Sir Derek George Jacobi CBE is an English actor and stage director. A forceful, commanding presence, Jacobi has enjoyed a successful stage career, appearing in such stage productions as Hamlet, Uncle Vanya. He has twice awarded a Laurence Olivier Award, first for his performance of the eponymous hero in Cyrano de Bergerac in 1983. He received a Tony Award for his performance in Much Ado About Nothing in 1984 and his stage work includes playing Octavius Caesar, Edward II, Richard III and Thomas Becket. He holds a knighthood and has appointed a Knight First Class of the Order of the Dannebrog. His paternal great-grandfather had emigrated from Germany to England during the 19th century, Jacobi describes his childhood as happy. In his teens he went to the Leyton Sixth Form College and became a part of the drama club. While in the sixth-form, he starred in a production of Hamlet, at 18 he won a scholarship to the University of Cambridge, where he read history at St Johns College and earned his degree.
Younger members of the university at the time included Ian McKellen, during his studies at Cambridge, Jacobi played many parts including Hamlet, which was taken on a tour to Switzerland, where he met Richard Burton. As a result of his performance of Edward II at Cambridge and he played Laertes in the National Theatres inaugural production of Hamlet opposite Peter OToole in 1963. Olivier cast him as Cassio in the successful National Theatre stage production of Othello and he played Andrei in the NT production and film of Three Sisters, both featuring Olivier. On 27 July 1965, Jacobi played Brindsley Miller in the first production of Peter Shaffers Black Comedy and it was presented by the National Theatre at Chichester and subsequently in London. After eight years at the National Theatre, Jacobi left in 1971 to pursue different roles, in 1972, he starred in the BBC serial Man of Straw an adaptation of Heinrich Manns book Der Untertan, directed by Herbert Wise. Jacobi was increasingly busy with stage and screen acting, but his big breakthrough came in 1976 when he played the role in the BBCs series I.
He cemented his reputation with his performance as the stammering, twitching Emperor Claudius, in 1979, thanks to his international popularity, he took Hamlet on a theatrical world tour through England, Greece, Australia and China, playing Prince Hamlet. He was invited to perform the role at Kronborg Castle, known as Elsinore Castle, in 1978 he appeared in the BBC Television Shakespeare production of Richard II, with Sir John Gielgud and Dame Wendy Hiller. In 1980, Jacobi took the role in the BBCs Hamlet, made his Broadway debut in The Suicide. In 1986, he made his West End debut in Breaking the Code by Hugh Whitemore, starring in the role of Alan Turing, the play was taken to Broadway
Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise, successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers generally keep the audience on the edge of their seats as the plot builds towards a climax, the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, and cliffhangers are used extensively, a thriller is usually a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homers Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as a prototype of the thriller. Thrillers may be defined by the mood that they elicit. In short, if it thrills, it is a thriller, as the introduction to a major anthology explains, Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre. It gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension and these develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which make the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions.
Suspense builds in order to make those final moments, no matter how short, the suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of expectations, it may be contrasted with curiosity. The objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, the second type of suspense is the. anticipation wherein we either know or else are fairly certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence. According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are mainly ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are investigations and the whodunit technique, common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, deathtraps, elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers.
Threats to entire countries, espionage, assassins, the themes frequently include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with other or with outside forces. The protagonist of these films is set against a problem, no matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women characters are increasingly common
A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor. The performance advantages of nuclear submarines over conventional submarines are considerable, Nuclear propulsion, being completely independent of air, frees the submarine from the need to surface frequently, as is necessary for conventional submarines. Current generations of nuclear submarines never need to be refueled throughout their 25-year lifespans, the high cost of nuclear technology means that relatively few states have fielded nuclear submarines. Some of the most serious nuclear and radiation accidents ever to occur have involved Soviet nuclear submarine mishaps, the idea for a nuclear-powered submarine was first proposed in the United States Navy by the Naval Research Laboratorys Ross Gunn in 1939. In July 1951 the U. S. Congress authorized construction of the first nuclear-powered submarine, under the leadership of Captain Hyman G. Rickover, the Westinghouse Corporation was assigned to build its reactor. On 17 January 1955, she departed Groton, Connecticut to begin sea trials, the submarine was 320 feet long, and cost about $55 million.
The Soviet Union soon followed the United States in developing nuclear-powered submarines in the 1950s, in 1956, the first Soviet propulsion reactor designed by his team began operational testing. Meanwhile, a team under Vladimir N. Peregudov worked on the vessel that would house the reactor. Nuclear power proved ideal for the propulsion of strategic ballistic missile submarines, the Soviets already had several SSBs of the Project 629, and were only a year behind the US with their first SSBN, the ill-fated K-19 of Project 658, commissioned in November 1960. However, this carried the same three-missile armament as the Golfs. The first Soviet SSBN with 16 missiles was the Project 667A, at the height of the Cold War, approximately five to ten nuclear submarines were being commissioned from each of the four Soviet submarine yards. From the late 1950s through the end of 1997, the Soviet Union, six countries deploy some form of nuclear-powered strategic submarines, the United States, France, the United Kingdom and India.
Several other countries, including Argentina and Brazil, have ongoing projects in different phases to build nuclear-powered submarines, in the United Kingdom, all former and current nuclear submarines of the British Royal Navy have been constructed in Barrow-in-Furness where construction of nuclear submarines continues. Conqueror is the only nuclear-powered submarine ever to have engaged an enemy ship with torpedoes, the main difference between conventional submarines and nuclear submarines is the power generation system. Nuclear submarines employ nuclear reactors for this task and they either generate electricity that powers electric motors connected to the propeller shaft or rely on the reactor heat to produce steam that drives steam turbines. All naval nuclear reactors currently in use are operated with diesel generators as a power system. These engines are able to provide electrical power for reactor decay heat removal. Submarines may carry nuclear fuel for up to 30 years of operation, the only resource that limits the time underwater is the food supply for the crew and maintenance of the vessel
Entertainment Inc. – colloquially known as Warner Bros. or Warner Bros. It is one of the Big Six major American film studios, Warner Bros. is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. The companys name originated from the four founding Warner brothers, Albert, Jack, the youngest, was born in London, Ontario. The three elder brothers began in the theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, the owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, in 1912, Harry Warner hired an auditor named Paul Ashley Chase.
By the time of World War I they had begun producing films, in 1918 they opened the first Warner Bros. studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, on April 4,1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Brothers Pictures, Incorporated. The first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwoods 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature Where the North Begins, the movie was so successful that Jack signed the dog to star in more films for $1,000 per week. Rin Tin Tin became the top star. Jack nicknamed him The Mortgage Lifter and the success boosted Darryl F.
Zanucks career, Zanuck eventually became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jacks right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came after Ernst Lubitsch was hired as head director, lubitschs film The Marriage Circle was the studios most successful film of 1924, and was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warners remained a lesser studio and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel. The film was so successful that Harry signed Barrymore to a contract, like The Marriage Circle. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywoods most successful independent studio, as the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, and in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan
Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum. The camp was established in 1936, executions took place at Sachsenhausen, especially of Soviet prisoners of war. During the earlier stages of the existence the executions were done in a trench. A large task force of prisoners was used from the camp to work in nearby brickworks to meet Albert Speers vision of rebuilding Berlin, Sachsenhausen was originally not intended as an extermination camp—instead, the systematic murder was conducted in camps to the east. In 1942 large numbers of Jewish inmates were relocated to Auschwitz, however the construction of a gas chamber and ovens by camp-commandant Anton Kaindl in March 1943 facilitated the means to kill larger numbers of prisoners.
The Main gate or Guard Tower A, with its 8mm Maxim machine gun, on the front entrance gates to Sachsenhausen is the infamous slogan Arbeit Macht Frei. About 200,000 people passed through Sachsenhausen between 1936 and 1945, anchoring the base of the triangular shaped thousand-acre site was the large Appellplatz, where tens of thousands of prisoners would line up for morning and evening roll call. Creating a semi circular configuration, were the barracks of custody zone I which fanned out from the base of the Appellplatz, Sachsenhausen was intended to set a standard for other concentration camps, both in its design and the treatment of prisoners. The camp perimeter is, approximately, a triangle with a semi circular roll call area centered on the main entrance gate in the boundary running northeast to southwest. Barrack huts lay beyond the roll call area, radiating from the gate, the layout was intended to allow the machine gun post in the entrance gate to dominate the camp but in practice it was necessary to add additional watchtowers to the perimeter.
The standard barrack layout was to have a central washing area and a room with toilet bowls. There was an infirmary inside the angle of the perimeter. There was a kitchen and a camp laundry. The camps capacity became inadequate and the camp was extended in 1938 by a new rectangular area northeast of the entrance gate, there was an additional area outside the main camp perimeter to the north, this was built in 1941 for special prisoners that the regime wished to isolate. The camp was secure and there were few successful escapes, the perimeter consisted of a 3-metre-high stone wall on the outside. Within that there was a space that was patrolled by guards and dogs, it was bordered on the inside by an electric fence. Any prisoner venturing onto the strip would be shot by the guards without warning
Richard Burton, CBE was a Welsh actor who was noted for his mellifluous baritone voice. Burton established himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor in the 1950s and he was called the natural successor to Olivier by critic and dramaturge Kenneth Tynan. An alcoholic, Burtons failure to live up to those expectations disappointed critics and colleagues, Burton was nominated for an Academy Award seven times, but never won an Oscar. He was a recipient of BAFTAs, Golden Globes, and Tony Awards for Best Actor, Burton remains closely associated in the public consciousness with his second wife, actress Elizabeth Taylor. The couples turbulent relationship was rarely out of the news, Burton was born Richard Walter Jenkins, Jr. on 10 November 1925 in a house at 2 Dan-y-bont in Pontrhydyfen, Neath Port Talbot. He was the twelfth of thirteen born to Richard Walter Jenkins Sr. Jenkins Sr. called Daddy Ni by the family, was a miner, while his mother worked as a bartender at a pub called the Miners Arms. He remembered his mother to be a strong woman and a religious soul with fair hair.
Richard was barely two years old when his mother died on 31 October, six days after the birth of Graham, Ediths death was a result of postpartum infections, Richard believed it occurred due to hygiene neglect. According to biographer Michael Munn, Edith was fastidiously clean, following Ediths death, Richards elder sister Cecilia, whom he affectionately addressed as Cis, and her husband Elfed James, a miner, took him under their care. I was immensely proud of her and she felt all tragedies except her own. Daddy Ni would occasionally visit the homes of his daughters but was otherwise absent. Another important figure in Richards early life was Ifor, his brother,19 years his senior, a miner and rugby union player, Ifor ruled the household with the proverbial firm hand. He was responsible for nurturing a passion for Rugby in young Richard, although Richard played cricket and table tennis, biographer Bragg notes rugby union football to be his greatest interest. On rugby, Richard said he would rather have played for Wales at Cardiff Arms Park than Hamlet at The Old Vic, the Welsh rugby union centre, Bleddyn Williams believed Richard had distinct possibilities as a player.
From the age of five to eight, Richard was educated at the Eastern Primary School while he attended the Boys segment of the school from eight to twelve years old. He took an exam for admission into Port Talbot Secondary School in March 1937. Biographer Hollis Alpert notes that both Daddy Ni and Ifor considered Richards education to be of paramount importance and planned to send him to the University of Oxford, Richard became the first member of his family to go to secondary school
Bristol Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, is the Church of England cathedral in the city of Bristol, England. It is a Grade I listed building, the eastern end of the church includes fabric from the 12th century, with the Elder Lady Chapel which was added in the early 13th century. Much of the church was rebuilt in the English Decorated Gothic style during the 14th century despite financial problems within the abbey, in the 15th century the transept and central tower were added. The nave was incomplete at the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539 and was demolished, in the 19th century Gothic Revival a new nave was built by George Edmund Street partially using the original plans. The western twin towers, designed by John Loughborough Pearson, were completed in 1888, located on College Green, the cathedral has tall Gothic windows and pinnacled skyline. The eastern end is a church in which the aisles are the same height as the Choir. The late Norman chapter house, situated south of the transept, in addition to the cathedrals architectural features, it contains several memorials and an historic organ.
Little of the stained glass remains with some being replaced in the Victorian era. Bristol Cathedral was founded as St Augustines Abbey in 1140 by Robert Fitzharding, as the name suggests, the monastic precinct housed Augustinian canons. The original abbey church, of which fragments remain, was constructed between 1140 and 1148 in the Romanesque style, known in England as Norman. The Venerable Bede made reference to St Augustine of Canterbury visiting the site in 603ACE and that site was bombed during World War Two and the site built on by the Royal Hotel, but archaeological finds were deposited with Bristol Museum and Art Gallery. The dedication ceremony was held on 11 April 1148, and was conducted by the Bishops of Worcester, Llandaff, further stone buildings were erected on the site between 1148 and 1164. Three examples of this phase survive, the chapterhouse and the gatehouse, now the diocesan office, together with a second Romanesque gateway. Burrough, an architectural historian, describes the former as the finest Norman chapter house still standing today.
In 1154 King Henry II greatly increased the endowment and wealth of the abbey as reward to Robert Fitzharding, by 1170 enough of the new church building was complete for it to be dedicated by four bishops - Worcester, Llandaff and St Asaph. Under Abbot David there was a new phase of building, notably the construction in around 1220 of a dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. This building, which still stands, was to become known as the Elder Lady Chapel, the architect, referred to in a letter as L, is thought to have been Adam Lock, master mason of Wells Cathedral. The stonework of the window of this chapel is by William the Geometer
Caravaggio painted two versions of Medusa, the first in 1596 and the other presumably in 1597. The first version is known as Murtula, by the name of the poet who wrote about it, Gaspare Murtola, for if your eyes are petrified in amazement. It measures 48 by 55 cm and is signed Michel A F, Michel Angelo made, the second version, shown here, is slightly bigger and is not signed, it is held in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Caterina Caneva, La Medusa del Caravaggio restaurata, Roma,2002 Medusa at Web Gallery of Art
Incorporated Television Company was a British television company involved in production and distribution. Incorporated Television Programme Company was founded by television mogul Lew Grade with Prince Littler, ITP put most of the production budget into producing one show, The Adventures of Robin Hood. It distributed ATV material outside of the UK, from 1966 to 1982 it was a subsidiary of Associated Communications Corporation after the acquisition of ATV. The initials ITC stood for two different things, Independent Television Corporation for sales to the Americas, and Incorporated Television Company for sales to the rest of the world, the American Independent Television Corporation was formed as a joint venture with Jack Wrather in 1958. In September 1958 it purchased Television Programs of America for $11,350,000, Wrather sold his shares to Lew Grade at the end of the decade. During 1988 The Bell Group, the owners of ITC were taken over by the Bond Corporation, subsequently the new owners started an asset-stripping programme.
In November 1988 ITC Entertainment was bought by its management, in 1989, ITC Home Video was formed in the United Kingdom, to make use of the many hours of programmes in the archive, unseen for years. This short-lived home entertainment division would end in 1991, in the following period, ITC continued to distribute its past library. In 1995, PolyGram purchased the company for $156 million, with Grade once again returning to ITC to act as a consultant until his death in December 1998. On 10 December 1998, Universal Studios parent, Seagram purchased PolyGram for $10.2 billion, Carlton chairman Michael Green said, The ITC library is a jewel in the crown. We can now unite it with the gems from Britains film. ITV plc continues to release ITCs original output through television repeats, books, in 2005, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the company, Network DVD released a DVD box set entitled ITC50 featuring episodes from eighteen different ITC productions. Jason King, The Adventurer, The Protectors, and Return of the Saint and it was the production company for The Muppet Show and Julie on Sesame Street which were both made at ATVs Elstree Studios and distributed in the UK by ATV and in the US by ITC.
ITC got its start as a company when former American producer Hannah Weinstein approached Lew Grade. Weinstein wanted to make a programme called The Adventures of Robin Hood, Weinstein proposed making the series for ITV and simultaneously marketing it in the United States through an American TV distribution company, Official Films. The series was a big success in countries, running from 1955 until 1959 on CBS and ATV London. Although most of the ITC series were produced in Britain, ITC often worked with Television Programs of America, ITC funded Anderson-created programs aimed at the adult market, including UFO and Space,1999. It was at ITCs request that Fanderson, the Gerry Anderson Appreciation Society, was founded, another ITC childrens series was The Adventures of Rupert Bear, the first television outing for the Daily Express cartoon character
One complicating factor is that there is disagreement about the definition of natural and the limits of naturalism. Concepts in the domain are closely related to concepts in religious spirituality. Sometimes we understand by nature the established course of things, as when we say that nature makes the night succeed the day, nature hath made respiration necessary to the life of men. Sometimes we take nature for the universe, or system of the works of God, as when it is said of a phoenix, or a chimera. And sometimes too, and that most commonly, we would express by nature a semi-deity or other kind of being. Parapsychologists use the term psi to refer to a unitary force underlying the phenomena they study. Views on the supernatural vary, for example it may be seen as, from this perspective, some events occur according to the laws of nature, and others occur according to a separate set of principles external to known nature. For example, in Scholasticism, it was believed that God was capable of performing any miracle so long as it didnt lead to a logical contradiction, others believe that all events have natural and only natural causes.
They believe that human beings ascribe supernatural attributes to purely natural events, such as lightning, floods, the supernatural is a feature of the philosophical traditions of Neoplatonism and Scholasticism. In contrast, the philosophy of Metaphysical naturalism argues for the conclusion that there are no supernatural entities, most religions include elements of belief in the supernatural while often featuring prominently in the study of the paranormal and occultism. Process theology is a school of thought influenced by the process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead. It is not possible, in process metaphysics, to conceive divine activity as an intervention into the “natural” order of events. Process theists usually regard the distinction between the supernatural and the natural as a by-product of the doctrine of creation ex nihilo, in process thought, there is no such thing as a realm of the natural in contrast to that which is supernatural. On the other hand, if “the natural” is defined more neutrally as “what is in the nature of things, in Whiteheads words, “It lies in the nature of things that the many enter into complex unity”.
It is tempting to emphasize process theisms denial of the supernatural, dreams as a Source of Supernatural Agent Concepts. Riekki T, Lindeman M, Raij T. T, Supernatural Believers Attribute More Intentions to Random Movement than Skeptics, An fMRI Study. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Purzycki Benjamin G, the Minds of Gods, A Comparative Study of Supernatural Agency. Unresolved Mourning, Supernatural Beliefs and Dissociation, A Mediation Analysis, vail K. E, Arndt J, Addollahi A
Marie-Christine Barrault is a French actress. She is best known for her performance in Cousin Cousine for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress and she is the widow of film director Roger Vadim. In 2010, she released her autobiography, titled This Long Way To Get To You, Marie-Christine Barrault was born in Paris, the daughter of French-Catholic parents Martha and Max-Henri Barrault. Her parents divorced and her father, who worked in the theatre, died while she was a teenager and she has a brother and she was raised by her grandmother, Felicite. Her mother re-married and had more children and she was mentored in acting by her aunt and uncle, French performers Jean-Louis Barrault and Madeleine Renaud, although they initially did not support her dreams of becoming an actress. She performed in plays in school and enrolled in an acting conservatory. She is a breast cancer survivor, Barrault got her start on television in Loeuvre. Barrault made her film debut in Éric Rohmers My Night at Mauds.
In 1970 Barrault was featured along with Pierre Richard in the comedy film Le Distrait, in 1975 Barrault starred in Cousin Cousine, for which she received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress in a Leading Role. She is not fluent in English and therefore has turned down offers to appear in American-Hollywood made films, in 1980 she accepted an offer from Woody Allen to appear in his film, Stardust Memories. She played the role of Guinevere in Éric Rohmers Perceval le Gallois, in 1988 she was nominated for a Genie Award for her performance in No Blame. In 1991 she portrayed Marie Curie in a television mini-series, in her career, she has preferred acting on the stage in France. In 2015, she came to Los Angeles on tour to perform in the play Les Yeux Ouverts, barraults first husband was producer Daniel Toscan du Plantier, whom she married in 1965, with whom she had two children and Ariane. She was married to director Roger Vadim from 1990 until his death from cancer in 2000, Marie-Christine Barrault at the Internet Movie Database Marie-Christine Barrault at AllMovie Marie-Christine Barrault at AlloCiné
One of his best known works is The Scream of 1893. Edvard Munch was born in a farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, to Laura Catherine Bjølstad and Christian Munch, Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married Laura, a woman half his age, in 1861. Edvard had a sister, Johanne Sophie, and three younger siblings, Peter Andreas, Laura Catherine, and Inger Marie. Both Sophie and Edvard appear to have inherited their artistic talent from their mother, Edvard Munch was related to painter Jacob Munch and historian Peter Andreas Munch. The family moved to Christiania in 1864 when Christian Munch was appointed medical officer at Akershus Fortress, Edvards mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, as did Munchs favorite sister Johanne Sophie in 1877. After their mothers death, the Munch siblings were raised by their father, often ill for much of the winters and kept out of school, Edvard would draw to keep himself occupied. He was tutored by his mates and his aunt.
Christian Munch instructed his son in history and literature, and entertained the children with vivid ghost-stories, as Edvard remembered it, Christians positive behavior toward his children was overshadowed by his morbid pietism. Munch wrote, My father was temperamentally nervous and obsessively religious—to the point of psychoneurosis, from him I inherited the seeds of madness. The angels of fear and death stood by my side since the day I was born, Christian reprimanded his children by telling them that their mother was looking down from heaven and grieving over their misbehavior. The oppressive religious milieu, plus Edvards poor health and the vivid ghost stories, helped inspire his macabre visions and nightmares, one of Munchs younger sisters, was diagnosed with mental illness at an early age. Of the five siblings, only Andreas married, but he died a few months after the wedding, Munch would write, I inherited two of mankinds most frightful enemies—the heritage of consumption and insanity.
Christian Munchs military pay was low, and his attempts to develop a private side practice failed, keeping his family in genteel. They moved frequently from one flat to another. Munchs early drawings and watercolors depicted these interiors, and the objects, such as medicine bottles and drawing implements. By his teens, art dominated Munchs interests, at thirteen, Munch had his first exposure to other artists at the newly formed Art Association, where he admired the work of the Norwegian landscape school. He returned to copy the paintings, and soon he began to paint in oils, in 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college to study engineering, where he excelled in physics and math. He learned scaled and perspective drawing, but frequent illnesses interrupted his studies, the following year, much to his fathers disappointment, Munch left the college determined to become a painter