The Solly Madonna by the Italian renaissance artist Raphael was painted somewhere between 1500 and 1504. An early work, it shows the influence of Raphaels teacher Perugino. Two motifs in this work would recur in Madonnas by Raphael, the virgin Mary is reading a book, as in the Madonna and Child in the Norton Simon Museum, the Connestabile Madonna, the Madonna Colonna and the Madonna del cardellino. As in that last painting a small bird, a goldfinch, is part of the scene, the painting is located in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. It is called the Solly Madonna because it was owned by the British banker and art collector Edward Solly
Christian tradition places Joseph as Jesus foster father. Some historians state that Joseph was Jesus father, some differing views are due to theological interpretations versus historical views. In both Catholic and Protestant traditions, Joseph is regarded as the saint of workers and is associated with various feast days. In popular piety, Joseph is regarded as a model for fathers and has become patron of various dioceses and places, several notable images of Saint Joseph have been granted a Canonical coronation by a Pope. In popular religious iconography he is associated with lilies or a spikenard, with the present-day growth of Mariology, the theological field of Josephology has grown and since the 1950s centers for studying it have been formed. According to the New Testament, Joseph was the father of James, Judas, the Pauline epistles make no reference to Jesus father, nor does the Gospel of Mark. The first appearance of Joseph is in the gospels of Matthew, all the names between David and Joseph are different.
Some scholars, such as Harry A. Ironside reconcile the genealogies by viewing the Solomonic lineage in Matthew as Josephs major royal line, the epistles of Paul are generally regarded as the oldest extant Christian writings. These mention Jesus mother, but do not refer to his father, the Book of Mark, the first gospel to be written, with a date about two decades after Paul, does not mention Jesus father. Joseph first appears in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, both dating from around 80-90 AD, the issue of reconciling the two accounts has been the subject of debate. In Matthew, Joseph obeys the direction of an angel to marry Mary, once Herod has died, an angel tells Joseph to return, but to avoid Herods son he takes his wife and the child to Nazareth in Galilee and settles there. In Luke, Joseph already lives in Nazareth, and Jesus is born in Bethlehem because Joseph, lukes account makes no mention of angels and dreams, the Massacre of the Innocents, or of a visit to Egypt. The last time Joseph appears in person in any Gospel is in the story of the Passover visit to the Temple in Jerusalem when Jesus is 12 years old, no mention is made of him thereafter.
The story emphasizes Jesus awareness of his mission, here Jesus speaks to his parents of my father, meaning God. Christian tradition represents Mary as a widow during the ministry of her son. Joseph is not mentioned as being present at the Wedding at Cana at the beginning of Jesus mission, nor at the Passion at the end. If he had been present at the Crucifixion, he would under Jewish custom have been expected to charge of Jesus body. Nor would Jesus have entrusted his mother to the care of John the Apostle if her husband had been alive, in Mark 6,3, they call Jesus Marys son instead of naming his father
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. A desiccant is a substance that induces or sustains such a state in its local vicinity in a moderately sealed container. A desiccator is a glass or plastic container used in practical chemistry for making or keeping small amounts of materials very dry. The material is placed on a shelf, and an agent or desiccant. Often some sort of humidity indicator is included in the desiccator to show, by color changes and these indicators are in the form of indicator plugs or indicator cards. The active chemical is cobalt chloride, when it bonds with two water molecules, it turns purple. Further hydration results in the pink hexaaquacobalt chloride complex 2+, ecologists frequently study and assess various organisms susceptibility to desiccation. Several bacterial species have shown to accumulate DNA damages upon desiccation. Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation, the functions necessary to survive ionizing radiation are necessary to survive prolonged desiccation.
Radiation resistance is considered to be a consequence of the organism’s evolutionary adaptation to dehydration. The chromosomal DNA from desiccated D. radiodurans revealed increased DNA double-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks are repaired principally by a RecA-dependent recombination process that requires the presence of two genome copies. By this process D. radiodurans can survive thousands of double-strand breaks per cell, NHEJ appears to be the preferred pathway for repairing double-strand breaks caused by desiccation during stationary phase. NHEJ can repair double-strand breaks even when only one chromosome is present in a cell, upon exposure to extreme dryness, Bacillus subtilis spores acquire DNA-double strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks. In broadcast engineering, a desiccator may be used to pressurize the feedline of a high-power transmitter, because it carries a large amount of energy from the transmitter to the antenna, the feedline must have low dielectric losses. Because it must be lightweight so as not to overload the radio tower, since moisture can condense in these lines, desiccated air or nitrogen gas is pumped in.
This pressure keeps water or other dampness from coming in the line at any point along its length, list of desiccants Hygroscopy Mummy A Desiccant Requirements Calculator
Giuseppe Lechi was an Italian general in the Kingdom of Italy during the Napoleonic Wars. His grandfather Pietro was a famous free-mason and a follower of the Enlightenment, born a subject of the Most Serene Republic of Venice, he undertook the military career in the Austrian army up to the rank of captain. Giuseppe entered the government of Brescia and organized the Brescian Legion that General Bonaparte sent to fighting in Emilia, Marche. It was in Città di Castello, in 1798, that happened the famous episode of the donation of Raphaels painting The Marriage of the Virgin to Giuseppe Lechi by the City Council. In the spring of 1799 Giuseppe Lechi with his unit was engaged in a campaign in Valtellina attempting to curb an anti-French revolt. Forced to retreat by the Austro-Russians, he joined the Italian Legion of General Pietro Teulié in Dijon, back in Italy with Napoleon he fought at Marengo where he was promoted to the rank of Division General on the field itself. After the Peace of Lunéville he became commander of division under Joachim Murat and one of his friends, in the same time, Giuseppe entered the new legislative body of the Italian Republic.
More and more bound up with the Murats circle, General Lechi joined the Masonry of the Scottish Rite, in 1804, Giuseppe Lechi participated in the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples fighting in the Adriatic regions under general Saint-Cyr. In 1805 he was again in Naples with Murat and Joseph Bonaparte, to whom too he would become closely tied by friendship and personal fidelity. In 1809 he faced a trial in France but escaped the judgment and was sent back to Naples at the service of his friend, Lechi was involved in the conspiracies of general Domenico Pino, probably as a link for Murat himself in the plot. On 31 January 1814, Giuseppe was governor of Tuscany handing over Livorno to the English Fleet in a made by Murat to bargain a separate peace with Austria. In 1815 Joseph Lechi was as always at Murats side in his last, as a prisoner of war, Lechi refused to swear any fidelity to the new Habsburgic regime and remained jailed in Lubiana till 1818. Freed, Lechi settled down in his familys Villa of Montirone near Brescia and married with Eleonora and he died of cholera in 1836 in Montirone
In art history, High Renaissance is the period denoting the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. This term was first used in German in the nineteenth century. High Renaissance style in architecture conventionally begins with Donato Bramante, whose Tempietto at S. Pietro in Montorio at Rome was begun in 1510, the Tempietto, signifies a full-scale revival of ancient Roman commemorative architecture. David Watkin writes that the Tempietto, like Raphaels works in the Vatican, is an attempt at reconciling Christian, the High Renaissance was traditionally viewed as a great explosion of creative genius, following a model of art history first proposed by the Florentine Giorgio Vasari. Even relatively minor painters of the period, such as Fra Bartolomeo and Mariotto Albertinelli, produced works that are still lauded for the harmony of their design, the serene mood and luminous colours of paintings by Giorgione and early Titian exemplify High Renaissance style as practiced in Venice.
Other recognizable pieces of this period include Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa, Raphaels fresco, set beneath an arch, is a virtuoso work of perspective and disegno. High Renaissance sculpture, as exemplified by Michelangelos Pietà and the iconic David, is characterized by a balance between stillness and movement. High Renaissance sculpture was commissioned by the public and the state. Sculpture was often used to decorate or embellish architecture, normally within courtyards where others were able to study, wealthy individuals like cardinals and bankers were the more likely private patrons along with very wealthy families, Pope Julius II patronized many artists. During the High Renaissance there was the development of small scale statuettes for private patrons, the subject matter related to sculpture was mostly religious but with a significant strand of classical individuals in the form of tomb sculpture and paintings as well as ceilings of cathedrals. Toward The High Renaissance at Smarthistory
The Ansidei Madonna is a 1505–1507 painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, painted during his Florentine period. It shows the Blessed Virgin Mary sitting on a wooden throne, on her right John the Baptist stands, on her left Saint Nicholas is reading. At the time the painting was commissioned, there were paintings that made up the grouping for the altarpiece. Of the predellas, the only that remains is Saint John the Baptist Preaching, both the main painting, Ansidei Madonna, and the predella Saint John the Baptist Preaching, are located at the National Gallery in London. The Virgin sits formally on a throne, with an adult Saint John the Baptist on the left. Painted for effect rather than realism, the throne has no arms and the steps are steep, but beautifully set off the arches above. The Ansidei Madonna was greatly influenced by the expression of divinity of the Umbrian School within his Florentine Period. Above the Madonnas throne is inscribed Hail, Mother of Christ and this compares to the more natural poses and interaction found in Madonna, the Christ Child and infant John the Baptist in paintings of his Roman period.
Per Ruskin of the National Gallery, the painting is considered one of the greatest paintings in history, the execution was near perfect and well-weathered the test of centuries of time. The gold within the painting looks real, but was painted by affect. Secondly, another test of a painting, the characters look serene. Third, the painting attracts attention to the spirit or soul of a character, rather than their appearance, last, you see joy, contentment or beauty in the face of the subject, not negative connotations, such as pain or vileness. The three balls at Bishop Nicholas feet may symbolize the trinity, or the three bags of gold he is said to have thrown into the window of a poor mans home for his daughters welfare. Raphael achieved excellence in Ansidei Madonna through execution of every minute detail, a master at the young age of twenty-three, Raphael brought new life to well-represented subjects, through careful, methodic performance. Care is represented by what one does – and what one does not do, or more clearly, consider the landscape behind our subjects, it is clean and serene, not overdone with unnecessary detail.
When color is used, it is used decidedly and for effect, such as the jeweled robe, the Virgin Mary, Saint John and Bishop Nicholas are isolated from one another, without interchange, a style common in the Umbrian school, and particularly Perugino. Two paintings formed the predella for Raphaels altarpiece the Ansidei Madonna, the first, Saint John the Baptist Preaching, was placed beneath the image of Saint John in the main altarpiece, and is now owned by the National Gallery. The panels that depicted her betrothal, positioned below the Virgin and Child, There is some question about the date, or dates, of the painting
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
Giuseppe Molteni was an Italian painter. Forced to abandon his studies at the Brera Academy for financial reasons and he devoted his energies to painting. A switch to genre painting came in 1837 with scenes of everyday life that proved an immediate success with the public. Molteni’s regular participation in the Brera exhibitions slackened in the 1850s and ceased when he was appointed curator of the Academy’s gallery in 1854, elena Lissoni, Giuseppe Molteni, online catalogue Artgate by Fondazione Cariplo,2010, CC BY-SA. Media related to Giuseppe Molteni at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about Giuseppe Molteni at Internet Archive
Smarthistory is a free resource for the study of art history created by art historians Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. Smarthistory is an independent not-for-profit organization and the partner to Khan Academy for art history. In addition to its focus on courses in art history, Smarthistory supports the art history Advanced Placement course. Smarthistory provides essays, video and links to resources for each of the 250 works of art. Smarthistory has published 1500 videos and essays on art and cultural history from the Paleolithic era to the 21st century that include the art of Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania. Smarthistorys essays have been contributed by more than 200 art historians, videos are unscripted conversations between experts recorded on location in front of the original work of art or architecture. According to the Smarthistory about page, We are interested in delivering the narratives of art using the read-write webs interactivity and capacity for authoring and remixing. Publishers are adding multimedia to their textbooks, but unfortunately they are doing so in proprietary, Smarthistory won the Webby Award for Education in 2009.
The Samuel H. Kress Foundation gave them a $25,000 grant for development in 2008, in an article in the Brooklyn New York Daily News, staff writer Elizabeth Lazarowitz quotes Steven Zucker, Art can be really intimidating for people, said Zucker. If we can make art feel exciting and interesting and very relevant to a historical moment. art can have real meaning. Unlike reading about art in a book, the idea of the audio was to keep a students eyes on the image and it helped students to learn the material a lot better. And for college students, the site is fast becoming an alternative to the commercial textbook whose short life cycle. We thought that that would make them relevant and more engaging for students
Pinacoteca di Brera
The Pinacoteca di Brera is the main public gallery for paintings in Milan, Italy. It contains one of the foremost collections of Italian paintings, an outgrowth of the program of the Brera Academy. The Palazzo Brera owes its name to the Germanic braida, indicating a grassy opening in the city structure, compare the Bra of Verona, the convent on the site passed to the Jesuits, underwent a radical rebuilding by Francesco Maria Richini. When the Jesuits were disbanded in 1773, the remained the seat of the astronomical Observatory. In 1774 were added the herbarium of the new botanical garden, the buildings were extended to designs by Giuseppe Piermarini, who was appointed professor in the Academy when it was formally founded in 1776, with Giuseppe Parini as dean. Piermarini taught at the Academy for 20 years, while he was controller of the citys urbanistic projects, like the public gardens, the Academys artistic committee, the Commissione di Ornato exercised a controlling influence on public monuments, a precursor of todays Sopraintendenze delle Belle Arti.
Thus in 1882 the Paintings Gallery was separated from the Academy, from 1891 the exhibitions were reduced to triennial events, and architectural projects developed their autonomous course. The Brera Observatory hosted the astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli for four decades, collections of Pinacoteca di Brera Aldo Carpi Brera Gallery official website Accademia di Brera official website
St. Michael (Raphael)
St. Michael is an oil painting by Italian artist Raphael. Also called the Little St. Michael to distinguish it from a larger, treatment of the theme, St. Michael Vanquishing Satan. The work depicts the Archangel Michael in combat with the demons of Hell, along with St. George, it represents the first of Raphaels works on martial subjects. Whatever the impetus for its creation, by 1548 it hung in the collection at the Palace of Fontainebleau, the punishments depicted reflect Dantes treatment of hypocrites and thieves. A little more than a decade after completing the little St. Michael, Raphael was commissioned to revisit the theme, media related to Saint Michael with the Dragon by Raffaello Sanzio at Wikimedia Commons