The Children of Húrin
The Children of Húrin is an epic fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien, he wrote the original version of the story in the late 1910s, revised it several times but did not complete it before his death in 1973. His son, Christopher Tolkien, edited the manuscripts to form a consistent narrative, published it in 2007 as an independent work; the book contains 33 illustrations in colour. The history and descent of the main characters are given as the leading paragraphs of the book, the back story is elaborated upon in The Silmarillion, it begins five hundred years before the action of the book, when Morgoth, a Vala and the prime evil power, escapes from the Blessed Realm of Valinor to the north-west of Middle-earth. From his fortress of Angband he endeavours to gain control of the whole of Middle-earth, unleashing a war with the Elves that dwell in the land of Beleriand to the south. However, the Elves manage to stay his assault, most of their realms remain unconquered.
In addition, after some time the Noldorin Elves forsake Valinor and pursue Morgoth to Middle-earth in order to take vengeance upon him. Together with the Sindar of Beleriand, they proceed to lay siege to Angband, establish new strongholds and realms in Middle-earth, including Hithlum ruled by Fingon, Nargothrond by Finrod Felagund and Gondolin by Turgon. Three centuries pass, during; these are the Edain, descendants of those Men who have rebelled against the rule of Morgoth's servants and journeyed westward. Most of the Elves welcome them, they are given fiefs throughout Beleriand; the House of Bëor rules over the land of Ladros, the Folk of Haleth retreat to the forest of Brethil, the lordship of Dor-lómin is granted to the House of Hador. Other Men enter Beleriand, the Easterlings, many of whom are in secret league with Morgoth. Morgoth manages to break the Siege of Angband in the Battle of Sudden Flame; the House of Bëor is destroyed and the Elves and Edain suffer heavy losses. Túrin, son of Húrin of the race of Men, lived in Dor-lómin with his father, his mother Morwen, his sister Urwen.
Urwen died as a child from a plague. Túrin's father was taken prisoner by Morgoth after the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. During Húrin's imprisonment Túrin was sent by his mother to live in the Elf-realm Doriath for protection. In his absence Morwen gave birth to her third child, a girl. Morgoth had placed a curse upon Húrin and all his family whereby evil would befall them for their whole lives. King Thingol of Doriath takes Túrin as a foster-son. During his time in Doriath Túrin befriends an Elf named Beleg, the two become close companions. Túrin accidentally causes the death of the Elf Saeros, who attempts to jump a ravine while fleeing but falls and is killed. Túrin refuses becoming an outlaw. Thingol tries Túrin in absentia and pardons him, he gives Beleg leave to bring him back to Doriath. Túrin meanwhile joins a band of outlaws in the wild, he renames himself Neithan, "the wronged" and becomes their captain. Beleg locates the band while Túrin is absent, the outlaws leave him tied to a tree until he agrees to give them information.
Túrin returns in time to cut Beleg free and, horrified by the outlaws' actions, resolves to forsake the cruel habits he has fallen into. Beleg delivers the message of the king's pardon but Túrin refuses to return to Doriath. Beleg returns to aid Doriath's defence. Túrin and his men capture a Petty-dwarf, who leads them to the caves at Amon Rûdh. Beleg decides to return to Túrin; the outlaws resent disliking Elves, grows to hate him. Mîm betrays the outlaws to orcs, leading the orcs to the caves where Túrin's company is taken unawares; the entire band is killed, save for Túrin. They take Túrin off towards Angband. Mîm is about to kill Beleg after the orcs depart when one of the outlaws, mortally wounded, rouses himself before dying to drive Mîm away and release Beleg. Beleg follows the orcs. Beleg happens across a mutilated elf, Gwindor of Nargothrond, sleeping in the forest of Taur-nu-Fuin, they enter the orc camp at night and carry Túrin, from the camp. Beleg begins to cut Túrin's bonds with his sword Anglachel, but the sword slips in his hand and cuts Túrin.
Túrin, mistaking Beleg for an orc, kills Beleg with his own sword. When a flash of lightning reveals Beleg's face, Túrin falls into a frenzy, he refuses to leave Beleg's body until morning. Túrin remains witless with grief. Túrin and Gwindor proceed to Nargothrond. There Túrin gains the favour of King Orodreth, after leading the Elves to considerable victories, he becomes Orodreth's chief counsellor and commander of his forces. Against all counsel Túrin refuses to hide Nargothrond from Morgoth or to retract his plans for full-scale battle. Morgoth sends an orc-army under the command of the dragon and Nargothrond is defeated; the orcs, crossing over the bridge that Túrin had built, sack Nargothrond and capture its citizens. Túrin returns as the prisoners are to be led away by the orcs, encounters Glaurung; the dragon enchants and tricks him into returning to Dor-lómin to seek out Morwen and Niënor instead of rescuing the prisoners—among whom is Finduilas, Orodreth’s daughter, who loved him. In Dor-lómin Túrin learns that Morwen and Niënor
Denethor II, son of Ecthelion II, is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Return of the King, the third and final part of his novel The Lord of the Rings, he is the 26th Ruling Steward of Gondor. Denethor was born in T. A. 2930, the first son and third child of Ecthelion II. Ecthelion became the 25th Ruling Steward of Gondor in T. A. 2953, at the same time Denethor became the heir apparent, inheriting the Horn of Gondor. He succeeded his father as Denethor II in T. A. 2984. As stated in the early chapters and the Appendices of The Return of the King, Denethor was considered a man of great will and strength. However, he failed to reach out to his people, who flocked instead to Thorongil, an outsider who served Denethor's father with great renown. Thorongil vanished from Gondor four years before Denethor would succeed his father as Ruling Steward. Thorongil had advised Ecthelion to put faith in the wizard Gandalf. In T. A. 2976 Denethor had married daughter of Prince Adrahil of Dol Amroth.
She gave birth to two sons and Faramir, before dying when they were ten and five years old, respectively. Denethor never remarried, became more grim and silent than before. In a conversation with Pippin just before the first meeting with Denethor, Gandalf described Denethor as "…proud and subtle, a man of far greater lineage and power, though he is not called a king." Following that meeting, after Pippin has sworn fealty to Denethor, Gandalf further commented: He is not as other men of this time…by some chance the blood of Westernesse runs nearly true in him, as it does in his other son and yet did not in Boromir. He has long sight, he can perceive, if he bends his will thither, much of what is passing in the minds of men of those that dwell far off. It is difficult to deceive him, dangerous to try. Unlike Saruman, Denethor was too strong to be corrupted by Sauron. In the novel, he began secretly using a palantír to probe Sauron's strength, though he incorrectly insisted he was able to control it.
The effort aged him and the knowledge of Sauron's overwhelming force depressed him mostly due to deliberately biased visions from the palantír on the part of Sauron. Boromir's death depressed Denethor further, he became more grim. Nonetheless he continued to fight Sauron with every resource at his disposal until the forces of Mordor arrived at the gates of the White City, at which point he lost all hope. In the published essay on the Palantiri, Tolkien wrote: He must have guessed that the Ithil-stone was in evil hands, risked contact with it, trusting his strength, his trust was not unjustified. Sauron could only influence him by deceits. Saruman fell under the domination of Sauron... Denethor remained steadfast in his rejection of Sauron, but was made to believe that his defeat was inevitable, so fell into despair; the reasons for this difference were no doubt that in the first place Denethor was a man of great strength of will and maintained the integrity of his personality until the final blow of the mortal wound of his only surviving son.
Near the novel's climactic battle, Denethor ordered the warning beacons of Gondor to be lit, forces were called in from all of Gondor's provinces. The civilian population of Minas Tirith was sent away to safety; as invasion seemed imminent, Denethor sent the Red Arrow to the Rohirrim as a call for aid. The Council decided that Gondor could make no stroke of its own, but Denethor ordered Gondor's forces to the city's outer defences at Osgiliath and the great wall of the Rammas Echor, he wanted to make a stand, since the defences had been built at great expense and not yet been overrun, he assumed that no help was forthcoming from Rohan since his messenger had not returned with the Red Arrow. The outer defences were placed under the command of Faramir. Faramir knew his men could not stand against Sauron's army, but he nonetheless obeyed out of respect for his father and late brother. In the ensuing battle Faramir was badly wounded mortally. Denethor's spirit was broken by the apparent loss of his son, he ordered his servants to burn him alive on a pyre prepared for himself and Faramir in Rath Dínen.
He broke it over his knee, casting the pieces into the flames. He so died, clasping the palantír in his hands, he attempted to take Faramir with him, but was thwarted by the timely intervention of Peregrin Took, who saved Faramir from the flames with help from Gandalf and the guard Beregond. They were too late to save Denethor, however; the Stewardship technically passed to Faramir, but he was in no condition to exercise any authority, still being close to death. But contrary to Denethor's forebodings, Faramir recovered, the Stewardship was not emasculated. Indeed, when Aragorn became King, he not only confirmed the Stewardship to Faramir and his successors, but raised their rank to Princes of Ithilien. Denethor's madness and despair has been compared to the madness and despair of Shakespeare's King Lear. Both men are first outraged when their children refuse to aid them, but grieve upon their children's death –, only perceived in case of Faramir. According to Drout
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. A dwarf warrior, he is the son of Glóin. Gimli is chosen to represent the race of Dwarves in the Fellowship of the Ring; as such, he is one of the primary characters of the novel. In the course of the adventure, Gimli aids the Ring-bearer Frodo Baggins, participates in the War of the Ring, becomes close friends with Legolas, overcoming an ancient enmity of Dwarves and Elves. Gimli was a member of Durin's Folk who volunteered to accompany Frodo Baggins as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring on the quest to destroy the One Ring, he was an honourable and stalwart warrior. Gimli became enamoured upon meeting the elf-lady Galadriel, he forged a friendship with the elf Legolas despite his original hostility; these relationships helped rehabilitate the long-troubled relationship between Elves and Dwarves of Middle-earth. Gimli was born in the Ered Luin in the year 2879 of the Third Age.
His father was one of the former companions of the hobbit, Bilbo Baggins. Gimli had wanted to accompany his father and the others in the company of Thorin Oakenshield on their quest to reclaim Erebor in the year 2941, but at age 62 he was deemed too young, he was a remote descendant of Durin the Deathless, chief of the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves and ancestor to the Dwarven people to which Gimli belonged, the Longbeards. Gimli was of the royal line, but not close to the succession. Gimli was introduced in the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, at the Council of Elrond Half-elven. Gimli and his father were attending the Council to bring news of their home, to warn that the Dark Lord Sauron was searching for Bilbo. There they learned that Bilbo's kinsman Frodo now owned the Ring, a Ring of Power forged and lost by the Dark Lord Sauron; the Council decided to have it destroyed by casting it into the volcanic Mount Doom in Sauron's domain of Mordor. Frodo volunteered for the task, Elrond chose eight people of varying races to aid him in his task—including Gimli.
Thus, the Fellowship of the Ring was formed. Within the Fellowship there was friction between Gimli and the elf Legolas, for various reasons: their races bore an old grudge against each other over the ancient matter of the Necklace of the Dwarves and the destruction of Doriath, more Thranduil, Legolas' father, once imprisoned Gimli's father Glóin; when the company was forced to enter an ancient underground Dwarf-realm, the Mines of Moria, Gimli was at first enthusiastic and hoped to find a established colony of his people there, led by Balin. However, Moria was still inhabited by a huge number of Orcs and several Cave Trolls, as well as a Balrog, Balin and his folk were all dead; the Fellowship found his tomb in the Chamber of Records, together with a chronicle of events, but Orcs had discovered their presence and they had to fight their way out. After their leader Gandalf the Wizard fell into a chasm during a heated battle with the Balrog, the Fellowship escaped the Mines. Aragorn, a Ranger led them to the forest of Lothlórien, populated by Elves who were not friendly to Dwarves.
Gimli was told he had to be blindfolded if he was to enter the forest, his refusal nearly led to a violent situation, defused only when Aragorn proposed that the entire Fellowship be blindfolded, done. Gimli's opinion of Elves drastically changed when he met Galadriel, co-ruler of Lothlórien: her beauty and understanding impressed Gimli so much that, when given the opportunity to ask for whatever he wished, he responded that being able to see her and hear her gentle words was a gift enough; when pressed further, he admitted that he desired a single strand of her golden hair, so that he might treasure it and preserve it as an heirloom of his house, but that he could not ask for such a gift. Galadriel was so moved by his bold yet courteous request that she gave him not one, but three of her hairs, she subsequently gave Gimli the name "Lockbearer" as a result. By the end of the sojourn in Lothlórien, Gimli had formed his unlikely friendship with Legolas. At Amon Hen, the company was sundered, for Boromir, son of the Steward of Gondor, tried to take the Ring from Frodo and use it for Gondor and his own gain in their ongoing war against Sauron.
Frodo fled at this and went ahead, accompanied only by his gardener Samwise Gamgee. In the second volume, The Two Towers, the other members of the Fellowship were scattered while looking for Frodo, by ill-chance the two other hobbits of the party, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took, were captured by Orcs. Boromir was mortally wounded defending them, it fell to Gimli and Legolas to set him on a funeral boat, they decided to go after Pippin, for Frodo's mission was out of their hands. After running a great distance in a few days and thus entering the land of Rohan, they met Éomer, Third Marshal of the Riddermark and nephew of Théoden, King of Rohan, his Rohirrim riders, who had slain the Orc-band the Three Hunters were pursuing, leaving not a single one alive; when Éomer spoke ill of the name Galadriel, having been told false rumours about her, Gimli responded with overtly harsh words, leading to a hostile situation that again h
As a physical object, a book is a stack of rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained.
So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts; the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e. an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing.
A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus, they were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian culture
Beren and Lúthien
The tale of Beren and Lúthien, told in several works by J. R. R. Tolkien, is the story of the love and adventures of the mortal Man Beren and the immortal Elf-maiden Lúthien. Tolkien wrote several versions of their story, the latest in The Silmarillion, the tale is mentioned in The Lord of the Rings; the story takes place during the First Age of Middle-earth, about 6,500 years before the events of The Lord of the Rings. Beren, son of Barahir, cut a Silmaril from Morgoth's crown as the bride price for Lúthien, daughter of the elf-king Thingol and Melian the Maia, he was slain by Carcharoth, the wolf of Angband. He lived with Lúthien on Tol Galen in Ossiriand, fought the Dwarves at Sarn Athard, he was the great-grandfather of Elrond and Elros, thus the ancestor of the Númenórean kings. After the fulfilment of the quest of the Silmaril and Beren's death, Lúthien chose to become mortal and to share Beren's fate; the first version of the story is the Tale of Tinúviel, written in 1917 and published in The Book of Lost Tales.
During the 1920s Tolkien started to reshape the tale and to transform it into an epic poem which he called The Lay of Leithian. He never finished it. After his death The Lay of Leithian was published in The Lays of Beleriand, together with The Lay of the Children of Húrin and several other unfinished poems; the latest version of the tale is told in prose form in one chapter of The Silmarillion and is recounted by Aragorn in The Fellowship of the Ring. The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen, told in the appendices of The Lord of the Rings, served as a sequel to this story. Indeed, both Aragorn and Arwen were descendants of Lúthien; as told in The Silmarillion, the version of the tale: Beren was the last survivor of a group of Men in Dorthonion led by his father Barahir that had still resisted Morgoth, the Dark Enemy, after the Battle of Sudden Flame, in which Morgoth had conquered much of northern Middle-earth. After the defeat of his companions he fled from peril into the elvish realm Doriath. There he met Lúthien, the only daughter of King Thingol and Melian the Maia, as she was dancing and singing in a glade.
Upon seeing her Beren fell in love. She fell in love with him as well, when he, moved by her beauty and enchanting voice, gave her the nickname "Tinúviel" As Thingol disliked Beren and regarded him as being unworthy of his daughter, he set a impossible task on Beren that he had to achieve before he could marry Lúthien. Thingol asked Beren to bring him one of the Silmarils, the three hallowed jewels made by Fëanor, which Morgoth had stolen from the elves. Beren set out on his quest to Angband, the enemy's fortress. Although Thingol tried to prevent it, Lúthien followed him. On his journey to the enemy's land Beren reached Nargothrond, an Elvish stronghold, was joined by ten warriors under the lead of King Finrod, who had sworn an oath of friendship to Beren's father. Although Fëanor's sons and Curufin, warned them not to take the Silmaril that they considered their own, the company was determined to accompany Beren. On their way to Angband they were seized by the servants of Sauron, despite the best efforts of Finrod to maintain their guise as Orcs, imprisoned in Tol-in-Gaurhoth.
One by one they were killed by a werewolf until only Beren and Finrod remained. When the wolf went for Beren, Finrod broke his chains and wrestled it with such fierceness that they both died; when she was following Beren, Lúthien was captured and brought to Nargothrond by Celegorm and Curufin. Aided by Huan, Celegorm's hound, she was able to flee. With his aid she came to Sauron's fortress where Huan defeated the werewolves of the Enemy, Draugluin the sire of werewolves, Sauron himself in wolf-form. Lúthien forced Sauron to give ownership of the tower to her, she freed the prisoners, among them Beren. Meanwhile, Sauron fled to Taur-nu-Fuin. Beren wanted to try his task once more alone; however they were attacked by Celegorm and Curufin, exiled from Nargothrond. Beren was wounded by Curufin. Through magic they took the shapes of the bat Thuringwethil and the wolf Draugluin that Huan had killed. Thereby they were able to enter the enemy's land and at last came to Angband and before Morgoth's throne.
There Lúthien sang a magical song which made his court fall asleep. As he tried to cut out the others, his knife broke and a shard glanced off Morgoth's face, awakening him; as they attempted to leave, the gate was barred by Carcharoth, a giant werewolf, bred as an opponent to Huan. He swallowed Beren's hand, in which Beren was holding the Silmaril. Carcharoth ran off madly. Eagles helped Beren and Lúthien escape. Beren and Lúthien returned to Doriath, where they told of their deeds and thereby softened Thingol's heart, he accepted the marriage of his daughter and the mortal Man, although Beren's task had not been fulfilled. Beren and Huan participated in the hunt for Carcharoth, who in his madness had come into Doriath and caused much destruction there. Both of them were killed by the wolf, but Carcharoth was slain. Before he d
Samwise "Sam" Gamgee is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the hobbit Samwise is one of the supporting characters of The Lord of the Rings, in which he fills an archetypal role as the sidekick of the primary protagonist, Frodo Baggins. Sam is a member of the Fellowship of the Ring, which includes Frodo Baggins, Merry Brandybuck, Pippin Took, Legolas Greenleaf, Gimli son of Gloin, Aragorn son of Arathorn, Gandalf. At the beginning of the story, Sam is Frodo's gardener, is drawn into Frodo's adventure by Gandalf while eavesdropping on a private conversation. Throughout the story, Sam is Frodo's steadfast companion and servant, portrayed as both physically and strong pushing Frodo through difficult parts of the journey, at times physically carrying him when Frodo was too weak to go on. Sam serves as Ring-bearer for a short time when Frodo is captured. Following the War of the Ring Sam returned to the Shire, returned to his role as gardener, helping to replant the trees, destroyed during The Scouring of the Shire.
He was elected Mayor of the Shire for seven consecutive terms, in his old age was one of the last denizens of Middle-earth to be permitted to enter The Undying Lands, an honour accorded to him as one of the Ring-bearers. Samwise Gamgee is first introduced in The Fellowship of the Ring. Sam is Frodo Baggins' gardener, having inherited the position as Baggins' gardener from his father, Hamfast "Gaffer" Gamgee. At the time of the War of the Ring, Sam was living in Bagshot Row with his father; as "punishment" for eavesdropping on Gandalf's conversation with Frodo regarding the One Ring, Sam was made Frodo's first companion on his journey to Rivendell. They were joined by Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took, Frodo's cousins, journeyed together to Rivendell, where the Council of Elrond took place and Sam joined the Fellowship of the Ring; when the Fellowship was split up at the Falls of Rauros, Sam insisted on accompanying Frodo. Sam protected and cared for Frodo, growing weaker under the Ring's influence, as they moved through the dangerous lands toward Mordor.
Sam distrusted Gollum. His suspicions were proven right. After Shelob killed Frodo, Sam drove her off; when a band of orcs approached, Sam was forced to leave the dead Frodo and take the Ring himself, became a Ring-bearer. He was momentarily tempted by its promise of power, but did not succumb to it, subsequently rescuing Frodo from the Orcs who held him captive. Sam returned the Ring to Frodo, making him the only Ring-bearer to give up the Ring without intervention; the two journeyed alone through Mordor and into the heart of Mount Doom, where Gollum attacked Frodo and reclaimed the Ring, only to inadvertently destroy both it and himself by falling into the mountain's lava. After the hobbits' return home and the Battle of Bywater, Sam travelled the length and breadth of the Shire replanting trees, cut down during Saruman's brief reign, he used the gift of earth given to him by the Lady Galadriel, which caused the saplings he planted to grow at an accelerated rate. The small amount remaining he took to the Three-Farthing Stone and cast into the air, prompting the bountiful period of growth starting in the spring of the year 1420.
The greatest wonder was a young mallorn tree sprouting in the Party Field: "the only mallorn west of the Mountains and east of the Sea". After the War of the Ring, Sam moved to Bag End with Frodo. Sam and Rosie had 13 children: Elanor the Fair, Rose, Pippin, Hamfast, Primrose, Ruby and Tolman. Sam was elected Mayor of the Shire for seven consecutive seven-year terms and came to be known as Samwise Gardner. After Sam and Rose's first child was born, Frodo told Sam he would leave Middle-earth, along with Bilbo Baggins and most of the remaining High Elves, for the Undying Lands. Before Frodo left, he gave the estate of Bag End to Sam, as well as the Red Book of Westmarch for Sam to continue, hinting that Sam might be allowed to travel into the West eventually. After the death of his wife in the year 62 of the Fourth Age, Sam entrusted the Red Book to Elanor and left the Shire at the age of 102, he was not seen again in Middle-earth, but Elanor and her descendants preserved the tradition that he went to the Grey Havens and sailed into the West.
As the last of the Ring-bearers, he was entitled to sail across the Sea and be reunited with Frodo in the Undying Lands. At the start of The Lord of the Rings Sam for a hobbit, had never before ventured far from the immediate area where he lived. Unusually for a hobbit, since childhood Sam was fond of legends and other fantastical stories. Sam was interested in the Elves, always hoped to one day see one. Sam was literate, having been taught by Bilbo and Frodo, unusual for most hobbits given their rustic culture. Sam showed a talent for poetry. Tolkien called Sam the "chief hero" of the saga in one of his letters: he places special emphasis on Sam's "rustic love" for Rosie, a union that serves to establish a family in which allusions to Elvish wonders (embodied in Sam's da