Richard Charles Rodgers was an American composer of music, with over 900 songs and 43 Broadway musicals, leaving a legacy as one of the most significant composers of 20th century American music. He is best known for his songwriting partnerships with the lyricists Lorenz Hart and Oscar Hammerstein II, his compositions have had a significant impact on popular music. Rodgers was the first person to win what are considered the top American entertainment awards in television, recording and Broadway – an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar, a Tony Award — now known collectively as an EGOT. In addition, he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize, making him one of only two people to receive all five awards. Born into a prosperous German Jewish family in Arverne, New York City, Rodgers was the son of Mamie and Dr. William Abrahams Rodgers, a prominent physician who had changed the family name from Abrahams. Richard began playing the piano at age six, he attended P. S. 166, Townsend Harris Hall and DeWitt Clinton High School.
Rodgers spent his early teenage summers in Camp Wigwam. Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, collaborator Oscar Hammerstein II all attended Columbia University. At Columbia, Rodgers joined the Pi Lambda Phi fraternity. In 1921, Rodgers shifted his studies to the Institute of Musical Art. Rodgers was influenced by composers such as Victor Herbert and Jerome Kern, as well as by the operettas his parents took him to see on Broadway when he was a child. In 1919, Richard met Lorenz Hart, thanks to a friend of Richard's older brother. Rodgers and Hart struggled for years in the field of musical comedy, they made their professional debut with the song "Any Old Place With You", featured in the 1919 Broadway musical comedy A Lonely Romeo. Their first professional production was the 1920 Poor Little Ritz Girl, which had music by Sigmund Romberg, their next professional show, The Melody Man, did not premiere until 1924. When he was just out of college Rodgers worked as musical director for Lew Fields. Among the stars he accompanied.
Rodgers was considering quitting show business altogether to sell children's underwear, when he and Hart broke through in 1925. They wrote the songs for a benefit show presented by the prestigious Theatre Guild, called The Garrick Gaieties, the critics found the show fresh and delightful. Only meant to run one day, the Guild knew they allowed it to re-open later; the show's biggest hit — the song that Rodgers believed "made" Rodgers and Hart — was "Manhattan". The two were now a Broadway songwriting force. Throughout the rest of the decade, the duo wrote several hit shows for both Broadway and London, including Dearest Enemy, The Girl Friend, Peggy-Ann, A Connecticut Yankee, Present Arms, their 1920s shows produced standards such as "Here in My Arms", "Mountain Greenery", "Blue Room", "My Heart Stood Still" and "You Took Advantage of Me". With the Depression in full swing during the first half of the 1930s, the team sought greener pastures in Hollywood; the hardworking Rodgers regretted these fallow years, but he and Hart did write some classic songs and film scores while out west, including Love Me Tonight, which introduced three standards: "Lover", "Mimi", "Isn't It Romantic?".
Rodgers wrote a melody for which Hart wrote three consecutive lyrics which either were cut, not recorded or not a hit. The fourth lyric resulted in one of their most famous songs, "Blue Moon". Other film work includes the scores to The Phantom President, starring George M. Cohan, Hallelujah, I'm a Bum, starring Al Jolson, and, in a quick return after having left Hollywood, starring Bing Crosby and W. C. Fields. In 1935, they returned to Broadway and wrote an unbroken string of hit shows that ended only with Hart's death in 1943. Among the most notable are Jumbo, On Your Toes, Babes in Arms, I Married an Angel, The Boys from Syracuse, Pal Joey, their last original work, By Jupiter. Rodgers contributed to the book on several of these shows. Many of the songs from these shows are still sung and remembered, including "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World", "My Romance", "Little Girl Blue", "I'll Tell the Man in the Street", "There's a Small Hotel", "Where or When", "My Funny Valentine", "The Lady Is a Tramp", "Falling in Love with Love", "Bewitched and Bewildered", "Wait till You See Her".
In 1939, he wrote the ballet Ghost Town for the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, with choreography by Marc Platoff. Rodgers' partnership with Hart began having problems because of the lyricist's unreliability and declining health. Rodgers began working with Oscar Hammerstein II, with whom he had written songs, their first musical, the groundbreaking hit Oklahoma!, marked the beginning of the most successful partnership in American musical theatre history. Their work revolutionized the musical form. What was once a collection of songs and comic turns held together by a tenuous plot became a integrated piece; the team went on to create four more hits. Each was made into a successful film: Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I, The Sound of Music. Other shows include the minor hit Flower Dru
The Way You Look Tonight
"The Way You Look Tonight" is a song from the film Swing Time, performed by Fred Astaire and written by Dorothy Fields and Jerome Kern. It won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1936. Fields remarked, "The first time Jerry played that melody for me I started to cry; the release killed me. I couldn't stop, it was so beautiful."In the movie, Astaire sang "The Way You Look Tonight" to Ginger Rogers while she was washing her hair in an adjacent room. His recording reached the top of the charts in 1936. Other versions that year were by Teddy Wilson with Billie Holiday. To take advantage of the success of the song, pianist Teddy Wilson brought Billie Holiday into a studio ten weeks after the movie was released. Holiday was twenty-one when she recorded "The Way You Look Tonight" as a duet with Wilson in October 1936. Six years passed before the song appeared on the charts again, this time in a version by Benny Goodman with Peggy Lee on vocals and Mel Powell on celeste; the most popular and imitated version was recorded by Frank Sinatra with the Nelson Riddle orchestra in 1964.
Versions were recorded by Clifford Brown, Tina Brooks, Johnny Griffin, Charlie Parker, Tony Bennett. Bing Crosby and his wife Dixie Lee recorded it as a duet on August 19, 1936; the Lettermen found their first hit when their version reached No. 13 on the Billboard magazine Hot 100 singles chart in 1961 and No. 36 on the UK Singles Chart that same year. Sonny Rollins and Thelonious Monk recorded it in 1954. Cassandra Wilson included the song in her 2015 album Coming Forth by Day. List of 1930s jazz standards Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Jazz standards - The Way You Look Tonight
Arthur Stewart Farmer was an American jazz trumpeter and flugelhorn player. He played flumpet, a trumpet–flugelhorn combination designed for him, he and his identical twin brother, double bassist Addison Farmer, started playing professionally while in high school. Art gained greater attention after the release of a recording of his composition "Farmer's Market" in 1952, he subsequently moved from Los Angeles to New York, where he performed and recorded with musicians such as Horace Silver, Sonny Rollins, Gigi Gryce and became known principally as a bebop player. As Farmer's reputation grew, he expanded from bebop into more experimental forms through working with composers such as George Russell and Teddy Charles, he went on to join Gerry Mulligan's quartet and, with Benny Golson, to co-found the Jazztet. Continuing to develop his own sound, Farmer switched from trumpet to the warmer flugelhorn in the early 1960s, he helped to establish the flugelhorn as a soloist's instrument in jazz, he continued to tour internationally until his death.
Farmer recorded more than 50 albums under his own name, a dozen with the Jazztet, dozens more with other leaders. His playing is known for its individuality – most noticeably, its lyricism, warmth of tone and sensitivity. Art Farmer was born an hour before his twin brother, on August 21, 1928, in Council Bluffs, Iowa at 2201 Fourth Avenue, their parents, James Arthur Farmer and Hazel Stewart Farmer, divorced when the boys were four, their steelworker father was killed in a work accident not long after this. Art moved with his grandfather, mother and sister to Phoenix, Arizona when he was still four, he started to play the piano while in elementary school moved on to bass tuba and violin before settling on cornet and trumpet at the age of thirteen. His family was musical: most of them played as a hobby, one was a professional trombonist. Art's grandfather was a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church; this influenced Farmer's first choice of instrument, as his mother played piano for the church choir.
The bass tuba was for use in a marching band and was Farmer's instrument for a year, until a cornet became available. Phoenix schools were segregated, no one at Farmer's school could provide useful music lessons, he practiced his new main instrument, the trumpet. Farmer and his brother moved to Los Angeles in 1945, attending the music-oriented Jefferson High School, where they got music instruction and met other developing musicians such as Sonny Criss, Ernie Andrews, Big Jay McNeely, Ed Thigpen; the brothers earned money by playing professionally. Art started playing trumpet professionally at the age of 16, performing in the bands of Horace Henderson, Jimmy Mundy, Floyd Ray, among others; these opportunities came about through a combination of his ability and the absence of numerous older musicians, who were still in the armed forces following World War II. Around this time in Los Angeles, there were abundant opportunities for musical development, according to Farmer: "During the day you would go to somebody's house and play.
At night there were after-hours clubs anybody who wanted to play was free to come up and play". Farmer left high school early but persuaded the principal to give him a diploma, which he did not collect until a visit to the school in 1958. At this time, as an adolescent in Los Angeles and the swing era big bands both attracted Farmer's attention. Decades he stated that, at that time, "I knew I had to be in jazz. Two things decided me – the sound of a trumpet section in a big band and hearing a jam session". Farmer's trumpet influences in the 1940s were Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis and Fats Navarro, but, in his own words, "then I heard Freddie Webster, I loved his sound. I decided to work on sound because it seemed like most of the guys my age were just working on speed". Farmer left school to tour with a group led by Johnny Otis, but this job lasted for only four months, as Farmer's lip gave out. Performing for long periods seven days a week for this job put great pressure on his technique, insufficiently developed to cope with such physical demands.
His lip became lacerated, he could no longer play. He received technique training in New York, where he worked for a time as a janitor and played as a freelance musician during 1947 and 1948. An audition for Dizzy Gillespie's big band was unsuccessful, Farmer returned to the West Coast in 1948 as a member of Jay McShann's band. Club and studio work was hard to get in Los Angeles from the late 1940s and into the 1950s, as it was dominated by white musicians. Farmer played and toured with Benny Carter, Roy Porter and Gerald Wilson played with Wardell Gray in 1951–52; the hazards of the touring jazz musician's lifestyle were present: while travelling overnight by car between Phoenix and El Paso, to get to another Roy Porter-led gig, the car that Farmer was in overturned at high speed, leaving him concussed and Porter with broken ribs. Farmer's first studio recording appears to have been on June 28 or July 2, 1948, in Los Angeles, under the leadership of vocalist Big Joe Turner and pianist Pete Johnson.
They recorded "Radar Blues", at some point in the same or the following year they added a further seven sides. Farmer recorded further singles with Roy Porter and on January 21, 1952, as a member of Wardell Gray's sextet; the latter session produced six tracks. These included "Farmer's Market", a piece, written by Farmer and brought him greater attention. Farmer worked i
Benny Golson is an American bebop/hard bop jazz tenor saxophonist and arranger. He came to prominence with the big bands of Lionel Hampton and Dizzy Gillespie, more as a writer than a performer, before launching his solo career. Golson is known for co-founding and co-leading The Jazztet with trumpeter Art Farmer in 1959. From the late 1960s through the 1970s Golson was in demand as an arranger for film and television and thus was less active as a performer, but he and Farmer reformed the Jazztet in 1982. Several of Golson's songs have become jazz standards, including "Blues March", "Whisper Not", "I Remember Clifford", "Killer Joe". While in high school in Philadelphia, Golson played with several other promising young musicians, including John Coltrane, Red Garland, Jimmy Heath, Percy Heath, Philly Joe Jones, Red Rodney. After graduating from Howard University, Golson joined Bull Moose Jackson's rhythm and blues band. From 1953 to 1959 Golson played with Dameron's band and with the bands of Lionel Hampton, Johnny Hodges, Earl Bostic, Dizzy Gillespie, Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers with whom he recorded the classic Moanin' in 1958.
Golson was working with the Lionel Hampton band at the Apollo Theater in Harlem in 1956 when he learned that Clifford Brown, a noted and well-liked jazz trumpeter who had done a stint with him in Dameron's band, had died in a car accident. Golson was so moved by the event that he composed the threnody "I Remember Clifford", as a tribute to a fellow musician and friend. In addition to "I Remember Clifford", many of Golson's compositions have become jazz standards. Songs such as "Stablemates", "Killer Joe", "Whisper Not", "Along Came Betty", "Are You Real?" have been performed and recorded numerous times by many musicians. From 1959 to 1962 Golson co-led the Jazztet with Art Farmer. Golson left jazz to concentrate on studio and orchestral work for 12 years. During this time he composed music for such television shows as Mannix, Room 222, M*A*S*H, The Partridge Family and Mission: Impossible, he formulated and conducted arrangements to various recordings, such as Eric Is Here, a 1967 album by Eric Burdon, which features five of Golson's arrangements, conducted by Golson.
During the mid-1970s Golson returned to jazz recording. Critic Scott Yannow of Allmusic wrote that Golson's sax style underwent a major shift with his performing comeback, more resembling avant-garde Archie Shepp than the swing-era Don Byas influence of Golson's youth. In 1982 Golson re-organized the Jazztet. In 1995 Golson received the NEA Jazz Masters Award of the National Endowment for the Arts. Golson made a cameo appearance in the 2004 movie The Terminal, related to his appearance in the famed A Great Day in Harlem photo of famous jazz musicians. Main character Viktor Navorski travels to the US from Europe to obtain Golson's signature. Golson's song "Something in B Flat" can be heard during a scene where Hanks's character is painting and redecorating part of an airport terminal. In October 2007 Golson received the Mellon Living Legend Legacy Award presented by the Mid Atlantic Arts Foundation at a ceremony at the Kennedy Center. Additionally, during the same month, he won the University of Pittsburgh International Academy of Jazz Outstanding Lifetime Achievement Award at the university's 37th Annual Jazz Concert in the Carnegie Music Hall.
In November 2009, Benny was inducted into the International Academy of Jazz Hall of Fame during a performance at the University of Pittsburgh's annual jazz seminar and concert. The Howard University Jazz Studies program created a prestigious award in his honor called the "Benny Golson Jazz Master Award" in 1996. Several distinguished jazz artists have received this award. "And You Called My Name", 1954 "Stablemates", 1955 "Whisper Not", 1956 "Are You Real?", 1958 "I Remember Clifford", 1957 "Just by Myself", 1957 "Blues March", 1958 "Park Avenue Petite", aka "From Dream to Dream", 1959 "Along Came Betty", 1959 "Killer Joe", 1960 Benny Golson's New York Scene The Modern Touch The Other Side of Benny Golson Benny Golson and the Philadelphians Gone with Golson Groovin' with Golson Winchester Special with Lem Winchester Gettin' with It Take a Number from 1 to 10 Pop + Jazz = Swing Turning Point Free The Roland Kirk Quartet Meets the Benny Golson Orchestra with Roland Kirk Stockholm Sojourn Tune In, Turn On Killer Joe California Message with Curtis Fuller One More Mem'ry with Curtis Fuller Time Speaks with Freddie Hubbard and Woody Shaw This Is for You, John Stardust with Freddie Hubbard Benny Golson Quartet Live Benny Golson Quartet Domingo I Remember Miles That's Funky Tenor Legacy Up Jumped Benny Remembering Clifford One Day, Forever Terminal 1 New Time, New'Tet Horizon Ahead List of jazz arrangers Official Site Listening In: An Interview with Benny Golson by Bob Rosenbaum, Los Angeles, February 1982 Benny Golson on IMDb Benny Golson Recreates His Grea
The Company I Keep
The Company I Keep is an album by trumpeters Art Farmer and Tom Harrell, recorded in 1994 and released on the Arabesque label. The AllMusic review by Scott Yanow said "although few fireworks occur, the music is tasteful, enjoyable advanced hard bop". "Sunshine in the Rain" – 7:02 "Song of the Canopy" – 8:15 "Santana" – 10:37 "Beside Myself" – 5:29 "Beyond" – 6:01 "T. G. T. T." – 6:58 "Who Knows" – 8:22 "Turn Out the Stars" – 8:52 Art Farmer – flumpet Tom Harrell – trumpet, arranger Ron Blake – tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone Geoff Keezer – piano, arranger Kenny Davis – double bass, arranger Carl Allen – drums Fritz Pauer – arranger
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
The Flumpet is a hybrid brass horn instrument that shares the construction and timbre qualities of a trumpet and flugelhorn. The Flumpet was invented for Art Farmer by David Monette and is in production by Monette; the Flumpet has a pitch of B♭. The Flumpet was designed in 1989 and borrows the three piston valve design of both the trumpet and flugelhorn and shares the same instrument length of a trumpet; the curves on the end of the Flumpet have a resemblance to shepherd's crooks. The mouthpiece is conical which tapers as opposed to the trumpet mouthpiece which has an extreme taper to create a bowl shape; the sound of the Flumpet is described as thicker and richer than a flugelhorn and more mellow and rounded than that of a trumpet. During its creation, metal-worker David Monette wanted to produce an instrument that broke design barriers but maintained its usefulness; the Flumpet has been described as “capable of both warmth and sharp attack”, taking advantage of the softer sound produced by the flugelhorn, advantageous in smaller and more intimate venues, whilst still being capable of producing the more familiar harder tones of a trumpet.
The tone has been described as having “characteristics of a flugelhorn, but not nearly as brittle. It has the response of a cornet, but again the sound quality is broader and more resonant.” Art Farmer Charles Schlueter Scotty Barnhart Vince Jones Made popular by the works of Art Farmer and The Art Farmer Septet, the Flumpet can be heard on his record Silk Road. At a 1997 performance by Boston Symphony Orchestra, Charles Schlueter played the Flumpet in place of the post-horn solo of Mahler’s Symphony No. 3. Farmer used the instrument on Haydn’s trumpet concerto. Film composer and musician Mark Isham played Flumpet on the soundtrack for the 1997 film Afterglow. Monette site Example of flumpet playing