An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. Electronic "documents" such as recordings and radio, e-mails have come into use; the word epistolary is derived from Latin from the Greek word ἐπιστολή epistolē. The epistolary form can add greater realism to a story, it is thus able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse to the device of an omniscient narrator. There are two theories on the genesis of the epistolary novel; the first claims that the genre is originated from novels with inserted letters, in which the portion containing the third person narrative in between the letters was reduced. The other theory claims that the epistolary novel arose from miscellanies of letters and poetry: some of the letters were tied together into a plot. Both claims have some validity; the first epistolary novel, the Spanish "Prison of Love" by Diego de San Pedro, belongs to a tradition of novels in which a large number of inserted letters dominated the narrative.
Other well-known examples of early epistolary novels are related to the tradition of letter-books and miscellanies of letters. Within the successive editions of Edmé Boursault's Letters of Respect and Love, a group of letters written to a girl named Babet were expanded and became more and more distinct from the other letters, until it formed a small epistolary novel entitled Letters to Babet; the immensely famous Letters of a Portuguese Nun attributed to Gabriel-Joseph de La Vergne, comte de Guilleragues, though a small minority still regard Marianna Alcoforado as the author, is claimed to be intended to be part of a miscellany of Guilleragues prose and poetry. The founder of the epistolary novel in English is said by many to be James Howell with "Familiar Letters", who writes of prison, foreign adventure, the love of women; the first novel to expose the complex play that the genre allows was Aphra Behn's Love-Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister, which appeared in three volumes in 1684, 1685, 1687.
The novel shows the genre's results of changing perspectives: individual points were presented by the individual characters, the central voice of the author and moral evaluation disappeared. Behn furthermore explored a realm of intrigue with letters that fall into the wrong hands, faked letters, letters withheld by protagonists, more complex interaction; the epistolary novel as a genre became popular in the 18th century in the works of such authors as Samuel Richardson, with his immensely successful novels Pamela and Clarissa. In France, there was Lettres persanes by Montesquieu, followed by Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Laclos' Les Liaisons dangereuses, which used the epistolary form to great dramatic effect, because the sequence of events was not always related directly or explicitly. In Germany, there was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werther and Friedrich Hölderlin's Hyperion; the first North American novel, The History of Emily Montague by Frances Brooke was written in epistolary form.
Starting in the 18th century, the epistolary form was subject to much ridicule, resulting in a number of savage burlesques. The most notable example of these was Henry Fielding's Shamela, written as a parody of Pamela. In it, the female narrator can be found wielding a pen and scribbling her diary entries under the most dramatic and unlikely of circumstances. Oliver Goldsmith used the form to satirical effect in The Citizen of the World, subtitled "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher Residing in London to his Friends in the East". So did the diarist Fanny Burney in a successful comic first novel, Evelina; the epistolary novel fell out of use in the late 18th century. Although Jane Austen tried her hand at the epistolary in juvenile writings and her novella Lady Susan, she abandoned this structure for her work, it is thought that her lost novel First Impressions, redrafted to become Pride and Prejudice, may have been epistolary: Pride and Prejudice contains an unusual number of letters quoted in full and some play a critical role in the plot.
The epistolary form nonetheless saw continued use, surviving in exceptions or in fragments in nineteenth-century novels. In Honoré de Balzac's novel Letters of Two Brides, two women who became friends during their education at a convent correspond over a 17-year period, exchanging letters describing their lives. Mary Shelley employs the epistolary form in her novel Frankenstein. Shelley uses the letters as one of a variety of framing devices, as the story is presented through the letters of a sea captain and scientific explorer attempting to reach the north pole who encounters Victor Frankenstein and records the dying man's narrative and confessions. Published in 1848, Anne Brontë's novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is framed as a retrospective letter from one of the main heroes to his friend and brother-in-law with the diary of the eponymous tenant inside it. In the late 19th century, Bram Stoker released one of the most recognized and successful novels in the epistolary form to date, Dracula.
Printed in 1897, the novel is compiled of letters, diary entries, newspaper clippings, doctor's notes, ship's logs, the like. There are 3 types of epistolar
The Pearl (magazine)
The Pearl: A Magazine of Facetiae and Voluptuous Reading was a pornographic monthly magazine issued in London during the mid-Victorian period by William Lazenby. It was closed down by the British authorities for violating contemporary standards of obscenity; the Pearl ran for eighteen issues from July 1879 with two Christmas supplements. As an underground publication, it was limited to 150 copies and cost twenty-five pounds, which made it unusually expensive relative to comparable contemporaneous pornographic periodicals; the Christmas Annual, a crudely produced supplement that ran sixty pages, sold for three guineas. Only the special numbers contained illustrations; the publisher and editor, William Lazenby wrote some of the content. The magazine was distributed discreetly through mail order. Based on the cost and subject matter, the target audience appears to have been middle- and upper-class professionals. Two of the flagellant poems were composed by Algernon Charles Swinburne, though it is unclear whether he authorized their publication.
The format of the magazine, in combining a mix of short stories, serial fiction, current events, letters to the editor, parodied contemporary family magazines such as Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine, which itself contained depictions of corporal punishment. Parts of the magazine were compiled and translated into German. After the magazine was shut down, Lazenby would go on to publish three subsequent pornographic magazines, The Cremorne, The Oyster, The Boudoir; the popularity of pornographic magazines like The Pearl were part of a trend that began in the 1860s of capitalizing on the profitability of writing about sex, which served to proliferate discourses about sexuality by the time of the fin de siècle in England. The general format of the periodical was to publish three serial erotic tales devoted to sex in high society and flagellation, respectively; the novels, six in total, were interspersed with limericks, odes, facetious nursery rhymes, acrostic poems, faux advertisements, fabricated letters to the editor.
The topics depicted in the novels and poems were wide-ranging, including women's suffrage, physical disability, sexual impairment, secret sex societies, India-rubber dildos, slave rape, mock crucifixions, Turkish harems, prophylactic devices. The Pearl contained extensive political commentary, including references to the Reform Bills and Contagious Diseases Acts, portrayed or alluded to many controversial public figures, including Annie Besant, Charles Spurgeon, Wilfrid Lawson, Newman Hall, Edmund Burke, William Gladstone, Robert Peel; the Pearl contains the first obscene tale about slavery in the Americas. The story, entitled My Grandmother's Tale, depicts the brutal sexualized flogging of a black West Indian slave girl by an overseer of ambiguous racial background acting under the authority of a white plantation owner; the Pearl's serial novel Lady Pokingham, in which a consumptive invalid recounts her sexual adventures from a wheelchair, has been noted for its depiction of transience, bodily decay, death, which thus provides counter-evidence to the idea advanced by Steven Marcus that Victorian pornography portrays a pornotopia.
Swinburne’s flagellant writings from The Pearl have been cited in British legal arguments as evidence against the safety and utility of corporal punishment in schools. In 2011 an Australian alderman was convicted for possession of "child exploitation material" because a digital copy of The Pearl was found on his laptop. Greg Barns, the director of Australian Lawyers Alliance, noted that the conviction would imply criminality for possession of any number of works of art and literature, media reports pointed out that Harper Collins had republished the magazine in 2009, was available on Amazon; when the Victorian origins of the materials were identified on appeal, the conviction was set aside. A selection from the story Lady Pokingham is read during a scene in The Master; the Pearl's characters and venues, being Victoriana, are featured in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen by Alan Moore. A girls' school seems to be haunted by a ghost, raping and impregnating the students; the headmistress is a character from one of The Pearl's serials.
The "Holy Spirit" turns out to be the Invisible Man. Rosa Coote Victorian morality Pornotopia The Pearl: A Journal of Voluptuous Reading, the Underground Magazine of Victorian England, Grove Press, 1968, ISBN 0394171268 Website with all 18 magazines
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, known as Lord Byron, was a British poet, peer and leading figure in the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains read and influential. Among his best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, he travelled extensively across Europe in Italy, where he lived for seven years in the cities of Venice and Pisa. During his stay in Italy he visited his friend and fellow poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. In life Byron joined the Greek War of Independence fighting the Ottoman Empire, for which Greeks revere him as a national hero, he died in 1824 at the age of 36 from a fever contracted in Missolonghi. Described as the most flamboyant and notorious of the major Romantics, Byron was both celebrated and castigated in his life for his aristocratic excesses, which included huge debts, numerous love affairs with both men and women, as well as rumours of a scandalous liaison with his half-sister.
One of his lovers, Lady Caroline Lamb, summed him up in the famous phrase "mad and dangerous to know". His only legitimate child, Ada Lovelace, is regarded as the first computer programmer based on her notes for Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Byron's illegitimate children include Allegra Byron, who died in childhood, Elizabeth Medora Leigh. Ethel Colburn Mayne states that George Gordon Byron was born on 22 January 1788, in a house on 16 Holles Street in London, his birthplace is now occupied by a branch of the English department store John Lewis. However, Robert Charles Dallas in his Recollections states. Byron was the son of Captain John "Mad Jack" Byron and his second wife, the former Catherine Gordon, a descendant of Cardinal Beaton and heiress of the Gight estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Byron's father had seduced the married Marchioness of Carmarthen and, after she divorced her husband, he married her, his treatment of her was described as "brutal and vicious", she died after giving birth to two daughters, only one of whom survived, Byron's half-sister, Augusta.
To claim his second wife's estate in Scotland, Byron's father took the additional surname "Gordon", becoming "John Byron Gordon", he was styled "John Byron Gordon of Gight." Byron himself used this surname for a time and was registered at school in Aberdeen as "George Byron Gordon." At the age of 10 he inherited the English Barony of Byron of Rochdale, becoming "Lord Byron", dropped the double surname. Byron's paternal grandparents were Vice-Admiral the Hon. John "Foulweather Jack" Byron, Sophia Trevanion. Vice Admiral John Byron had circumnavigated the globe and was the younger brother of the 5th Baron Byron, known as "the Wicked Lord", he was christened at St Marylebone Parish Church as "George Gordon Byron", after his maternal grandfather George Gordon of Gight, a descendant of James I of Scotland, who had committed suicide in 1779. "Mad Jack" Byron married his second wife for the same reason that he married her fortune. Byron's mother had to sell her land and title to pay her new husband's debts, in the space of two years, the large estate, worth some £23,500, had been squandered, leaving the former heiress with an annual income in trust of only £150.
In a move to avoid his creditors, Catherine accompanied her profligate husband to France in 1786, but returned to England at the end of 1787 to give birth to her son on English soil. He was born on 22 January in lodgings at Holles Street in London. Catherine moved back to Aberdeenshire in 1790, his father soon joined them in their lodgings in Queen Street, but the couple separated. Catherine experienced mood swings and bouts of melancholy, which could be explained by her husband's continuingly borrowing money from her; as a result, she fell further into debt to support his demands. It was one of these importunate loans that allowed him to travel to Valenciennes, where he died in 1791; when Byron's great-uncle, the "wicked" Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, the 10-year-old boy became the sixth Baron Byron of Rochdale and inherited the ancestral home, Newstead Abbey, in Nottinghamshire. His mother proudly took him to England, but the Abbey was in an embarrassing state of disrepair and, rather than living there, she decided to lease it to Lord Grey de Ruthyn, among others, during Byron's adolescence.
Described as "a woman without judgment or self-command," Catherine either spoiled and indulged her son or vexed him with her capricious stubbornness. Her drinking disgusted him and he mocked her for being short and corpulent, which made it difficult for her to catch him to discipline him. Byron had been born with a deformed right foot. However, Byron's biographer, Doris Langley-Moore, in her 1974 book, Accounts Rendered, paints a more sympathetic view of Mrs Byron, showing how she was a staunch supporter of her son and sacrificed her own precarious finances to keep him in luxury at Harrow and Cambridge. Langley-Moore questions the Galt claim. Upon the death of Byron's mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon. Lady Milbanke, in 1822, her will required that he change his surname to "Noel" so as to inherit half of her estate, he obtained a Royal Warrant, allowing him to "take and use the surname of Noel only" and to "subscribe the said surname of Noel before all titles of honour". From that point he signed himself "Noel Byron" (the usual signature of a peer being the peerage, in this case "Byron
Harem known as zenana in the Indian subcontinent, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family. This private space has been traditionally understood as serving the purposes of maintaining the modesty and protection of women. A harem may house a man's wife — or wives and concubines, as in royal harems of the past — their pre-pubescent male children, unmarried daughters, female domestic workers, other unmarried female relatives. In former times some harems were guarded by eunuchs; the structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family's personalities, socio-economic status, local customs. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilizations among royal and upper-class families, the term is sometimes used in other contexts. Although the institution has experienced a sharp decline in the modern era due to a rise in education and economic opportunities for women, as well as Western influences, seclusion of women is still practiced in some parts of the world, such as rural Afghanistan and conservative states of the Gulf region.
In the West, Orientalist imaginary conceptions of the harem as a hidden world of sexual subjugation where numerous women lounged in suggestive poses have influenced many paintings, stage productions and literary works. Some earlier European Renaissance paintings dating to the 16th century portray the women of the Ottoman harem as individuals of status and political significance. In many periods of Islamic history, women in the harem exercised various degrees of political power, such as the Sultanate of Women in the Ottoman Empire; the word has been recorded in the English language since early 17th century. It comes from the Arabic ḥarīm, which can mean "a sacred inviolable place", "harem" or "female members of the family". In English the term harem can mean "the wives of a polygamous man." The triliteral Ḥ-R-M appears in other terms related the notion of interdiction such as haram, ihram and al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf. In Turkish of the Ottoman era, the harem, i.e. the part of the house reserved for women was called haremlık, while the space open for men was known as selamlık.
The practice of female seclusion is not exclusive to Islam, but the English word harem denotes the domestic space reserved for women in Muslim households. Some scholars have used the term to refer to polygynous royal households throughout history. Leila Ahmed describes the ideal of seclusion as a "a man's right to keep his women concealed—invisible to other men." Ahmed identifies the practice of seclusion as a social ideal and one of the major factors that shaped the lives of women in the Mediterranean Middle East. For example, contemporary sources from the Byzantine Empire describe the social mores that governed women's lives. Women were not supposed to be seen in public, they were guarded by eunuchs and could only leave the home "veiled and suitably chaperoned." Some of these customs were borrowed from the Persians, but Greek society influenced the development of patriarchal tradition. The ideal of seclusion was not realized as social reality; this was in part because working class women held jobs that required interaction with men.
In the Byzantine empire, the ideal of gender segregation created economic opportunities for women as midwives, bath attendants and artisans, since it was considered inappropriate for men to attend to women's needs. At times women engaged in other commercial activities. Historical records shows that the women of 14th-century Mamluk Cairo visited public events alongside men, despite objections of religious scholars; the practice of gender segregation in Islam was influenced by an interplay of religion and politics. Female seclusion has signaled social and economic prestige; the norms of female seclusion spread beyond the elites, but the practice remained characteristic of upper and middle classes, for whom the financial ability to allow one's wife to remain at home was a mark of high status. In some regions, such as the Arabian peninsula, seclusion of women was practiced by poor families at the cost of great hardship, but it was economically unrealistic for the lower classes. Where historical evidence is available, it indicates that the harem was much more to be monogamous.
For example, in late Ottoman Istanbul, only 2.29 percent of married men were polygynous, with the average number of wives being 2.08. In some regions, like Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, prevalence of women in agricultural work leads to wider practice of polygyny, but makes seclusion impractical. In contrast, in Eurasian and North African rural communities that rely on male-dominated plough farming, seclusion is economically possible but polygyny is undesirable; this indicates that the fundamental characteristic of the harem is seclusion of women rather than polygyny. The idea of the harem or seclusion of women did not originate with Islam; the practice of secluding women was common to many Ancient Near East communities where polygamy was permitted. In pre-Islamic Assyria and Egypt, most royal courts had a harem, where the ruler’s wives and concubines lived with female attendants, eunuchs. Encyclopædia Iranica uses the term harem to describe the practices of the ancient Near East. In Assyria, rules of harem etiquette were stipulated by
Victorian literature is literature written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria. It was followed by the Edwardian era. While in the preceding Romantic period, poetry had been the dominant genre, it was the novel, most important in the Victorian period. Charles Dickens dominated the first part of Victoria's reign: his first novel, The Pickwick Papers, was published in 1836, his last Our Mutual Friend between 1864–5. William Thackeray's most famous work Vanity Fair appeared in 1848, the three Brontë sisters, Charlotte and Anne published significant works in the 1840s. A major novel was George Eliot's Middlemarch, while the major novelist of the part of Queen Victoria's reign was Thomas Hardy, whose first novel, Under the Greenwood Tree, appeared in 1872 and his last, Jude the Obscure, in 1895. Robert Browning and Alfred Tennyson were Victorian England's most famous poets, though more recent taste has tended to prefer the poetry of Thomas Hardy, though he wrote poetry throughout his life, did not publish a collection until 1898, as well as that of Gerard Manley Hopkins, whose poetry was published posthumously in 1918.
Algernon Charles Swinburne is considered an important literary figure of the period his poems and critical writings. Early poetry of W. B. Yeats was published in Victoria's reign. With regard to the theatre it was not until the last decades of the nineteenth century that any significant works were produced; this began with Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas, from the 1870s, various plays of George Bernard Shaw in the 1890s, Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest. Charles Dickens is the most famous Victorian novelist. Extraordinarily popular in his day with his characters taking on a life of their own beyond the page, his first novel, The Pickwick Papers written when he was twenty-five, was an overnight success, all his subsequent works sold well. The comedy of his first novel has a satirical edge and this pervades his writing. Dickens worked diligently and prolifically to produce the entertaining writing that the public wanted, but to offer commentary on social problems and the plight of the poor and oppressed.
His most important works include Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, A Christmas Carol and Son, David Copperfield, Bleak House, Little Dorrit, A Tale of Two Cities, Great Expectations. There is a gradual trend in his fiction towards darker themes which mirrors a tendency in much of the writing of the 19th century. William Thackeray was Dickens' great rival in the first half of Queen Victoria's reign. With a similar style but a more detached and barbed satirical view of his characters, he tended to depict a more middle class society than Dickens did, he is best known for his novel Vanity Fair, subtitled A Novel without a Hero, an example of a form popular in Victorian literature: a historical novel in which recent history is depicted. Anne and Emily Brontë produced notable works of the period, although these were not appreciated by Victorian critics. Wuthering Heights, Emily's only work, is an example of Gothic Romanticism from a woman's point of view, which examines class and gender. Jane Eyre, by her sister Charlotte, is another major nineteenth century novel that has gothic themes.
Anne's second novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, written in realistic rather than romantic style, is considered to be the first sustained feminist novel. In this period George Eliot, published The Mill on the Floss in 1860, in 1872 her most famous work Middlemarch. Like the Brontës she published under a masculine pseudonym. In the decades of the Victorian era Thomas Hardy was the most important novelist, his works include Under the Greenwood Tree, Far from the Madding Crowd, The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the d'Urbervilles, Jude the Obscure. Other significant novelists of this era were Elizabeth Gaskell, Anthony Trollope, George Meredith, George Gissing. Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Robert Browning conducted their love affair through verse and produced many tender and passionate poems. Both Matthew Arnold and Gerard Manley Hopkins wrote poems which sit somewhere in between the exultation of nature of the romantic Poetry and the Georgian Poetry of the early 20th century; however Hopkins's poetry was not published until 1918.
Arnold's works anticipate some of the themes of these poets, while Hopkins drew inspiration from verse forms of Old English poetry such as Beowulf. The reclaiming of the past was a major part of Victorian literature with an interest in both classical literature but the medieval literature of England; the Victorians loved the heroic, chivalrous stories of knights of old and they hoped to regain some of that noble, courtly behaviour and impress it upon the people both at home and in the wider empire. The best example of this is Alfred Tennyson's Idylls of the King, which blended the stories of King Arthur those by Thomas Malory, with contemporary concerns and ideas; the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood drew on myth and folklore for their art, with Dante Gabriel Rossetti contemporaneously regarded as the chief poet amongst them, although his sister Christina is now held by scholars to be a stronger poet. In drama, farc
Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located in the north-central portion of Algeria. Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea; the modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle; the city's name is derived via French and Catalan Alger from the Arabic name Al-Jazā’ir, "The Islands". This name refers to the four former islands which lay off the city's coast before becoming part of the mainland in 1525. Al-Jazā’ir is itself a truncated form of the city's older name Jaza'ir Bani Mazghana, "The Islands of the Sons of Mazghana", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi. In antiquity, the Greeks knew the town as Ikosion, Latinized as Icosium under Roman rule; the Greeks explained the name as coming from their word for "twenty" because it had been founded by 20 companions of Hercules when he visited the Atlas Mountains during his labors.
In fact, the name transcribed the Punic name ʿWYKSM, "Seagull Island", again named after the site's former islands. Algiers is known as El-Behdja or "Algiers the White" for its whitewashed buildings, seen rising from the sea. A small Phoenician colony on Algiers's former islands was established and taken over by the Carthaginians sometime before the 3rd century BC. After the Punic Wars, the Romans took over administration of the town, which they called Icosium, its ruins now form part of the modern city's marine quarter, with the Rue de la Marine following a former Roman road. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab Azoun; the city was given Latin rights by the emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century, but the ancient town fell into obscurity during the Muslim conquest of North Africa; the present city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid–Sanhaja dynasty. He had earlier built a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers.
Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the Zirids had lost control of Algiers to their cousins the Hammadids in 1014. The city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids; the Peñón of Algiers, an islet in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Spain. However, Algiers continued to be of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the islet of Peñon and imposed a levy intended to suppress corsair activity. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b.
Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers. Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen, was the founder of the pashaluk, which subsequently became the beylik, of Algeria. Barbarossa lost Algiers in 1524 but regained it with the Capture of Algiers, formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the Ottoman Empire. Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. In October 1541 in the Algiers expedition, the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their Pasha, Hassan. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy and ransoming.
Due to its location on the periphery of both the Ottoman and European economic spheres, depending for its existence on a Mediterranean, controlled by European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the primary economic activity. Repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland; the United States fought two wars over Algiers' attacks on shipping. Among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, captive in Algiers five years, who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the period; the primary source for knowledge of Algiers of this period, since there are no contemporary local sources, is the Topografía e historia general de Argel, published by Diego de Haedo, but whose authorship is disputed. This work describes in detail the city, the behavior of its inhabitants, its military defenses, with the unsuccessful hope of facilitating an attack by Spain so as to end the piracy.
John Campbell, 1st Baron Campbell
John Campbell, 1st Baron Campbell, PC, QC, FRSE was a British Liberal politician and man of letters. The second son of the Reverend George Campbell, D. D. and Magdalene Hallyburton, he was born a son of the manse at Cupar, Scotland, where his father was for fifty years parish minister. For seven years, from the age of 11, Campbell studied at St Andrews; when he was 18, he was offered the opportunity to leave home and see something of the world by becoming a tutor. The family lived with a summer house at Shenley, Hertfordshire, his employer was David Webster, London merchant of a sugar trading house, with family connections through the Wedderburn baronets to the plantations of Jamaica. Living in this wealthy household, the young Campbell saw a different world, it didn't impress him: the commercial conversation and gossip of "West India merchants and East India captains" created an atmosphere "irksome" and "unbearable", his pupil, James Wedderburn Webster, was about ten years old, as yet ignorant of Latin, which Campbell himself had learned at school in Cupar.
Campbell took advantage of being in London to attend a session of the House of Commons, hearing William Wilberforce speak against slavery, followed by Charles James Fox and William Pitt. He describes it vividly in his memoirs forty years concluding, "After hearing this debate, I could no longer have been content with being'Moderator of the General Assembly'.". In 1800 Campbell was entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn, after working for the Morning Chronicle, was called to the bar in 1806. Campbell at once began to report cases decided at nisi prius. Of these reports he published four volumes. Campbell devoted himself to criminal business, but failed to attract much attention behind the bar, it was not till 1827 that Campbell began to develop political aspirations. He had unsuccessfully contested the borough of Stafford in 1826, but was returned for it in 1830 and again in 1831, he stood as a moderate Whig, in favour of the connection of church and state and opposed to triennial parliaments and the secret ballot.
His main object, like Lord Brougham, was the amelioration of the law by the abolition of cumbrous technicalities rather than the assertion of new principles. To this end his name is associated with the Fines and Recoveries Abolition Act 1833; the second was called for by the preference which the common law gave to a distant collateral over the brother of the half-blood of the first purchaser. His most important appearance as a member of parliament for Stafford was in defence of Lord John Russell's first Reform Bill. In a speech, based on Charles James Fox's declaration against constitution-mongering, he supported both the enfranchising and the disfranchising clauses; the following year found a knight and member for Dudley. Dudley had been enfranchised under the Reform Act of 1832 and so Campbell became the first MP to represent the town in modern history. However, his appointment to the post of Attorney General in 1834 lead to a by-election, which he lost to Thomas Hawkes. John Campbell returned to Parliament swiftly, however, as he was returned by Edinburgh in 1835, which seat he represented until his ennoblement in 1841.
One of his first acts as Attorney General was the prosecution of a bookseller called Henry Hetherington on the charge of blasphemous libel. In this case Campbell gave his opinion that morality depended on divine revelation: the vast majority of the population believe that morality depends on on revelation. In 1840 Campbell conducted the prosecution against John Frost, one of the three Chartist leaders who attacked the town of Newport, all of whom were found guilty of high treason. Next year, as the Melbourne administration was near its close, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, was forced to resign, was succeeded by Campbell, raised to the peerage as Baron Campbell, of St Andrews in the County of Fife; the post of chancellor Campbell held for only sixteen days, resigned it to his successor Sir Edward Sugden. It was during the period 1841–1849, when he had no legal duty, except the self-imposed one of hearing Scottish appeals in the House of Lords, that Lord Campbell turned to literary pursuits.
He bought Hartrigge House in Jedburgh during this period. However, he did take up the cause of the families of railway accident victims in introducing and steering through the Commons, the Fatal Accidents Act 1846, known as Lord