Ghosts I–IV is the sixth studio album by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, released on March 2, 2008 by The Null Corporation. It was the band's first independent release, following their split from longtime label Interscope Records the prior year; the album's production team included Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor, studio collaborators Atticus Ross and Alan Moulder, instrumental contributions from Alessandro Cortini, Adrian Belew, Brian Viglione. Reznor described the music of Ghosts as "a soundtrack for daydreams", a sentiment echoed by critics, who compared it to the work of Brian Eno and Robert Fripp; the tracks are unnamed, identified only by their track listing and group number, is an entirely instrumental album. Although intended to be a five-track EP, the final release consisted of four nine-track EPs, totaling 36 tracks; the album was released under a Creative Commons license and in a variety of differing packages and price points, including a US$300 "Ultra-Deluxe Limited Edition", without prior announcement.
A user-generated "film festival" was announced, inviting fans to visually interpret the music and post their submissions. The album received a favorable reception from critics, who complimented its experimental nature and unorthodox release method, although some viewed the former as its weak point; the album reached number 14 in the US, was nominated for two Grammy Awards representing the first time music released under a Creative Commons license had been nominated for a Grammy Award. Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor announced in 2007 that the band had completed its contractual obligations to its record label, Interscope Records, would no longer be working with the company, he revealed that the band would distribute its next album independently in a fashion similar to Saul Williams' 2007 album The Inevitable Rise and Liberation of NiggyTardust!, which Reznor produced. Following the Performance 2007 Tour in support of the band's previous album Year Zero, Reznor set out to make a record "with little forethought".
Ghosts I–IV originated from an experiment: "The rules were as follows: 10 weeks, no clear agenda, no overthinking, everything driven by impulse. Whatever happens during that time gets released as... something." Reznor explained, "I've been considering and wanting to make this kind of record for years, but by its nature it wouldn't have made sense until this point". The core creative team behind the project was Reznor, Atticus Ross, Alan Moulder. Live-band member Alessandro Cortini and studio musicians Adrian Belew and Brian Viglione contributed instrumental performances on select tracks. Reznor described the band's early intentions for the project as "an experiment", explained the group's process: "When we started working with the music, we would start with a sort of visual reference that we had imagined: a place, or a setting, or a situation, and attempt to describe that with sound and texture and melody. And treat it, in a sense, as if it were a soundtrack."The musicians created the album tracks through improvisation and experimentation.
As a result, the initial plan to release a single EP of the material expanded to include the increasing amount of material. Viglione contributed percussion to tracks 19 and 22, he stated. Piece together any stuff that you want to bang on. Have fun and... be creative—See where your mind and your ideas take you." Viglione's makeshift drum kit included a 50-gallon trash can, a pair of water cooler jugs, a cookie tray with a chain across it. Alessandro Cortini is credited on a total of ten tracks from Ghosts for his contributions on guitar, bass guitar and electronics. Cortini was brought onto the project two weeks into the process, his involvement evolved from "first recording some extra parts to some tracks" and into "a collaboration on tracks noted in the booklet". Adrian Belew was brought on for select instrumental contributions, but as the project evolved Reznor expanded Belew's involvement and shared writing credit with him on two tracks. Ghosts I–IV is an entirely instrumental album, with only a few tracks containing sampled vocals.
Reznor described the album's sound as "the result of working from a visual perspective—dressing imagined locations and scenarios with sound and texture. PopMatters' review of the album compared its musical style to that of Brian Eno and Robert Fripp categorizing it as "dark ambient"; the review went on to describe the music as "a tonal painting, a collection of moods and not all of these moods are good ones." NPR compared the album to the music of Brian Eno. Robert Christgau compared the album to the work of Brian Eno, summarizing Ghosts' sound as "mental wallpaper". Ghosts I–IV features a wide assortment of musical instruments, including piano, bass, marimba, banjo and xylophone, many of which were sampled and distorted electronically. Percussion instruments, contributed by Brian Viglione, were constructed out of found objects and household items. Rob Sheridan acted in collaboration with Artist in Residence. Sheridan was art director for the previous two Nine Inch Nails studio albums, With Teeth and Year Zero.
Since Ghosts was released in a variety of versions, some of the versions feature somewhat dif
Last.fm is a music website, founded in the United Kingdom in 2002. Using a music recommender system called "Audioscrobbler", Last.fm builds a detailed profile of each user's musical taste by recording details of the tracks the user listens to, either from Internet radio stations, or the user's computer or many portable music devices. This information is transferred to Last.fm's database either via the music player itself or via a plug-in installed into the user's music player. The data is displayed on the user's profile page and compiled to create reference pages for individual artists. On 30 May 2007, it was acquired by CBS Interactive for UK£140 million; the site offered a radio streaming service, discontinued on 28 April 2014. The ability to access the large catalogue of music stored on the site was removed replaced by links to YouTube and Spotify where available; the current Last.fm website was developed from two separate sources: Last.fm and Audioscrobbler, which were merged in 2005. Audioscrobbler began as a computer science project of Richard Jones when he attended the University of Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science in the United Kingdom, with the term scrobbling defined as the finding and distribution of information involving people and other data.
Jones developed the first plugins, opened an API to the community, after which many music players on different operating system platforms were supported. Audioscrobbler was limited to keeping track of which songs its users played on a registered computer, which allowed for charting and collaborative filtering. Last.fm was founded in 2002 by Felix Miller, Martin Stiksel, Michael Breidenbruecker and Thomas Willomitzer, all of them from Germany or Austria, as an internet radio station and music community site, using similar music profiles to generate dynamic playlists. The site name takes advantage of a domain hack using.fm, the top level domain of Micronesia, popular with FM radio related sites. The "love" and "ban" buttons allowed users to customise their profiles. Last.fm won the Europrix 2002 and was nominated for the Prix Ars Electronica in 2003. The Audioscrobbler and Last.fm teams began to work together, both teams moving into the same offices in Whitechapel, by 2003 Last.fm was integrated with Audioscrobbler profiles.
Input could come through a Last.fm station. The sites shared many community forums, although a few were unique to each site; the old Audioscrobbler site at the audioscrobbler.com domain name was wholly merged into the new Last.fm site on 9 August 2005. Audioscrobbler.net was launched as a separate development-oriented site on 5 September 2005. However, at the bottom of each of the Last.fm pages there was an Audioscrobbler "slogan", which changes each time the page is refreshed. Based on well-known sayings or advertisements, these appeared at the top of the Audioscrobbler website pages and were all created and contributed by the original site members. An update to the site was made on 14 July 2006, which included a new software application for playing Last.fm radio streams and for logging of tracks played with other media players. Other changes included the improvement of the friends system and updating it to require a two-way friendship, the addition of the Last.fm "Dashboard" where users can see on one page relevant information for their profile, expanded options for purchasing music from online retailers and a new visual design for the web site.
The site began expanding its language base on 15 July 2006, with a Japanese version. The site is available in German, French, Polish, Swedish, Russian and Simplified Chinese. In late 2006, the site won Best Community Music Site at the BT Digital Music Awards in October. Last.fm teamed with EMI on Tuneglue-Audiomap. In January 2007 it was nominated for Best Website at the NME Awards. At the end of April 2007, rumours of negotiations between CBS and Last.fm emerged, suggesting that CBS intended to purchase Last.fm for about £225 million. In May 2007 it was announced that Channel 4 Radio was to broadcast a weekly show called Worldwide Chart reflecting what Last.fm users around the world were listening to. On 30 May 2007, it was announced that Last.fm had been bought by CBS for £140 million with Last.fm's current management team staying in place. In July 2008, the "new generation" Last.fm was launched featuring a new layout, color scheme, several new features, as well as some old ones removed. This was, met with dissatisfaction amongst some users, who complained about the "ugly and non-user-friendly layout", slowness.
Still, a month after the redesign a CBS press release credited the redesign with generating a 20% growth in the site's traffic. On 22 February 2009, Techcrunch claimed that " RIAA asked social music service Last.fm for data about its user's listening habits to find people with unreleased tracks on their computers. And Last.fm, owned by CBS handed the data over to the RIAA." This led to several public postings from both Last.fm and Techcrunch, with Last.fm denying passing any personal data to RIAA. The request was purportedly prompted by the leak of U2's then-unreleased album No Line On The Horizon, its subsequent widespread distribution via peer-to-peer file sharing services such as BitTorrent. Three months on 22 May 2009, Techcrunch claimed that it was CBS, the parent company of Last.fm, that handed over the data. Last.fm again denied that this was the case, saying that CBS couldn't have handed over the data withou
Myles Richard Bass, known professionally as Myles Kennedy, is an American musician and songwriter, best known as the lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist of the rock band Alter Bridge, as the lead vocalist in guitarist Slash's backing band, known as Myles Kennedy and the Conspirators. A former guitar instructor from Spokane, Washington, he has worked as a session musician and songwriter, making both studio and live appearances with several artists, has been involved with several projects throughout his career. Born in Boston and raised in Northern Idaho and Spokane, Kennedy attended Spokane Falls Community College to study music theory, he began his music career in 1990 as the lead guitarist of the instrumental jazz ensemble Cosmic Dust, with which he released one studio album. His second band, Citizen Swing, released two studio albums before disbanding in 1996. With fellow Citizen Swing member Craig Johnson, Kennedy founded the rock band The Mayfield Four, for which he provided lead vocals and guitar.
The band released two studio albums and broke up in 2002. After declining an offer to audition as the lead vocalist of Velvet Revolver, he was asked to join Alter Bridge by Mark Tremonti in late 2003, formally joining in 2004, he has been with the band since, he has released five studio albums with Alter Bridge. While Alter Bridge was on tour in 2008, Kennedy and former members of Led Zeppelin met and improvised as a group in an informal jam session, but the band never materialized, he started working with Slash, featuring on the guitarist's 2010 eponymous solo album on two tracks and serving as Slash's vocalist on tour. With Slash, Myles Kennedy and the Conspirators have recorded three studio albums. Kennedy's debut solo album, Year of the Tiger, was released in March 2018. Kennedy was born as Myles Richard Bass on November 27, 1969 in Boston and subsequently lived in Northern Idaho; as a child, he moved to Spokane, where he grew up in a Christian Science family on a farm. His father, Richard Bass, died when he was four years old and his mother subsequently went on to marry a Methodist minister, the family took the surname Kennedy.
Before Kennedy attended Mead High School, he found musical inspiration from Led Zeppelin, Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, John Sykes' Blue Murder band. Kennedy began playing trumpet at the age of ten and was in a teen air guitar band with best friends Michael Murphy, Mark Terzenbach and Bruce Kidd at 13, he traded for a real guitar copying the playing style of Jimmy Page. He found his singing voice by listening to his parents' Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder records, states that he was influenced by Robert Plant, he trumpet in the school's marching band. He spent some time playing in a local heavy metal band called Bittersweet with some of his friends Zia Uddin on drums, Jason Stewart as lead vocal, Mark Terzenbach on bass and Myles on lead guitar. After graduating in 1988, he enrolled in Spokane Falls Community College to study music. Upon graduating from high school in 1988, Kennedy enrolled in a Commercial Music/Jazz Studies program at Spokane Falls Community College. Using the skills he learned from this course, in 1990 he began playing guitar for a jazz group called the Cosmic Dust Fusion Band, formed by keyboardist Jim Templeton in 1980.
Kennedy's guitar work with Cosmic Dust was advanced. Cosmic Dust's first album, was released in 1991; the album was well received by critics. In 1993, the song "Spiritus" was awarded the Washington State Artist Trust Grant for $5,000. After the release of Journey, Kennedy left Cosmic Dust to begin working on a new band that would become Citizen Swing, for which Kennedy provided both lead vocals and lead guitar, they were described as "a band that combined the sounds of funk, soul, R&B, blues and alternative into a unique and cohesive sound" and as "Stevie Ray Vaughn meets Stevie Wonder and some." They released their first album, Cure Me with the Groove, in 1993. This album featured Kennedy, rhythm guitarist Craig Johnson, bassist Dave Turner, drummer/percussionist Mike Tschirgi, trumpeter Geoff Miller. Citizen Swing's second and final album was called Deep Down and was released in 1995; the band disbanded the same year. All the music and lyrics on that album were written by Kennedy. Journey, Cure Me with the Groove, Deep Down are all rare albums and are sought after by fans.
In 1995, Kennedy started. By August 1996, he became the lead vocalist and lead guitarist of The Mayfield Four, a rock band he formed with his childhood friends Zia Uddin, Marty Meisner, Craig Johnson, they signed a contract with Epic Records thanks to a critically acclaimed demo called Thirty Two Point Five Hours that the band recorded in 1996, followed by a live extended play called Motion in 1997. The Mayfield Four's debut album, was supported with a fifteen-month tour with bands such as Creed, Big Wreck, Stabbing Westward; the album was praised by critics, but it failed to chart, became the only album by the band to feature rhythm guitarist Craig Johnson, fired from the band due to undisclosed reasons. Following the Fallout tour, Kennedy made an appearance in the 2001 drama film Rock Star
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Post-grunge is a rock music subgenre that emerged in the 1990s. The term was used pejoratively to label bands such as Bush and Collective Soul that emulated the original sound of grunge. In the late 1990s, post-grunge morphed into a more defined style that married the sound and aesthetic of grunge with a less intense and abrasive tone, rising to prominence that lasted in the 2000s. Bands such as Foo Fighters, Puddle of Mudd, Nickelback and Matchbox Twenty all achieved mainstream success. During the 1990s, a post-grunge sound emerged which emulated the attitudes and music of grunge its thick, distorted guitars, but with a less intense and less abrasive tone. Unlike a lot of early grunge bands, post-grunge bands worked through major record labels and incorporated influences from a variety of musical genres including: jangle pop, pop punk, ska revival, alternative metal and classic rock. Post-grunge music tends to be in mid-tempo and is noted for having "a polished, radio-ready production". Grierson of About.com wrote that musically, post-grunge bands "split the difference between plaintive ballads and aggressive rockers, resulting in songs that combine the two extremes into a sad-eyed, propulsive middle ground".
Post-grunge tends to feature the "...same kind of melody as...bubblegum pop" and pop song structures. Sometimes post-grunge music features both an electric guitar and an acoustic guitar playing simultaneously. Post-grunge tends to have production quality, much higher and cleaner than grunge. A "major rift" between grunge and post-grunge is in the lyrical substance of the music. While describing lyrics that are common in post-grunge, Sasha Geffen of Consequence of Sound wrote that post-grunge "plunged directly into the "I." " Geffen wrote that most post-grunge songs that achieved mainstream success "call after a prospective or past companion in the first person". Post-grunge lyrics tend to be about topics such as relationships and drug addiction. According to Geffen, "grunge's frontmen posed with their addictions. Geffen states that post-grunge songs "fit the mold of songs made for...teenage and pre-teen girls" who were "longing for a distant someone", the songs "wore signs of femininity" which she posits may be why the "...post-grunge moment pissed off so many angry dudes."
According to Geffen, artists such as Alanis Morissette, No Doubt and Sarah McLachlan all "crystallized the songwriting strategy that would form the emotional core of the post-grunge moment". Post-grunge was a label, meant to be pejorative, suggesting that grunge bands labelled as post-grunge were musically derivative, or a cynical response to an "authentic" rock movement; when grunge became a mainstream genre because of bands such as Nirvana and Pearl Jam, record labels started signing bands that sounded similar to these bands' sonic identities. Bands labeled as post-grunge that emerged when grunge was mainstream such as Bush and Collective Soul are all noted for emulating the sound of bands that launched grunge into the mainstream. According to Tim Grierson of About.com, the pejorative use of the "post-grunge" label to describe these bands was "suggesting that rather than being a musical movement in their own right, they were just a calculated, cynical response to a legitimate stylistic shift in rock music".
During the late 1990s, post-grunge morphed, becoming a derivative of grunge that combined characteristics of grunge with a more commercially accessible tone. During this time, post-grunge bands such as Creed and Nickelback emerged. Grierson wrote: Creed and Nickelback espoused a more conventional conservative worldview built around the comforts of community and romantic relationships; this attitude was diametrically opposed to the antisocial angst of the original grunge bands, who railed against conformity and instead explored troubling issues such as suicide, societal hypocrisy and drug addiction. Grierson wrote, "Post-grunge was a profitable musical style, but bands like Nirvana and Pearl Jam were beloved because of their perceived integrity in avoiding the mainstream. Post-grunge, by comparison, seemed to exist in order to court that audience." At the height of their popularity, after the release of Nevermind brought grunge to international attention, Nirvana experienced increasing problems caused by Kurt Cobain's drug addiction and growing dissatisfaction with commercial success.
In late 1992, Cobain was photographed in a T-shirt with'Grunge is Dead' printed on its front and the genre's decline started to be discussed. The death of Cobain in 1994, as well as Pearl Jam's touring problems, marked a decline for grunge that year. Problems of addiction for Layne Staley of Alice in Chains led to the band cancelling scheduled dates in 1995; when grunge was mainstream, major record labels began signing and promoting bands emulating the genre. In spite of the fact that bands such as Bush and Candlebox have been categorized as grunge, both bands have been categorized as post-grunge. Tim Grierson of About.com wrote about bands like Bush and Candlebox: Perhaps not because these bands seemed to be ripping off a trendy sound, critics dismissed them as bandwagon-jumpers. Tellingly, these bands were labeled pejoratively as'post-grunge', suggesting that rather than being a musical movement in their own right, they were just a calculated, cynical response to a legitimate stylistic shift in rock music.
Collective Soul and Live are two other bands categorized as post-grunge that emerged along wit
Stabbing Westward is an American industrial rock band. Christopher Hall and Walter Flakus formed the band in 1986 in Illinois; the band released an extended play in 1992, followed by four studio albums from 1994 to 2001. Stabbing Westward announced a dissolution on February 9, 2002. Two compilation albums were released in 2003. Stabbing Westward reunited in 2016 to celebrate their 30th anniversary together, has since continued to perform live shows. Christopher Hall and Walter Flakus formed the band Stabbing Westward, they came up with the name while working at the college radio station WIUS-FM. During an interview in 1996, Hall stated, "Since we went to Western Illinois University, Stabbing Westward had a certain'kill everybody in the school' vibe to it! The school's way out in farm country and the country is close minded. I was walking around like Robert Smith with real big hair, big baggy black clothes, black fingernail polish and eye makeup, they just didn't get it. We hated the town." Moving to Chicago in 1986, the original lineup for Stabbing Westward consisted of Hall on bass and lead vocals, Flakus on keyboards, Jim Clanin on guitar.
In 1990, an extended play tape was recorded by an early conception of Stabbing Westward. The EP, called Iwo Jesus, was released in 1992 and featured four songs: an early version of "Violent Mood Swings", "Plastic Jesus," "P. O. M. F." and an early version of "Shame." "Violent Mood Swing" was included on the 1992 compilation CD The Cyberflesh Conspiracy. Hall took a brief break to tour with the band Die Warzau as that group's percussionist before continuing work on Stabbing Westward. Hall and Flakus recruited Jim Sellers on bass and Chris Vrenna on drums, as Hall had met Vrenna when playing in Die Warzau. Vrenna played drums on all the demo recordings that landed Stabbing Westward their record deal with Columbia Records; those demo recordings included "Violent Mood Swings," "Lies," and "Nothing." They were recorded at a studio in Evanston and included Stuart Zechman on guitar. After Vrenna returned to Nine Inch Nails, the band hired David Suycott, a high school friend of Flakus; the trio added Wax Trax recording artist Stuart Zechman on David Suycott on drums.
In 1993, the band recorded in Eden Studios. This resulted in their major label debut album, released on February 15, 1994; the band landed an opening slot on the Depeche Mode Exotic Tour in summer 1994 and opened North American tour dates in fall 1994 for Killing Joke, but Stabbing Westward album sales were still sluggish. David Suycott abruptly dropped out of the band toward the end of the Ungod tour. Andy Kubiszewski was called in to replace Suycott's position for the remainder of the shows; this fast replacement required Kubiszewski to learn all of Suycott's parts while on his flight to meet with the band. Kubiszewski became a permanent fixture of Stabbing Westward; the "Thread Mix" of the song "Violent Mood Swings" was included in the soundtrack to the 1994 film Clerks. The song "Nothing" was featured in the 1995 motion picture Bad Boys, but was not included on the film's soundtrack release. "Nothing" was included in the credits of the movie Johnny Mnemonic and both it and "Lost" were featured on the movie's soundtrack.
The songs "Lies," "Lost," and "Can't Happen Here" were all featured in the first Mortal Kombat movie in 1995. When Stuart Zechman departed the band after the Ungod tour due to personal differences, the remaining band members found themselves without one of their major songwriters. New drummer Andy Kubiszewski took over some songwriting duties afterward. Prior to playing in Stabbing Westward, Kubiszewski had not only played drums in The The, recorded one song for Nine Inch Nails, played in Prick, but had been the singer and songwriter in the Cleveland-based Exotic Birds. Shortly after Zechman's departure, Kubiszewski played the band dozens of demos and Exotic Birds recordings. Included were "What Do I Have to Do?", "Haunting Me," "Sometimes It Hurts," "Crushing Me," "Slipping Away," "Desperate Now," and "Goodbye." These tracks would find space on both the Wither and Darkest Days albums. When the band headed to Bearsville Studios in Woodstock, New York, without a permanent guitar player, they decided to play all the guitar parts themselves, with Sellers and Kubiszewski taking on most of the guitar duties.
In 1996, the Wither Blister Burn & Peel LP became a success, landing them their first certified gold album, aided by the singles "Shame" and "What Do I Have to Do?" which granted the band heavy rotation on MTV, MuchMusic and radio. Tour mates for this album included Sponge. "What Do I Have to Do?" was featured in 1997's Masterminds, as well as in the episode "Tempest" of Smallville years later. The band recruited Mark Eliopulos after the Wither recording sessions were completed to handle the live element of the main guitar parts. Stabbing Westward relocated to Los Angeles, California where they began work on the 1998 album, titled Darkest Days. Darkest Days was envisioned as a four-act story by the band; this is the only release featuring studio work by Mark Eliopulos. The first single "Save Yourself" had success yet the album failed to sell as well as its predecessor. Stabbing Westward continued to tour with bands like Placebo, The Cult, Monster Magnet, Depeche Mode, while playing numerous summer festivals.
Due to a broken collarbone, Kubiszewski was forced to sit out the remainder of the touring cycle. He was replaced for three dates by former drummer Chris Vrenna Johnny Haro for the
An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth