The Machinery of Freedom is a nonfiction book by David D. Friedman which advocates an anarcho-capitalist society from a utilitarian/consequentialist perspective; the book was published in 1973, with a second edition in 1989 and a third edition in 2014. The book aims to show that law and its enforcement do not require a state, but it can be sustained by non-coercive private enterprise and charity, it explores the consequences of libertarian thought, describes examples of stateless societies and offers the author's personal statement about why he became a libertarian. Topics addressed in the book include polycentric law and the provision of public goods such as military defense in a stateless society. Friedman argues that a stateless legal system would be beneficial for society as a whole, including the poor. While some books supporting similar libertarian and anarcho-capitalist views offer support in terms of morality or natural rights, Friedman here argues in terms of the effects of his proposed policies.
Friedman conjectures that anything done by government costs at least twice as much as a provided equivalent. He offers examples as evidence such as a comparison of the cost of the United States Postal Service's costs for package delivery with the costs of private carriers and the cost of the Soviet government versus market based services in the West; the Institute of Public Affairs, a libertarian think tank located in Australia, included The Machinery of Freedom in a list of the "Top 20 books you must read before you die" in 2006. Liberty magazine named the book among The Top Ten Best Libertarian Books, praising Friedman for tackling the problems related to private national defense systems and attempting to solve them; the Problem of Political Authority by Michael Huemer builds on Friedman's vision of an anarcho-capitalist society in considerable detail Chaos Theory by Robert P. Murphy Order Without Law by Robert Ellickson For a New Liberty by Murray Rothbard The Market for Liberty by Linda and Morris Tannehill The Enterprise of Law by Bruce L. Benson Government success Dispersed knowledge Tax choice X-inefficiency The Machinery of Freedom The Machinery of Freedom at Friedman's personal website, including free chapters of the book "Illustrated Video Summary of The Machinery of Freedom" on YouTube "Economics of David D. Friedman's The Machinery of Freedom: Some similarities and dissimilarities to the Austrian school"
Antônio Reginaldo Pizzonia Júnior is a Brazilian professional racing driver who has raced in Formula One and the Champ Car World Series. As of 2013, he is competing in the Grand-Am Rolex Series. Born in Manaus, Pizzonia started his car racing career in the Formula Vauxhall Junior series in 1997, progressed through various junior formulae, winning the Formula Vauxhall Junior Winter Festival in 1997, the Formula Vauxhall Junior and Formula Renault Winter Festival in 1998, the Formula Renault 2.0 UK in 1999, the British Formula 3 Championship in 2000. For 2001 and 2002, he entered the Formula 3000, with his best championship finish being sixth in 2001. In 2003, he was signed by the Jaguar Formula One team, but following poor results, was released during the season. In 2004, he replaced the injured Ralf Schumacher at Williams in several events, securing his first Formula One points in the process. In 2005, he replaced Nick Heidfeld at Williams, but was released from his contract at the end of the season.
Since he has competed in multiple series, such as the Champ Car World Series, the Superleague Formula, Stock Car Brasil, the FIA GT1 World Championship. From 1991 to 1996 he competed in various karting series. In 1997 he competed in Formula Vauxhall Junior. In 1998, in addition to taking the Championship in Formula Vauxhall Junior, he won the Formula Renault Winter Festival, his 1999 season was more successful, winning the Formula Renault 2.0 UK series and finishing second in the Formula Renault 2.0 Eurocup. In 2000, Pizzonia took 5 wins on his way to winning the British Formula 3 Championship. For 2001, Pizzonia switched to the Formula 3000 series, winning one race and finishing sixth in the championship. In 2002, Pizzonia was hired as test driver for Williams, but continued in F3000, placing 8th. After impressive testing performances, he was signed by the Jaguar team to partner Mark Webber for 2003. However, following a string of poor results, he was dropped midway through the season and replaced by Minardi's Justin Wilson.
In 2004 he returned to Williams as test driver. Before the German Grand Prix, it was announced that Pizzonia would take over from Marc Gené, filling in for the injured Ralf Schumacher. At the German Grand Prix, he finished 7th to take his first 2 career points. In Belgium, he led an F1 race for the first time, but failed to finish the race due to a gearbox problem, whilst running in 3rd place, he claimed a further 2 points in Italy, but with the announcement of Ralf Schumacher's return for the Chinese Grand Prix, Pizzonia's racing was over for the year. Prior to the 2005 season, Pizzonia was in a virtual shoot-out with German Nick Heidfeld for the second race seat at Williams alongside Webber. Despite Pizzonia's experience with the team and financial support from Petrobras, Heidfeld was given the seat. Pizzonia was still employed at Williams as a test driver, when Heidfeld complained of headaches after being concussed in a crash during the Friday Practice Session at Monza, Pizzonia gained the chance to race.
Having not entered an F1 race since the 2004 Italian Grand Prix, the Brazilian qualified 16th, coming through the field to emulate his 2004 race result — picking up 7th place and 2 points. He raced in the Belgian Grand Prix. where he incurred a fine for taking out 2nd placed Juan Pablo Montoya just a few laps from the end. Pizzonia took the drive in the Brazilian Grand Prix, but his race was over before the first corner after taking out his own teammate Mark Webber resulting from a collision with David Coulthard. Despite some speculation that GP2 champion Nico Rosberg would be given an opportunity in the last two races of the season, Pizzonia completed the season for Williams, he retired from the Japanese Grand Prix early after spinning off, retired from the Chinese Grand Prix after a puncture. Having been replaced by Nico Rosberg for 2006, Pizzonia's Formula One career was over. In 2006, he drove for Paul Gentilozzi's Rocketsports team in the Champ Car World Series' Long Beach Grand Prix and returned to the team towards the end of the season for races where Tõnis Kasemets did not have sponsorship to race.
In 2007, Pizzonia was racing for Fisichella Motor Sport in the GP2 series. In May, he was dropped in favour of Adam Carroll after only scoring 1 point in 5 races. After that, he returned to Brazil and entered into competition in Stock Car Brasil, a Brazilian national championship, from July, he has competed in the series every year since and has raced in Superleague Formula and the FIA GT1 World Championship. In 2012, Pizzonia made a one-off guest appearance in the Auto GP World Series when the championship visited the Brazilian Curitiba circuit. Driving for the Ombra Racing team, he won both races slotting himself into ninth position in the championship. In 2014 and 2015, Pizzonia competed with Zele Racing. † Driver did not finish the Grand Prix, but was classified as he completed over 90% of the race distance. ¹ Run on same day ² Non-points-paying, exhibition race Super Final results in 2009 did not count for points towar
Helmut Krausnick was a German historian and author. From 1959 to 1972, he was the head of the Institute of Contemporary History, a leading German research institute on the history of National Socialism. Krausnick co-authored Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskrieges, the 1981 work on the mass murder of Jews in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union by the Einsatzgruppen, considered a milestone in Holocaust studies, it was one of the first publications to challenge the myth of the "clean" Wehrmacht. Helmut Krausnick was born in Wenden, today a district of Brunswick in 1905, grew up in Bad Harzburg in a middle-class family, he studied history and political science at the University of Breslau. In 1932 Krausnick joined the Nazi Party, he continued his academic studies at the University of Heidelberg and the Humboldt University of Berlin, where he received his doctorate in 1938. Subsequently, Krausnick worked at the National Archives. From September 1944 to May 1945, he served in the Wehrmacht. From 1948 Krausnick worked at the Internationale Schulbuchinstitut.
In 1951 Krausnick joined the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, headed by Hermann Mau. When the latter died in 1952, Krausnick completed Mau's work, German History, 1933–45: An Assessment by German Historians, which appeared in 1956 and was translated into many languages. In 1959 Krausnick was appointed director of the institute, remaining in the position until his retirement in 1972. In 1968 he was appointed an honorary professor of contemporary history at the University of Munich. Krausnick appeared as a court expert in Nazi trials. In 1980 he was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Krausnick died in 1990 in Stuttgart. Krausnick co-authored Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskrieges, the 1981 work on the mass murder of Jews in the occupied areas of the Soviet Union by Einsatzgruppen units; the research completed by the authors shows that the Einsatzgruppen leaders were predominantly career policemen, some with law degrees, sons of upper-middle class Germans, who compensated for failings in their studies or careers by joining the SS.
Many had been pre-1933 Sturmabteilung "stormtroopers". The book traces the beginnings of the Einsatzgruppen during the Anschluss of Austria in 1938 and during the invasion of Poland in September 1939, where they engaged in the persecution of clergy, Polish nobility, Jews; the invasion of the Soviet Union unleashed the genocidal murder of Jews and other civilians in the occupied territories by the Einsatzgruppen death squads. Reviewing the book for The Journal of Modern History, political scientist Peter H. Merkl calls it an "utterly absorbing, if grisly, reading for the non-specialists and systematic confirmation for historians specialising in the area"; the book is considered a milestone in Holocaust studies. Historian Peter Longerich describes the work as a "seminal academic study", which made Krausnick the leading figure in the Holocaust functionalism versus intentionalism debate. Krausnick was an "intentionalist" who posited that Hitler had made the decision to kill European Jews in the spring of 1941, in the run-up to Operation Barbarossa.
Krausnick conducted research on the Commissar order and other criminal orders and their implementation by the German armed forces. Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskrieges was one of the first works to challenge the legend of a "clean" or "innocent" Wehrmacht, which had depicted the German armed forces as free of blame for the crimes committed; the book provided evidence of what the authors described as the "terrifying integration of the army into Hitler's extermination program and extermination policy". Their research refuted the notions that the Wehrmacht generals did not know about the activities of the Einsatzgruppen and that, had they known, they would have opposed them; the book provides an example of the November 1941 Orsha Conference organised by Franz Halder, chief of the German General Staff, to discuss the course of the Battle of Moscow. At the conference, the generals said unanimously that the activities of the Einsatzgruppen were "worth their price in gold" for the fighting troops because they ensured security in the rear of their armies.
German historian Norbert Frei notes: Apart from the actual history of the persecution of the Jews and the ignored role of the judicial system as an instrument of terror, the most scandalous example was the outrageous disregard of the Wehrmacht's participation in the murder of Jews in Eastern Europe, although this had been established as fact by the Nuremberg Trials and remained lodged in historical consciousness outside of Germany. Within Germany, from the start of the 1950s, military circles were so effective in suppressing this information that it was not until the early 1980s that historiographers could begin to expose their involvement, which at that stage was still met with storms of protest. German History, 1933–45: An Assessment by German Historians, London 1978, with Hermann Mau. Anatomy of the SS State, New York 1968, with Martin Broszat, Hans Buchheim and Hans-Adolf Jacobsen Hermann Mau, Helmut Krausnick: Deutsche Geschichte der jüngsten Vergangenheit 1933–45. Wunderlich, Tübingen 1956.
Helmut Krausnick: Judenverfolgung. In: Anatomie des SS-Staates, Band 2. Olten, Freiburg i. Br. 1965. Helmut Krausnick, Harold C. Deutsch: Helmuth Groscurth. Tagebücher eines Abwehroffiziers. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1970. Helmut Krausnick, Hans-Heinrich Wilhelm: Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskrieges. Die Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD 1938–1942. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1981. Reissued in 1985 as Hitlers Einsat
The 1971 USC Trojans baseball team represented the University of Southern California in the 1971 NCAA University Division baseball season. The team was coached Rod Dedeaux in his 30th season; the Trojans won the College World Series, defeating the Southern Illinois Salukis in the championship game, winning their second of five consecutive national championships, third in four years. Frank AlfanoCollege World Series All-Tournament TeamGeorge AmbrowAll-Pacific-8 First TeamMike BallAll-Pacific-8 First TeamSteve BusbyAll-America First Team All-Pacific-8 First TeamFredd LynnCollege World Series All-Tournament TeamCraig PerkinsAll-Pacific-8 First TeamJeff PortAll-Pacific-8 First TeamMark SoggeCollege World Series All-Tournament Team All-Pacific-8 First TeamTim SteeleAll-Pacific-8 First Team The following members of the USC baseball program were drafted in the 1971 Major League Baseball Draft
William Orlando Smith was a U. S. Representative from the state of Pennsylvania. Smith was born in Reynoldsville, Pennsylvania on June 13, 1859, he learned the printing trade, worked as publisher of the Reynoldsville Herald from 1876 to 1879. He worked in the Government Printing Office in Washington, D. C. from 1879 to 1884. He returned to Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, in 1884 and successively edited the Punxsutawney Tribune and the Punxsutawney Spirit, he was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1889 to 1898. He worked as editor of the Bradford Daily Era in Bradford, Pennsylvania in 1891, he purchased a half interest in the Punxsutawney Spirit in January 1892. Smith was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-ninth Congresses, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1906. After his time in Congress, he resumed his newspaper interests in Punxsutawney, he died in Cleveland, Ohio on May 12, 1932. Interment was at Circle Hill Cemetery in Punxsutawney. "Punxs'y Publisher Buried Last Sunday".
The Jeffersonian-Democrat. Brookville, PA. May 19, 1932 – via Newspapers.com. CS1 maint: extra punctuation Rodearmel, William; the State Departments and Members and Officers of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 1893-94. Harrisburg, PA: E. K. Meyers Printing House. William Orlando Smith at Find a GraveUnited States Congress. "William O. Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William O. Smith at The Political Graveyard This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Giambattista Marino was an Italian poet, born in Naples. He is most famous for his long epic L'Adone; the Cambridge History of Italian Literature thought him to be "one of the greatest Italian poets of all time". He is considered the founder of the school of Marinism known as Secentismo or Marinismo, characterised by its use of extravagant and excessive conceits. Marino's conception of poetry, which exaggerated the artificiality of Mannerism, was based on an extensive use of antithesis and a whole range of wordplay, on lavish descriptions and a sensuous musicality of the verse, enjoyed immense success in his time, comparable to that of Petrarch before him, he was imitated in Italy, France and other Catholic countries, including Portugal and Poland, as well as Germany, where his closest follower was Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau and Holland where Constantijn Huygens was a great admirer. In England he was translated by Richard Crashaw, he remained the reference point for Baroque poetry as long.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, while being remembered for historical reasons, he was regarded as the source and exemplar of Baroque "bad taste". With the 20th century renaissance of interest in similar poetic procedures, his work has been reevaluated: it was read by Benedetto Croce and Carlo Calcaterra and has had numerous important interpreters including Giovanni Pozzi, Marziano Guglielminetti, Marzio Pieri and Alessandro Martini. Marino remained in his birthplace Naples until 1600, leading a life of pleasure after breaking off relations with his father who wanted his son to follow a career in law; these formative years in Naples were important for the development of his poetry though most of his career took place in the north of Italy and France. Regarding this subject, some critics have stressed the great influence on him exerted by northern Italian cultural circles. Marino's father was a cultured lawyer, from a family of Calabrian origin, who frequented the coterie of Giambattista Della Porta.
It seems that both Marino and his father took part in private theatrical performances of their host's plays at the house of the Della Porta brothers. But more these surroundings put Marino in direct contact with the natural philosophy of Della Porta and the philosophical systems of Giordano Bruno and Tommaso Campanella. While Campanella himself was to oppose "Marinism", this common speculative background should be borne in mind with its important pantheistic implications, to which Marino would remain true all his life and exploit in his poetry, obtaining great success amongst some of the most conformist thinkers on the one hand while encountering continual difficulties because of the intellectual content of his work on the other. Other figures who were influential on the young Marino include Camillo Pellegrini, a friend of Torquato Tasso. Pellegrini was the author of Il Carrafa overo della epica poesia, a dialogue in honour of Tasso, in which the latter was rated above Ludovico Ariosto. Marino himself is the protagonist of another of Del concetto poetico.
Marino gave himself up to literary studies, love affairs and a life of pleasure so unbridled that he was arrested at least twice. In this as in many other ways, the path he took resembles that of another great poet of the same era with whom he was compared, Gabriello Chiabrera, but an air of mystery surrounds Marino's life the various times he spent in prison. But some witnesses, who include both Marino's detractors and defenders have asserted that Marino, much of whose love poetry is ambiguous, had homosexual tendencies. Elsewhere, the reticence of the sources on this subject is due to the persecutions to which "sodomitical practices" were subject during the Counterreformation. Marino fled Naples and moved to Rome, first joining the service of Melchiore Crescenzio that of Cardinal Aldobrandini. In 1608 he moved to the court of Duke Carlo Emanuele I in Turin; this was not an easy time for the poet, in fact he was the victim of an assassination attempt by his rival Gaspare Murtola. He was sentenced to a year in prison for malicious gossip he had written about the duke.
In 1615 he left Turin and moved to Paris, where he remained until 1623, honoured by the court and admired by French literary circles. He returned to Italy in triumph and died in Naples in 1625. Marino wrote a large amount, both in verse, his poetry remains the most imitated part of his work. Marino originated a new, "soft, gra