Maria Theresa of Spain
Maria Theresa of Spain, was by birth Infanta of Spain and Portugal and Archduchess of Austria as member of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Queen of France. Her marriage in 1660 with King Louis XIV, her cousin, was made with the purpose of ending the long-standing war between France and Spain. Famed for her virtue and piety, she saw five of her six children die in early childhood, is viewed as an object of pity in historical accounts of her husband's reign, since she had no choice but to tolerate his many love affairs. Without any political influence in the French court or government, she died at the early age of 44 from complications from an abscess on her arm, her grandson Philip V inherited the Spanish throne in 1700 after the death of her younger half-brother, Charles II, the War of the Spanish Succession, founding the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon, which has reigned with some interruption until present time. Born an Infanta of Spain at the Royal Monastery of El Escorial, she was the daughter of King Philip IV, his wife Elisabeth of France, who died when Maria Theresa was six years old.
As a member of the House of Austria, Maria Theresa was entitled to use the title Archduchess of Austria. She was known in Spain in France as Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche. Unlike France, the kingdom of Spain had no Salic Law, so it was possible for a female to assume the throne; when Maria Theresa's brother Balthasar Charles died in 1646, she became heir presumptive to the vast Spanish Empire and remained such until the birth of her brother Philip Prospero, in 1657. She was heir presumptive once more between 1-6 November 1661, following the death of Prince Philip and until the birth of Prince Charles, who would inherit the thrones of Spain as Charles II. In 1658, as war with France began to wind down, a union between the royal families of Spain and France was proposed as a means to secure peace. Maria Theresa and the French king were double first cousins: Louis XIV's father was Louis XIII of France, the brother of Maria Theresa's mother, while her father was brother to Anne of Austria, Louis XIV's mother.
Spanish procrastination led to a scheme in which France's prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, pretended to seek a marriage for his master with Margaret Yolande of Savoy. When Philip IV of Spain heard of a meeting at Lyon between the Houses of France and Savoy in November 1658, he reputedly exclaimed of the Franco-Savoyard union that "it cannot be, will not be". Philip sent a special envoy to the French court to open negotiations for peace and a royal marriage; the negotiations for the marriage contract were intense. Eager to prevent a union of the two countries or crowns one in which Spain would be subservient to France, the diplomats sought to include a renunciation clause that would deprive Maria Theresa and her children of any rights to the Spanish succession; this was done but, by the skill of Mazarin and his French diplomats, the renunciation and its validity were made conditional upon the payment of a large dowry. As it turned out, Spain and bankrupt after decades of war, was unable to pay such a dowry, France never received the agreed upon sum of 500,000 écus.
A marriage by proxy to the French king was held in Fuenterrabia. Her father and the entire Spanish court accompanied the bride to the Isle of Pheasants on the border in the Bidassoa river, where Louis and his court met her in the meeting on the Isle of Pheasants on 7 June 1660, she entered France. On 9 June the marriage took place in Saint-Jean-de-Luz at the rebuilt church of Saint Jean the Baptist. After the wedding, Louis wanted to consummate the marriage as as possible; the new queen's mother-in-law arranged a private consummation instead of the public one, the custom. On 26 August 1660, the newlyweds made the traditional Joyous Entry into Paris. Louis was faithful to his wife for the first year of their marriage, commanding the Grand Maréchal du Logis that "the Queen and himself were never to be set apart, no matter how small the house in which they might be lodging". Maria Theresa was fortunate to have found a friend at court in her mother-in-law, unlike many princesses in foreign lands.
She continued to spend much of her free time playing cards and gambling, as she had no interest in politics or literature. She was viewed as not playing the part of queen designated to her by her marriage, but more she became pregnant in early 1661, a long-awaited son was born on 1 November 1661. The first time Maria Theresa saw the Palace of Versailles was on 25 October 1660. At that time, it was just a small royal residence, Louis XIII's hunting lodge not far from Paris; the first building campaign commenced with the Plaisirs de l’Île enchantée of 1664, a week-long celebration at Versailles ostensibly held in honour of France's two queens, Louis XIV's mother and wife, but exposed Louise de La Vallière's role as the king's maîtresse-en-titre. The celebration of the Plaisirs de l’Île enchantée is regarded as a prelude to the War of Devolution, which Louis waged against Spain; the first building campaign witnessed alterations in the château and gardens in order to accommodate the 600 guests invited to the celebration.
As time passed, Maria Theresa came to tolerate her husband's prolonged infidelity with Françoise-Athénaïs, Marquise de Montespan. The king left her to her own devices, yet reprimanded Madame de Montespan when her behaviour at court too
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital, he sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, André Charles Boulle, Molière, Boileau, La Fontaine, Marais, Le Brun, Bossuet, Le Vau, Charles, Claude Perrault, Le Nôtre. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished; the revocation forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis' long reign, France was the leading European power, it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Spanish Succession. There were two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Warfare defined the foreign policy of Louis XIV, his personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce and pique", Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war.
He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, he was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years, his mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, when Louis XIV was four years old. In defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his son's behalf, his lack of faith in Queen Anne's political abilities was his primary rationale. He did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time.
Contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed. Both were interested in food and theatre, it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother; this long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis' journal entries, such as: "Nature was responsible for the first knots which tied me to my mother. But attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed by blood." It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. In 1646, Nicolas V de Villeroy became the young king's tutor. Louis XIV became friends with Villeroy's young children François de Villeroy, divided his time between the Palais-Royal and the nearby Hotel de Villeroy. On 14 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris.
This action made Anne sole Regent of France. Anne exiled some of her husband's ministers, she nominated Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs. Anne nominated Saint Vincent de Paul as her spiritual adviser, which helped her deal with religious policy and the Jansenism question. Anne kept the direction of religious policy in her hand until 1661. Anne wanted to give her son a victorious kingdom, her rationales for choosing Mazarin were his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until 1653 when she was no longer regent. Anne protected Mazarin by arresting and exiling her followers who conspired against him in 1643: the Duke of Beaufort and Marie de Rohan, she left the direction of the daily administration of policy to Cardinal Mazarin. The best example of Anne's statesmanship and the partial change in her heart towards her native Spain is seen in her keeping of one of Richelieu's men, the Chancellor of France Pierre Séguier, in his post. Séguier was the pers
Albert Dekker was an American character actor and politician best known for his roles in Dr. Cyclops, The Killers, Kiss Me Deadly, The Wild Bunch, he is sometimes credited as Albert van Dekker. Dekker was born in New York, the only child of Thomas and Grace Ecke Van Dekker, he attended Richmond Hill High School. He attended Bowdoin College, where he majored in pre-med with plans to become a doctor. On the advice of a friend, he decided to pursue acting as a career instead, he made his professional acting debut with a Cincinnati stock company in 1927. Within a few months, Dekker was featured in the Broadway production of Eugene O'Neill's play Marco Millions. After a decade of theatrical appearances, Dekker transferred to Hollywood in 1937 and made his first film, 1937's The Great Garrick, he spent most of the rest of his acting career in the cinema but returned to the stage from time to time. He replaced Lee J. Cobb as Willy Loman in the original production of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman, during a five-year stint back on Broadway in the early 1960s, he played the Duke of Norfolk in Robert Bolt's A Man for All Seasons.
Dekker appeared in some seventy films from the 1930s to the 1960s, but his four most famous screen roles were as a mad scientist in the 1940 horror film Dr. Cyclops, as a criminal mastermind in The Killers, as a dangerous dealer in atomic fuel in the 1955 film noir Kiss Me Deadly, as an unscrupulous railroad detective in Sam Peckinpah's Western The Wild Bunch. In 1959 he played a convincing Texas Ranger Captain Rucker in The Wonderful Country, he was cast in romantic roles, but in the film Seven Sinners, featuring a romance between Marlene Dietrich and John Wayne, Dietrich sails off with Dekker's character at the end of the film. Dekker's role as Pat Harrigan in The Wild Bunch would be his last screen appearance. On April 4, 1929, Dekker married former actress Esther Guerini; the couple had two sons and Benjamin, a daughter, before divorcing in 1964. In April 1957, Dekker's 16-year-old son, shot himself with a.22 rifle at the family's home in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. He had been working on a silencer for the rifle for a year.
His death was ruled accidental. Dekker's off-screen interest in politics led to his winning a seat in the California State Assembly for the 57th Assembly District in 1944. Dekker served as a Democratic member for the Assembly until 1946. During the McCarthy era he was an outspoken critic of U. S. Senator Joseph McCarthy's tactics; as a result, Dekker was blacklisted in Hollywood and spent most of the blacklist period working on Broadway rather than Hollywood. On May 5, 1968, Dekker was found dead in his Hollywood home by his fiancée, fashion model and future Love Boat creator Jeraldine Saunders, he was naked, kneeling in the bathtub, with a noose wrapped around his neck and looped around the shower curtain rod. He was blindfolded, his wrists were handcuffed, there was a ball gag in his mouth, two hypodermic needles were inserted in one arm, his body was covered in explicit drawings in red lipstick. Money and camera equipment were missing; the coroner found no evidence of foul play and ruled his death accidental, the result of autoerotic asphyxiation.
Dekker was cremated, his remains interred at the Garden State Crematory in North Bergen, New Jersey. Dekker has a star, in the motion picture category, on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6620 Hollywood Boulevard. Albert Dekker on IMDb Albert Dekker at the TCM Movie Database Albert Dekker at the Internet Broadway Database Albert Dekker at TV Guide Albert Dekker at Find a Grave
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII was a monarch of the House of Bourbon, King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated, his mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court. Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, ending the revolt of the French nobility, they systematically denounced the use of private violence. By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine.
The reign of Louis "the Just" was marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain. Born at the Palace of Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici; as son of the king, he was a Fils de France, as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his second cousin, Henry III of France, in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, his maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother; as a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat. The ambassador of King James I of England to the court of France, Sir Edward Herbert, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:...
I presented to the King a letter of credence from the King my master: the King assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King my master, of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word. Although Louis XIII became of age at thirteen, his mother did not give up her position as Regent until 1617, when he was 16. Marie maintained most of her husband's ministers, with the exception of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, unpopular in the country, she relied on Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy, Noël Brûlart de Sillery, Pierre Jeannin for political advice. Marie pursued a moderate policy, she was not, able to prevent rebellion by nobles such as Henri, Prince of Condé, second in line to the throne after Marie's second surviving son Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Condé squabbled with Marie in 1614, raised an army, but he found little support in the country, Marie was able to raise her own army.
Marie agreed to call an Estates General assembly to address Condé's grievances. The assembly of this Estates General was delayed until Louis XIII formally came of age on his thirteenth birthday. Although his coming-of-age formally ended Marie's Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France; the Estates General accomplished little, spending its time discussing the relationship of France to the Papacy and the venality of offices, but reaching no resolutions. Beginning in 1615, Marie came to rely on the Italian Concino Concini, who assumed the role of her favourite. Concini was unpopular because he was a foreigner; this further antagonised Condé, who launched another rebellion in 1616. Huguenot leaders supported Condé's rebellion, which led the young Louis XIII to conclude that they would never be loyal subjects. Condé and Queen Marie made peace via the Treaty of Loudun, which allowed Condé great power in government but did not remove Concini. With growing dissatisfaction from nobles due to Concini's position, Queen Marie, with Louis's help, imprisoned Condé to protect Concini, leading to renewed revolts against the Queen and Concini.
In the meantime, Charles d'Albert, the Grand Falconer of France, convinced Louis XIII that he should break with his mother and support the rebels. Louis staged a palace coup d'état; as a result, Concino Concini was assassinated on 24 April 1617. His widow, Leonora Dori Galigaï, was tried for witchcraft, condemned and burned on 8 July 1617, Marie was sent into exile in Blois. Louis conferred the title of Duke of Luynes on d'Albert. Luynes soon became as unpopular. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV's ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de' Medici; the Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618. The French court was unsure which side to support. On the one hand, F
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624, he remained in office until his death in 1642. Cardinal de Richelieu was known by the title of the king's "Chief Minister" or "First Minister", he sought to crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a centralized state, his chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty, to ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in an attempt to achieve his goals. While a powerful political figure, events like the Day of the Dupes show that in fact he much depended on the king's confidence to keep this power.
As alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the College of Sorbonne, he renovated and extended the institution. Richelieu was famous for his patronage of the arts. Richelieu is known by the sobriquet l'Éminence rouge, from the red shade of a cardinal's clerical dress and the style "eminence" as a cardinal; as an advocate for Samuel de Champlain and of the retention of New France, he founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés and saw the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye return Quebec City to French rule under Champlain, after the settlement had been taken by the Kirkes in 1629. This in part allowed the colony to develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. Richelieu has been depicted in popular fiction most notably as a leading character in Alexandre Dumas's novel The Three Musketeers and its numerous film adaptations. Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons: he was delicate from childhood, suffered frequent bouts of ill-health throughout his life.
His family was somewhat prominent, belonging to the lesser nobility of Poitou: his father, François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, was a soldier and courtier who served as the Grand Provost of France, his mother, Susanne de La Porte, was the daughter of a famous jurist. When he was five years old, his father died fighting in the French Wars of Religion, leaving the family in debt. At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career, his private life seems to have been typical of a young officer of the era: in 1605, aged twenty, he was treated by Théodore de Mayerne for gonorrhea. Henry III had rewarded Richelieu's father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon; the family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use. To protect the important source of revenue, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, the bishop of Luçon.
Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, became instead a Carthusian monk. Thus, it became necessary, he threw himself into studying for his new post. In 1606 Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon; as Richelieu had not yet reached the canonical minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome for a special dispensation from the Pope. This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607. Soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer, he became the first bishop in France to implement the institutional reforms prescribed by the Council of Trent between 1545 and 1563. At about this time, Richelieu became a friend of François Leclerc du Tremblay, a Capuchin friar, who would become a close confidant; because of his closeness to Richelieu, the grey colour of his robes, Father Joseph was nicknamed l'Éminence grise. Richelieu used him as an agent during diplomatic negotiations. In 1614, the clergymen of Poitou asked Richelieu to be one of their representatives to the States-General.
There, he was a vigorous advocate of the Church, arguing that it should be exempt from taxes and that bishops should have more political power. He was the most prominent clergyman to support the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout France. At the end of the assembly, the First Estate chose him to deliver the address enumerating its petitions and decisions. Soon after the dissolution of the Estates-General, Richelieu entered the service of King Louis XIII's wife, Anne of Austria, as her almoner. Richelieu advanced politically by faithfully serving the Queen-Mother's favourite, Concino Concini, the most powerful minister in the kingdom. In 1616, Richelieu was made Secretary of State, was given responsibility for foreign affairs. Like Concini, the Bishop was one of the closest advisors of Louis XIII
The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played an important role in the internal conflicts of France and for most of its history was used as a state prison by the kings of France, it was stormed by a crowd on 14 July 1789, in the French Revolution, becoming an important symbol for the French Republican movement, was demolished and replaced by the Place de la Bastille. The Bastille was built to defend the eastern approach to the city of Paris from the English threat in the Hundred Years' War. Initial work began in 1357, but the main construction occurred from 1370 onwards, creating a strong fortress with eight towers that protected the strategic gateway of the Porte Saint-Antoine on the eastern edge of Paris; the innovative design proved influential in both France and England and was copied. The Bastille figured prominently in France's domestic conflicts, including the fighting between the rival factions of the Burgundians and the Armagnacs in the 15th century, the Wars of Religion in the 16th.
The fortress was declared a state prison in 1417. The defences of the Bastille were fortified in response to the English and Imperial threat during the 1550s, with a bastion constructed to the east of the fortress; the Bastille played a key role in the rebellion of the Fronde and the battle of the faubourg Saint-Antoine, fought beneath its walls in 1652. Louis XIV used the Bastille as a prison for upper-class members of French society who had opposed or angered him including, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, French Protestants. From 1659 onwards, the Bastille functioned as a state penitentiary. Under Louis XV and XVI, the Bastille was used to detain prisoners from more varied backgrounds, to support the operations of the Parisian police in enforcing government censorship of the printed media. Although inmates were kept in good conditions, criticism of the Bastille grew during the 18th century, fueled by autobiographies written by former prisoners. Reforms were implemented and prisoner numbers were reduced.
In 1789 the royal government's financial crisis and the formation of the National Assembly gave rise to a swelling of republican sentiments among city-dwellers. On 14 July the Bastille was stormed by a revolutionary crowd residents of the faubourg Saint-Antoine who sought to commandeer the valuable gunpowder held within the fortress. Seven remaining prisoners were found and released and the Bastille's governor, Bernard-René de Launay, was killed by the crowd; the Bastille was demolished by order of the Committee of the Hôtel de Ville. Souvenirs of the fortress were transported around France and displayed as icons of the overthrow of despotism. Over the next century, the site and historical legacy of the Bastille featured prominently in French revolutions, political protests and popular fiction, it remained an important symbol for the French Republican movement. Nothing is left of the Bastille except some remains of its stone foundation that were relocated to the side of Boulevard Henri IV. Historians were critical of the Bastille in the early 19th century, believe the fortress to have been a well-administered institution, but implicated in the system of French policing and political control during the 18th century.
The Bastille was built in response to a threat to Paris during the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Prior to the Bastille, the main royal castle in Paris was the Louvre, in the west of the capital, but the city had expanded by the middle of the 14th century and the eastern side was now exposed to an English attack; the situation worsened after the imprisonment of John II in England following the French defeat at the battle of Poitiers, in his absence the Provost of Paris, Étienne Marcel, took steps to improve the capital's defences. In 1357, Marcel expanded the city walls and protected the Porte Saint-Antoine with two high stone towers and a 78-foot-wide ditch. A fortified gateway of this sort was called a "bastille", was one of two created in Paris, the other being built outside the Porte Saint-Denis. Marcel was subsequently removed from his post and executed in 1358. In 1369, Charles V became concerned about the weakness of the eastern side of the city to English attacks and raids by mercenaries.
Charles instructed Hugh Aubriot, the new provost, to build a much larger fortification on the same site as Marcel's bastille. Work began in 1370 with another pair of towers being built behind the first bastille, followed by two towers to the north, two towers to the south; the fortress was not finished by the time Charles died in 1380, was completed by his son, Charles VI. The resulting structure became known as the Bastille, with the eight irregularly built towers and linking curtain walls forming a structure 223 feet wide and 121 feet deep, the walls and towers 78 feet high and 10 feet thick at their bases. Built to the same height, the roofs of the towers and the tops of the walls formed a broad, crenellated walkway all the way around the fortress; each of the six newer towers had underground "cachots", or dungeons, at its base, curved "calotte" "shell", rooms in their roofs. Garrisoned by a captain, a knight, eight squires and ten crossbowmen, the Bastille was encircled with ditches fed by the River Seine, faced with stone.
The fortress had four sets of drawbridges, which allowed the Rue Saint-Antoine to pass eastwards through the Bastille's gates while giving easy access to the city walls on the
Reginald Harry Barlow was a veteran stage and screen character actor and film director. He was a busy performer in Hollywood films of the 1930s. A native of Cambridge and son of the old-time minstrel, Milt G. Barlow, Barlow made his stage debut at the age of twelve in his father's minstrel troupe of Barlow, Wilson and West. Barlow joined the 2nd Battalion of The Royal Canadian Regiment on October 22, 1899, for service in South Africa during the Second Boer War. According to newspaper and other accounts, he did serve in the United States Army during the Spanish–American War and World War I, rose to the rank of full colonel in 1923. Barlow had thoughts of quitting the stage for the church in 1908 and at the time remarked to an interviewer: "All my ancestors have been soldiers and ministers, some of them all three. I am a direct descendant of Bishop Barlow of the days of Henry VIII." A distinguished-looking actor who lent an air of dignity to any role he played, in the early part of his stage career he landed leading roles in The Silver King, Monte Cristo, The Sign of the Cross, Old Lady 31, The Little Princess.
Among his early silent films were The Cinema Murder, the post World War I drama Love's Flame in which he plays the father-in-law: "M. De Ronsard", in the comedy Clothes Make the Pirate in which he plays "Captain Montague", a cameo. After the changeover to sound, Barlow played men of means, such as military officers and bankers, turning up as a college professor in Horse Feathers, with the Marx Brothers, a chaplain in Ann Vickers, the sheriff in Tower of London, the Professor Warwick ostracizing mad scientist George Zucco in The Mad Monster. Further, as the American Legion Hollywood Post 43 was included in the older films without giving any actual credit as to which members of the Post were shown within the films, its likely that Barlow did often appear in films as an uncredited member of Hollywood Post 43. Barlow functioned as a director of play companies before switching over to film, he was director of the Wright Huntington Players, narrated for the Eveready Hour, on at least one occasion directed a film itself.
It appears Barlow did play a director's sort of role in several films much as did Alfred Hitchcock, known to have made at least a cameo appearance in every one of his films. His film The Toy Maker of Leyden is listed as The Magic Toy Maker in eds. American Film Institute Catalogue Index, vol. F1, 1911–1920. Barlow married at least two times, but he did say on the 1930 Census that he was 22 years old at his first marriage, he married Clare Danforth, on April 1902, in Charleston, Missouri. This "marriage", was subsequently refuted by the family of Bertha Merkel and was an extortion attempt, he married Milwaukee heiress Bertha Merkel, the daughter of George and Mary Merkel, on August 6, 1903, in Los Angeles, to whom he remained married until her death in 1933. He married Carol Brown, to whom he was married at the time of his death, according to his death certificate and according to the Los Angeles Times of 1934 when he married Carol in Tijuana, Mexico. On August 21, 1903, the Chicago Inter Ocean reported.
According to Barlow's first wife, who claimed that he married her under the pseudonym Livingston, the couple were not divorced at the time of his second marriage to Bertha Merkel. However, the Los Angeles Times subsequently published an article on August 28, 1903, which exhonorated Barlow, who had just converted to Catholicism in order to marry Bertha, of any wrongdoing, it was Barlow's new mother-in-law, Mary Merkel, who had earlier initiated an investigation and upon discovery, prosecution of Barlow, which of course never happened. ^ 1 Confer Los Angeles Times, Friday Morning, 14 Sep 1934, Part I, p. 15, col. 2, article: "Reginald Barlow to Play Lead in'Blood on Moon'." The article states that he "began his theatrical career at the age of 12 in his father's troupe." ^ 2 See Bunches of Barlows link which shows Reginald, a confirmed member of the American Legion Hollywood Post 43, to be a Colonel. The picture there shows him presenting Shirley Temple with a certificate as a new "Honorary Colonel" in 1935.
The same website shows that in the New York Times of 7 July 1943, Reginald Barlow was a Colonel who commanded the 304th Infantry in World War I for the United States, was a veteran of two other wars: the Spanish–American War and The Second Boer War. ^ 3 See also: Keffer, History of San Fernando Valley, pp. 118–120. 3-4, article: "Actor Barlow's Wife". Los Angeles Daily Times, Monday, 10 Aug 1903, p. 9, col. 1, article: "Lost Heart on Pullman" Los Angeles Sunday Times, 23 Aug 1903, p. 4, cols. 6–7, article: "Bride's Momma After Actor Reggie Barlow" Los Angeles Daily Times, Friday, 28 Aug 1903, p. 4, cols. 3–4, article: "Actor Barlow's Wife" The Stars and Stripes, Vol 1, No 50, Friday, 17 Jan 1919, p. 2, col. 4, article: "Show Each Night, Plan of Biggest Booking Agency" Los Angeles Times, Friday Morning, 14 Sep 1934, Part I, p. 15, col. 2, article: "Reginald Barlow to Play Lead in'Blood on Moon'." New York Times, Wednesday, 7 Jul 1943, p. 19, col. 3, article: "R. Barlow is Dead.