Trooping the Colour
Trooping the Colour is a ceremony performed by regiments of the British and Commonwealth armies. It has been a tradition of British infantry regiments since the 17th century, on battlefields, a regiments colours, or flags, were used as rallying points. Consequently, regiments would have their ensigns slowly march with their colours between the ranks to enable soldiers to recognise their regiments colours. Since 1748, Trooping the Colour has marked the birthday of the British sovereign. It is held in London annually on a Saturday in June on Horse Guards Parade by St. Jamess Park, among the audience are the Royal Family, invited guests, ticket holders and the general public. The ceremony is broadcast live by the BBC within the UK and is shown in Germany. The Queen travels down The Mall from Buckingham Palace in a procession with a sovereigns escort of Household Cavalry. After receiving a royal salute, she inspects her troops of the Household Division, each year, one of the foot-guards regiments is selected to troop its colour through the ranks of guards.
Then the entire Household Division assembly conducts a march past the Queen, parading with its guns, the Kings Troop takes precedence as the mounted troops perform a walk-march and trot-past. Returning to Buckingham Palace, the Queen watches a further march-past from outside the gates, following a 41-gun salute by the Kings Troop in Green Park, she leads the Royal Family on to the palace balcony for a Royal Air Force flypast. A regiments colours embody its spirit and service, as well as its fallen soldiers, the loss of a colour, or the capture of an enemy colour, were respectively considered the greatest shame, or the greatest glory on a battlefield. Consequently, regimental colours are venerated by officers and soldiers of all ranks, only battalions of infantry regiments of the line carry colours, the Royal Artillerys colours, for example, are its guns. Rifle regiments did not form a line and thus never carried colours and their battle honours are carried on their drums. The exception to this is the Honourable Artillery Company, which has both a stand of colours and guns and this was done before and after every battle.
This ceremony has been retained through time and is largely ceremonial. In the United Kingdom, Trooping the Colour is known as the Queens Birthday Parade and it has marked the official birthday of the sovereign since 1748, and has occurred annually since 1820. From the reign of King Edward VII, the sovereign has taken the salute in person and it was Edward VII who moved Trooping the Colour to its June date, because of the vagaries of British weather. Trooping the Colour allows the troops of the Household Division to pay a tribute to the sovereign with great pomp
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. Further, it is used as a flag in some of the smaller British overseas territories. The Union Jack appears in the canton of the flags of several nations, the claim that the term Union Jack properly refers only to naval usage has been disputed, following historical investigations by the Flag Institute in 2013. The origins of the flag of Great Britain date back to 1606. King James began to refer to a Kingdom of Great Britaine, the present design of the Union Flag dates from a Royal proclamation following the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. Notably, the country of Wales is not represented separately in the Union Jack, being only indirectly represented through the cross of St George. The terms Union Jack and Union Flag are both historically correct for describing the de facto flag of the United Kingdom. Whether the term Union Jack applies only when used as a flag on a ship is a modern matter of debate. According to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Until the early 17th century England and Scotland were two independent kingdoms.
This changed dramatically in 1603 on the death of Elizabeth I of England, because the Queen died unmarried and childless, the English crown passed to the next available heir, her cousin James VI, King of Scotland. England and Scotland now shared the same monarch under what was known as a union of the crowns, in 1606, James VI gave orders for a British flag to be created which bore the combined crosses of St. George and of St. Andrew. The result was the Union Jack, Jack being a shortening of Jacobus, the institute notes, it is often stated that the Union Flag should only be described as the Union Jack when flown in the bows of a warship, but this is a relatively recent idea. In 1908, a government minister stated, in response to a parliamentary question, notwithstanding Their Lordships circular of 1902, by 1913 the Admiralty described the Union Flag and added in a foot note that A Jack is a Flag to be flown only on the Jack Staff. However, the authoritative A Complete Guide to Heraldry published in 1909 by Arthur Charles Fox-Davies uses the term Union Jack, the term Union Flag is used in King Charles Is 1634 proclamation.
Andrew and St. Patrick Quarterly per Saltire, counterchanged Argent and Gules, when the first flag representing Britain was introduced on the proclamation of King James I in 1606, it became known simply as the British flag or the flag of Britain. The royal proclamation gave no name to the new flag. The word jack was in use before 1600 to describe the maritime bow flag, by 1627 a small Union Jack was commonly flown in this position. Reinforcing the distinction the Kings proclamation of the day concerning the arms
Speaking for the host, it is generally called a state reception. State visits are considered to be the highest expression of friendly relations between two sovereign states, and are in general characterised by an emphasis on official public ceremonies. Queen Elizabeth II is the most travelled head of state in the world, the Queen has occasionally made some state and official visits representing one of her other Commonwealth realms. A 21-gun salute is fired in honor of the head of state. The playing of the two national anthems by a military band, the guest countrys anthem is usually played first. A review of an honor guard or guard of honour. An exchange of gifts between the two heads of state, a state dinner, either white tie or black tie, is mounted by the hosting head of state, with the visiting head of state being the guest of honor. A visit to the legislature of the host country, often with the head of state being invited to deliver a formal address to the assembled members of the legislature.
High-profile visits by the heads of state to host country landmarks such as laying a wreath at a military shrine or cemetery. The staging of cultural events celebrating links between the two nations, the visiting head of state is usually accompanied by a senior government minister, usually by a foreign minister. While the costs of a visit are usually borne by state funds of the host country, most nations host fewer than ten state visits per year. State visits by well-known global leaders, such as Elizabeth II, the President of the United States or the Pope, often draw much publicity and large crowds
Horse Guards Parade
Horse Guards Parade is a large parade ground off Whitehall in central London, at grid reference TQ299800. It is the site of the ceremonies of Trooping the Colour, which commemorates the monarchs official birthday. Horse Guards Parade was formerly the site of the Palace of Whitehalls tiltyard and it was the scene of annual celebrations of the birthday of Queen Elizabeth I. The area has used for a variety of reviews, parades. It was once the Headquarters of the British Army, the Duke of Wellington was based in Horse Guards when he was Commander-in-Chief of the British Army. The current General Officer Commanding London District still occupies the same office, Wellington had living quarters within the building, which today are used as offices. For much of the late 20th century, Horse Guards Parade was used as a car park for senior civil servants, about 500 were granted the privilege, which was known as the Great Perk. The proposal was taken up by the Department of National Heritage but resisted by senior Cabinet members, apparently under pressure from the civil servants who were to lose their parking places.
Public revelation of the led to considerable criticism, with Simon Jenkins urging the Head of the Home Civil Service, Sir Robin Butler. In late 1996 Horse Guards Parade was cleared in order to be resurfaced, finally in March 1997 it was announced that car parking on Horse Guards Parade was to be ended. Vehicles are no longer permitted to park anywhere in the area, the parade ground is open on the west side, where it faces Horse Guards Road and St. Jamess Park. Access to this side of Horse Guards Parade is now restricted for security reasons, in 2003 the Royal Naval Division Memorial, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1925, was returned to its original site in Horse Guards Parade and rededicated on Beaucourt Day. Horse Guards Parade hosted the beach volleyball at the 2012 Summer Olympics held in London, temporary courts and seating designed by Populous were installed by the Arena Group, much as seating is installed annually for Trooping the Colour. Most matches were played on Centre Court, but some matches were played on Court 1 on day 6 of the competition, Horse Guards Parade hosted the 1st London Polo Championships on 17 and 18 June 2009 with teams from around the world.
On Sunday 20 July 2014, a temporary arena played host to the anniversary games and it consisted of 4 blocks of single tier seating, a long jump and shot putt pit, containing 15,000 tonnes of sand. It had a 110-metre raised track, a pole vault, the event was broadcast live on channel 4 in the UK. Media related to Horse Guards at Wikimedia Commons
2019 Cricket World Cup
The 2019 Cricket World Cup is scheduled to be hosted by England and Wales, from 30 May to 15 July 2019. This will be the 12th Cricket World Cup competition, and the time it will be held in England and Wales. The hosting rights were awarded in April 2006, after England and Wales withdrew from the bidding to host the 2015 Cricket World Cup, the first match will be played at The Oval while the final will be played at Lords. The 10-team-tournament has gained much criticism due to the lack of teams in the tournament. The 2019 World Cup will feature 10 teams, a decrease from previous World Cups in 2011 and 2015 which featured 14 teams. This means that at least 2 Test playing nations will play in the qualifying tournament, the format for the tournament will have just one group so each team will play 9 group games before 2 semi finals and a final. The fixture list for this event has not been released, however, on 17 December 2014, the ECB indicated that the final would be held at Lords, and the semi-finals at Old Trafford and Edgbaston Cricket Ground.
In addition, the match of the tournament will be held at The Oval. London Stadium could be added to the list of venues pending the result of a feasibility test, in January 2017, the International Cricket Council completed an inspection of the ground, confirming that the pitch dimensions would be compliant with the requirements to host ODI matches
The London Marathon is a long-distance running event held in London, United Kingdom, part of the World Marathon Majors. The event was first run on 29 March 1981 and has held in the spring of every year since. Since 2010, the race has been sponsored by Virgin Money, the most recent event was the 2016 London Marathon on 24 April 2016. The next London Marathon will be run on 23 April 2017, the race was founded by the former Olympic champion and journalist Chris Brasher and athlete John Disley. It is organised by Hugh Brasher as Race Director and Nick Bitel as Chief Executive, set over a largely flat course around the River Thames, the race begins at three separate points around Blackheath and finishes in The Mall alongside St. Jamess Park. Since the first marathon, the course has undergone very few route changes, in 1982, the finishing post was moved from Constitution Hill to Westminster Bridge due to construction works. It remained there for years before moving to its present location at The Mall.
In 2007, 78% of all runners raised money, in 2011 the official charity of the London Marathon was Oxfam. In 2014, the charity was Anthony Nolan, and in 2015. The London Marathon was not the first long-distance running event held in the city, the Polytechnic Marathon was first held in 1909. The current London Marathon was founded in 1981 by former Olympic champion and journalist Chris Brasher, inspired by the people of New York coming together for this occasion, he asked whether London could stage such a festival. The following year Brasher and Disley made trips to America to study the organisation, the first London Marathon was held on 29 March 1981, more than 20,000 applied to run. 6,747 were accepted and 6,255 crossed the line on Constitution Hill. The Marathons popularity has grown since then. As at 2009,746,635 people have completed the race since its inception, in 2010,36,549 people crossed the line, the biggest field since the race began. The first wheelchair race was held in 1983 and the event was credited with reducing the stigma surrounding disabled athletes.
In 2013 the IPC Athletics Marathon World Cup was held within the London Marathon featuring athletes of both genders in the T42–T46 and T11–T13 categories. In August 2013 it was announced that the event would be staged in London until 2017 and feature athletes in the T11-T12, T13, T42-T44, T43, T45-46, T51-52 and the T53-54 class
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and it has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning. It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a residence for Queen Charlotte. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb during World War II, the original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream, many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House.
The palace has 775 rooms, and the garden is the largest private garden in London, the state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring. In the Middle Ages, the site of the palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury. The marshy ground was watered by the river Tyburn, which flows below the courtyard. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew, ownership of the site changed hands many times, owners included Edward the Confessor and his queen consort Edith of Wessex in late Saxon times, after the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey, in 1531, King Henry VIII acquired the Hospital of St James from Eton College, and in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey. These transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away almost 500 years earlier, various owners leased it from royal landlords and the freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century.
By then, the old village of Eye Cross had long fallen into decay. Needing money, James I sold off part of the Crown freehold, clement Walker in Anarchia Anglicana refers to new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. Jamess, this suggests it may have been a place of debauchery. Eventually, in the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley by the great heiress Mary Davies, possibly the first house erected within the site was that of a Sir William Blake, around 1624. The next owner was Lord Goring, who from 1633 extended Blakes house and he did not, obtain the freehold interest in the mulberry garden. Unbeknown to Goring, in 1640 the document failed to pass the Great Seal before King Charles I fled London and it was this critical omission that helped the British royal family regain the freehold under King George III. The improvident Goring defaulted on his rents, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington obtained the mansion and was occupying it, now known as Goring House, Arlington House rose on the site—the location of the southern wing of todays palace—the next year
2012 Summer Paralympics
They were the first-ever organized sporting event for disabled athletes, and served as a precursor to the modern Paralympic Games. Stoke Mandeville co-hosted the 1984 Summer Paralympics with Long Island, New York, after its original host, at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, the rights to host the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were awarded to London. As with the Olympics, the 2012 Summer Paralympics were overseen by LOCOG, LOCOG was responsible for overseeing the staging of the games, while the ODA dealt with infrastructure and venues. The Government Olympic Executive within the Department for Culture, the GOE reported through the DCMS Permanent Secretary to the Minister for Sports and the Olympics Hugh Robertson. It focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy, the 2012 Summer Paralympics used many of the same venues as the 2012 Summer Olympics, along with two new locations such as Eton Manor for wheelchair tennis and Brands Hatch for road cycling.
Londons purpose-built Olympic venues and facilities, including the Olympic Village itself, were designed to be accessible as possible so they could accommodate the Paralympics. Some venues contained additional accessible seating areas during the Paralympics, transport for London operated the Paralympic Route Network to facilitate road traffic between venues and facilities. The network provided 8.7 miles of lanes specifically reserved for Paralympic athletes, TfL continued to operate its Get Ahead of the Games website during the Paralympics, which provided updates and advice for commuters during the Games. Prior to the Games, concerns were raised by TfL commissioner Peter Hendy that Londons transportation system might not be able to handle the Paralympics adequately, Sevenoaks railway station was designated as the preferred station for spectators travelling to watch the cycling at Brands Hatch. Organisers chose Sevenoaks over the closer Swanley railway station because of its existing step-free access and excellent transport links, whilst organisers did not believe that Swanley would be able to have wheelchair lifts installed by the start of the Paralympics, the station finished their installation by early August 2012.
The formal handover occurred during the ceremony of the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing. This was followed by a presentation by Britain, which was similar to its presentation during the Olympics closing ceremony. It featured urban dance group ZooNation, the Royal Ballet, and Candoco, a double-decker bus drove around the stadium, guided by Ade Adepitan, to music composed by Philip Sheppard. The top of the bus was open and folded down to show a privet hedge featuring London landmarks such as Tower Bridge, The Gherkin and the London Eye. Cherisse Osei, drummer for Mika, and Sam Hegedus performed, before the top of the bus folded up into its original form, both the Paralympic and Olympic flags were formally raised outside of Londons City Hall on 26 September 2008. British Paralympians Helene Raynsford and Chris Holmes raised the Paralympic flag, on 8 September 2011 Trafalgar Square staged International Paralympic Day, hosted by Rick Edwards, Ade Adepitan and Iwan Thomas, to coincide with a visit to London by representatives of the IPC.
The event celebrated the Paralympic Games and demonstrating the 20 sports that would feature during the Games and it featured appearances by Paralympic athletes Oscar Pistorius, Ellie Simmonds and Sascha Kindred, and the unveiling of a bronze statue of Pistorius by Ben Dearnley. British Prime Minister David Cameron and Londons mayor Boris Johnson appeared, two days on 10 September, supermarket chain Sainsburys and Channel 4 presented Sainsburys Super Saturday, a family event at Clapham Common
Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 271703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, between 1713 and 1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the government bodies moved to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is one of the cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of consulates, international corporations, banks. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress, at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in a called Ingermanland.
A small town called Nyen grew up around it, Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and he intended to have Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea to the north, on May 1703121703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress. On May 271703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia, tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate, Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712,9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war, he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the bank of the Neva, near the Peter.
However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan, by 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets, in 1716, Peter the Great appointed French Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, in 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life