil I's successor, At