Aleksandr Belyavsky (actor)
Alexander Borisovich Belyavsky was a Soviet/Russian actor who appeared in more than one hundred films. Belyavsky was the first presenter of the popular TV Show The 13 Chairs Tavern. In 1988 he was designated The Meritorious Artist of Russia. Alexander Belyavsky was born in Moscow, to Boris Moiseyevich Belyavsky and his wife Lyubov Alexandrovna, he was the family's eldest child, with two younger siblings. After finishing school in 1949 he enrolled into the Geological research faculty of the Moscow's Gold and Non-ferrous metals Institute where he studied up until 1955, making frequent trips to the Central Asian Soviet republics for professional practice. After the graduation Belyavsky spent several years in Irkutsk, working for the East-Siberian Geological department, he made his debut as an actor at the Irkutsk Drama Theatre, playing Molchalin in Alexander Griboyedov's Woe from Wit. Back in Moscow Belyavsky continued working as a geology engineer taking part in amateur theatrical productions staged by The Teachers' House.
He decided to quit his regular job, enrolled into the Boris Shchukin Theatre Institute, joined Vladimir Etush's class at the Vakhtangov Theatre. In summer 1957 Belyavsky made his debut on screen in Tales About Lenin. Three years still a student, he appeared in the Kiev Studio's film Save Our Souls. In 1961 Belyavsky graduated the Shchukin Theatre Institute with honors and was invited to join the Moscow Satire Theatre. In 1964 the Polish director Leonard Buczkowski cast him in the film Przerwany lot. While working in Warsaw Belyavsky learned the Polish language and appeared in five more Polish films, including the popular TV wartime thriller series The Four Tankmen and a Dog. In 1964 he left the Satire Theatre but never severed ties with its troupe, having become the co-director and the first presenter of the popular TV series 13 Chairs Tavern, it was Belyavsky who came up with the idea of staging a satirical TV series ridiculing a good-for-nothing'firm', members of which meet at the tavern to discuss their problems and perform Polish pop songs in a karaoke-style.
In 1964 Belyavsky joined the Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko Theatre moved in 1966 to the Theatre-Studio of a Cinema Actor. All in all he appeared in more than one hundred films, one of his best-known roles being that of villainous Fox in Stanislav Govorukhin's The Meeting Place Cannot Be Changed. In the 1990s Belyavsky hosted several TV shows. In 1999 he returned to the theatre and in 2003 was awarded the title of The People's Artist of Russia. In December 2003, Alexander Belyavsky suffered a stroke. On September 8, 2012, he was found on the ground by the house where he lived, having fallen from the staircase window between the 5th and the 6th floor of the house he lived in; the initial police reports implied. Alexander Belyavsky was buried in Kuzminskoye Cemetery in Moscow. Alexander Belyavsky was married twice. In his first marriage, to Valentina Viktorovna he fathered a son and daughter Nadezhda. With his second wife Lyudmila Tikhonovna they had a daughter, born on August 28, 2003, just three months prior to his suffering a stroke.
Stories about Lenin as electrician Nikolai Quite as journalist It happened in the police as Lieutenant Ganin Going Inside a Storm as Sergei Krylov Czterej pancerni i pies as Captain Ivan Pavlov July Rain The Mysterious Monk as Stronski Failure of Engineer Garin as Vasili Shelga The Irony of Fate as Sasha Father Sergius as master of the ferry The Meeting Place Cannot Be Changed as Yevgeniy Fox The Youth of Peter the Great as Lev Naryshkin At the Beginning of Glorious Days as Lev Naryshkin Say a Word for the Poor Hussar as governor Anxious Sunday as Istomin One Second for a Feat as Chistyakov Private Detective, or Operation Cooperation as Major Cronin Entrance to the Labyrinth as Mayor of Naousen Promised Heaven as Mirov Demobbed as rear-admiral Antikiller as King The Sum of All Fears as Admiral Ivanov Moscow Heat as Vlad's grandfather The Irony of Fate 2 as Sasha Kiss not for the press as governor Andrey Malakhov's Let'em Talk show on the controversy surrounding Alexander Belyavsky's death.
Aleksandr Belyavsky on IMDb
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies. The genre began with the folk-acoustic tradition. Singer-songwriters provide the sole accompaniment to an entire composition or song using a guitar or piano. "Singer-songwriter" is used to define popular music artists who write and perform their own material, self-accompanied on acoustic guitar or piano. Such an artist performs the roles of composer, vocalist, sometimes instrumentalist, self-manager. According to AllMusic, singer-songwriters' lyrics are personal but veiled by elaborate metaphors and vague imagery, their creative concern is to place emphasis on the song rather than their performance of it. Most records by such artists have a straightforward and spare sound that placed emphasis on the song itself; the term has been used to describe songwriters in the rock, folk and pop music genres including Henry Russell, Aristide Bruant, Hank Williams, Buddy Holly. It came into popular usage in the 1960s onwards to describe songwriters who followed particular stylistic and thematic conventions lyrical introspection, confessional songwriting, mild musical arrangements, an understated performing style.
According to writer Larry David Smith, because it merged the roles of composer and singer, the popularity of the singer-songwriter reintroduced the Medieval troubadour tradition of "songs with public personalities" after the Tin Pan Alley era in American popular music. Song topics include political protest, as in the case of the Almanac Singers, Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie; the concept of a singer-songwriter can be traced to ancient bardic oral tradition, which has existed in various forms throughout the world. Poems would be performed as chant or song, sometimes accompanied by a harp or other similar instrument. After the invention of printing, songs would be performed by ballad sellers; these would be versions of existing tunes and lyrics, which were evolving. This developed into the singer-songwriting traditions of folk culture. Traveling performers existed throughout Europe. Thus, the folklorist Anatole Le Braz gives a detailed account of one ballad singer, Yann Ar Minouz, who wrote and performed songs traveling through Brittany in the late nineteenth century and selling printed versions.
In large towns it was possible to make a living performing in public venues, with the invention of phonographic recording, early singer-songwriters like Théodore Botrel, George M. Cohan and Hank Williams became celebrities. During the period from the 1940s through the 1960s, sparked by the American folk music revival, young performers inspired by traditional folk music and groups like the Almanac Singers and the Weavers began writing and performing their own original material and creating their own musical arrangements; the term "singer-songwriter" in North America can be traced back to singers who developed works in the blues and folk music style. Early to mid-20th century American singer-songwriters include Lead Belly, Jimmie Rodgers, Blind Lemon Jefferson, T-Bone Walker, Blind Willie McTell, Lightnin' Hopkins, Son House, Robert Johnson. In the 1940s and 1950s country singer-songwriters like Hank Williams became well known, as well as Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, along with Ronnie Gilbert and Lee Hays and other members of the Weavers who performed their topical works to an ever-growing wider audience.
These proto-singer-songwriters were less concerned than today's singer-songwriters with the unadulterated originality of their music and lyrics, would lift parts from other songs and play covers without hesitation. The tradition of writing topical songs was established by this group of musicians. Singers like Seeger and Guthrie would attend rallies for labor unions, so wrote many songs concerning the life of the working classes, social protest; this focus on social issues has influenced the singer-songwriter genre. Additionally in the 1930s through the 1950s several jazz and blues singer-songwriters emerged like Hoagy Carmichael, Billie Holiday, Ray Charles, Harry Gibson, Nina Simone, as well as in the rock n' roll genre from which emerged influential singer-songwriters Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry, Roy Orbison, Sam Cooke, Ritchie Valens, Paul Anka. In the country music field, singer-songwriters like Hank Williams, Patsy Cline, Tammy Wynette, Loretta Lynn, George Jones, Merle Haggard, Roger Miller, Billy Edd Wheeler, others emerged from the 1940s through the 1960s writing compelling songs about love relationships and other subjects.
The first popular recognition of the singer-songwriter in English-speaking North America and the United Kingdom occurred in the 1960s and early 1970s when a series of blues and country-influenced musicians rose to prominence and popularity. These singer-songwriters included Bob Dylan, Neil Young, John Lennon, Van Morrison, Willie Nelson, Paul Simon, Leonard Cohen, Joni Mitchell. Artists, songwriters, notably Carole King, Townes Van Zandt, Neil Diamond began releasing work as performers. In contrast to the storytelling approach of most prior country and folk music, these performers wrote songs from a personal, introspective point of
Leonid Vyacheslavovich Kuravlyov is a Soviet and Russian film actor. He was named People's Artist of the RSFSR in 1976. Leonid Kuravlyov was born in Moscow into a poor working-class family, his father Vyacheslav Yakovlevich Kuravlyov worked as a locksmith at the Salyut Machine-Building Association and his mother Valentina Dmitrievna Kuravlyova was a hairdresser. In 1941 with the start of the Great Patriotic War his mother was arrested on false report, accused of counter-revolutionary activity and exiled to Karaganda, Kazakh SSR to work at the local plant. In five years she was freed without a right to live in Moscow and sent to Zasheyek, Murmansk Oblast at the Russian North where she continued working as a hairdresser. In 1948 she managed to get a permission to see her son who spent a year with her at Zasheyek, in 1951 she returned to Moscow. In 1955 Leonid Kuravlyov entered VGIK to study acting under Boris Bibikov, he joined the Theater Studio of Film Actors. He made his first movie appearances.
In 1960 he was noted by Vasily Shukshin and took part in his diploma film From Lebyazhye They Report. In 1961 they both starred in the popular melodrama When the Trees Were Tall, in 1964 Shukshin gave him the leading role in his comedy movie There Is Such a Lad which brought Kuravlyov true fame and which he considers to be the start of his successful movie career, he acted in Your Son and Brother and felt so grateful for what the director did for him that he named his son after Vasily Shukshin. The role of Shura Balaganov in Mikhail Shveitser's comedy The Little Golden Calf based on the book by Ilf and Petrov became the next step in his career: he managed to create an unforgettable sparkling image of a naive petty thief, his other notable roles of that period include Khoma Brut in one of the first Soviet horror movies Viy, antagonist Sorokin in a psychological melodrama Not Under the Jurisdiction, Robinson Crusoe in Stanislav Govorukhin's Life and Amazing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a Nazi officer Kurt Eismann in Seventeen Moments of Spring and Lavr Mironovich in Pyotr Todorovsky's The Last Victim.
Since the 1970s he started appearing in three to four films per year. Though Kuravlyov was adept at playing serious dramatic roles, he is still best known for his leading roles in top-grossing comedy movies such as Afonya by Georgiy Daneliya, Leonid Gaidai's Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future and It Can't Be!, The Most Charming and Attractive by Gerald Bezhanov and others. During the late 1990s he hosted a popular TV programme The World of Books with Leonid Kuravlyov where he talked about new book releases. In two years it was closed and relaunched with new hosts. In 2012 he was awarded the IV class Order "For Merit to the Fatherland". In 2014 Kuravlyov along with 100 other Russian members of culture signed an open letter in support of Vladimir Putin's position regarding Ukraine and Crimea. Kuravlyov is member of the Russian Orthodox Church. Leonid Kuravlyov on IMDb Leonid Kuravlyov biography, photogallery
Odessa Film Studio
Odessa Film Studio is the first film studio established in Russian Empire. It is owned by a government and supervised by the Department of State property fund of Ukraine together with the Ministry of Culture. Together with Dovzhenko Film Studios they are the only state-owned and major film producers in the country; the studio is located at Frantsuzky bulvar 33, Ukraine. In a close vicinity to it is located a smaller film studio House of Mask, it was founded on 23 May 1919 by the decision of the Odessa Governorate Executive Committee out of the remnants of cinema studios of Myron Grossman, Dmitriy Kharitonov, Borisov. This date was the day of birth of the first in the country state film studio. At first, it was listed as "Political film section of political department and of 41st Division of the Red Army", the first feature film filmed here was the "Spiders and flies." The original studios went into decline after the Russian Civil War and the Ukrainian War of Independence, as their owners emigrated, running from political prosecution.
Grossman's film studio "Myrograph" existed in Odessa since 1907 and was the oldest one recorded in Ukraine. In 1922, "film sektion" was reorganized into Odessa Film Factory of All-Ukrainian Photo Cinema Administration; the Odessa film studio, VUFKU’s main production facility, underwent extensive renovations. The studio purchased its new modern equipment in the West, allowing the studio to shoot and process the film stock using state-of-the-art technology. In 1926, Vyacheslav Levandovskyi and Deviatkin created an animation studio of VUFKU. In 1930, VUFKU was reorganized into "Ukrainafilm" of "Soyuzkino". In 2005, Odessa film studio was reorganized to a Close Joint Stock Company; the studio is located in the downtown right near the shore of Black Sea covering some 7 hectares and consisting of three pavilions of 600 square metres, 432 square metres, 240 square metres. Inside the studio's building is located another film studio, Vira Kholodna Film Studio and the Odessa Film School; the Odessa Film Studio has its own movie theater, U-Cinema, located in the same building.
On the territory of the studio there is a Museum of the Cinema, in which you can find out about many interesting facts on the history of the cinema. Here you can find historic materials, from the invention of cinema, to the postmodern and avant garde. 1926 Ягідка кохання / Love's Berries, directed by Oleksandr Dovzhenko 1926 Вася – реформатор / Vasia the Reformer, directed by Oleksandr Dovzhenko 1926 Тарас Трясило / Taras Triasylo, directed by Petro Chardynin 1926 Тарас Шевченко / Taras Shevchenko, directed by Petro Chardynin 1927 Сумка дипкур'єра / The Diplomatic Pouch, directed by Oleksandr Dovzhenko 1928 Арсенал / Arsenal, directed by Oleksandr Dovzhenko 1928 Звенигора / Zvenyhora, directed by Oleksandr Dovzhenko 1936 Назар Стодоля / Nazar Stodolia, directed by Heorhiy Tasin 1941 Таємничий острів / Mysterious Island, directed by Eduard Pentslin 1967 Короткі зустрічі / Brief Encounters, directed by Kira Muratova 1978 Д'Артаньян та три мушкетери / D'Artagnan and Three Musketeers, directed by Heorhiy Yungvald-Khilkevych 1979 Пригоди Електроніка / The Adventures of the Elektronic, directed by Kostiantyn Bromberg 1979 Місце зустрічі змінити не можна / The Meeting Place Cannot Be Changed, directed by Stanislav Hovorukhin 1982 Трест, що луснув / The Trust That Has Burst, directed by Oleksandr Pavlovskyi 1982 Чарівники / Wizards, directed by Kostiantyn Bromberg 1983 Серед сірих каменів / Among Grey Stones, directed by Kira Muratova 1983 Військово-польовий роман / Wartime Romance, directed by Petro Todorovskyi 1983 Колесо історії / Wheel of History, directed by Stanislav Klymenko 1986 У пошуках капітана Гранта / In search of Captain Grant, directed by Stanislav Hovorukhin 1987 Данило — князь Галицький / Danylo — Kniaz of Halychyna, directed by Yaroslav Lupiy 1989 Астенічний синдром / The Asthenic Syndrome, directed by Kira Muratova 1991 Чудо в краю забуття / Miracle in the Land of Oblivion, directed by Natalia Motuzko 1999 Як коваль щастя шукав / How the Blacksmith Looked for Happiness, directed by Radomyr Vasylevsky 2001 На Полі Крові / Akeldama, directed by Yaroslav Lupiy 2007 Біля річки / At the River, directed by Eva Neymann 1919-1925Myron Grossman Pyotr Chardynin Les Kurbas Georgiy Tasin, the first studio director in 19221926-1936Aleksandr Dovzhenko Isaak Babel1936-1954Vladimir Braun Amvrosiy Buchma1955-1965Kira Muratova and Oleksandr Muratov Vadym Kostromenko the director of the museum Vadym Avloshenko Pyotr Todorovsky1966-1996Georgi Yungvald-Khilkevich Stanislav Govorukhin Aleksandr Pavlovsky Natalya Zbandut Mykhailo Kats 1919-1925Vera Kholodnaya Daria Zerkalova1926-1936Natalya Uzhviy Matviy Lyarov1966-1996Vladimir Vysotsky Samvel Gasparov All-Ukrainian Photo Cinema Administration Dovzhenko Film Studios Kyivnaukfilm National Cinematheque of Ukraine List of Ukrainian films Histoire du cinéma ukrainien, Lubomir Hosejko, Éditions à Dié, Dié, 2001, ISBN 978-2-908730-67-8, traduit en ukrainien en 2005: Istoria Oukraïnskovo Kinemotografa, Kino-Kolo, Kiev, 2005, ISBN 966-8864-00-X Odessa Film Studio on IMDb Odessa Film Studio on IMDb Official website Non-official website Odessa film studio
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012 holding the position from 2000 until 2008. In between his presidential terms he was the Prime Minister of Russia under his close associate Dmitry Medvedev. Putin was born in Leningrad during the Soviet Union, he studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg, he moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin's administration, rising through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. During his first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%; the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, prudent economic and fiscal policies.
In September 2011, Putin announced. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64% of the vote. Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and the recession ended. Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 presidential vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024. Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index. Experts do not consider Russia to be a democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections and jailing of opponents, curtailed press freedom. Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists, as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated.
Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U. S. presidential election in 2016, an allegation which both Trump and Putin have denied and criticized. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina, his birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s. Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II. Putin's mother was a factory worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. Early in World War II, his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD, he was transferred to the regular army and was wounded in 1942. Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, his maternal uncles disappeared at the war front.
On 1 September 1960, Putin started near his home. He was one of a few in the class of 45 pupils, not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization. At age 12, he began to practice judo, he is a Judo black belt and national master of sports in Sambo. He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema. Putin speaks German fluently. Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University in 1970 and graduated in 1975, his thesis was on "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law". While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and remained a member until December 1991. Putin met Anatoly Sobchak, an assistant professor who taught business law, was co-author of the russian constitution, who would be influential in Putin's career. In 1975, Putin trained at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad. After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate, before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad.
In September 1984, Putin was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute. From 1985 to 1990, he served in East Germany, using a cover identity as a translator. Masha Gessen, a Russian-American who has authored a biography about Putin claims, "Putin and his colleagues were reduced to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB." According to Putin's official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wall that began on 9 November 1989, he burned KGB files to prevent demonstrators from obtaining them. After the collapse of the Communist East German government, Putin returned to Leningrad in early 1990, where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov. There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak, soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad.
Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevstigneyev was a prominent Soviet and Russian stage and film actor, theatre pedagogue, one of the founders of the Moscow Sovremennik Theatre. He was named People's Artist of the USSR in 1983 and awarded the USSR State Prize in 1974. Yevgeny Yevstigneyev was born on 9 October 1926 in Nizhny Novgorod, Russian SFSR into a poor working-class family and spent his childhood at the outskirts in the Volodarsky village, he was a late child of Maria Ivanovna Yevstigneyeva, a milling machine operator, a metallurgist Aleksandr Mikhailovich Yevstigneyev, twenty years older than her and who died when Yevgeny was six years old. Maria Ivanovna married another man. By that time he had finished seven classes of secondary school and applied as a mechanic to the same factory where his mother was working, yet he dreamed of acting, just like his elder half-brother who served as a comedy actor in the local theatre and died young, which made his mother to believe that it was a bad sign. During that period Yevgeny became interested in jazz and started playing drums with a jazz band that performed in cinemas.
There he was noticed by the director of the Gorky Theatre School. Yevgeny passed the entering exams in 1947 and graduated in 1951, he became an actor of the Vladimir Regional Drama Theatre where he served from 1951 to 1954. He rose to fame as the most talented and versatile actor of Vladimir, performing 23 roles in total. In 1954 a Moscow Art Theatre actor Mikhail Zimin who had studied with Yevstigneyev returned for him and asked to join the Nemirovich-Danchenko School-Studio at MKhAT. Yevgeny was accepted and went straight to the third course, graduating in 1956 and becoming an actor of the Moscow Art Theatre where he served for a year. In 1957 a number of young MAT actors including Yevgeny Yevstigneyev and his close friend Oleg Yefremov founded the Sovremennik Theatre where he served till 1970; the role of the king in Evgeny Schwartz's play Naked King, staged in 1960 by Yefremov became his most recognized stage role since. Soon he performed in the leading role of a Young Pioneer camp administrator in the comedy movie Welcome, or No Trespassing.
It turned a big hit and gave a great push to his successful movie career which lasted for 35 years and resulted in over 100 roles. Possessing a brilliant gift of a comic and dramatic actor, Yevstigneyev was immensely popular, his appearance in any film or play guaranteed it a success with viewers. Among his unforgettable performances was the portrayal of Professor Preobrazhensky in Heart of a Dog. In 1970 Oleg Yefremov was appointed the main director of the Moscow Art Theatre and left Sovremennik. Yevstigneyev followed him along with some other actors, according to his colleague Igor Kvasha, he was against this move and tried to convince everyone to stay at Sovremennik, he performed in MAT up until 1988. From 1976 to 1986 he taught acting at the Moscow Art Theatre School, becoming a professor in 1977. During the late 1980s he survived a heart attack. In 1988 he asked Yefremov not to give him additional roles. Yefremov suggested him to retire; this hurt Yevstigneyev's feelings and he left the theatre.
During 1990-1992 he performed in several plays in combination companies. He starred in an epic historical mini-series Yermak as Ivan the Terrible which became his last role. In 1991 Nikolai Gubenko, at the time a Soviet Ministry of Culture, contacted a famous British cardiologist Thomas Lewis and sent Yevstigneyev and his wife to London. After an examination Lewis told Yevstigneyev that he would perform a surgery, but the actor had no chances; this affected Yevstigneyev, in five minutes he survived another heart attack which led to coma and his death in several hours. Yevgeny Yevstigneyev was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery, he was survived by his third wife, an actress Irina Tsivina, his son from the first marriage to Galina Volchek — a prominent Russian film director and cinematographer Denis Yevstigneyev, a daughter from his second marriage to an actress Lilia Yevstigneyeva — Maria Selyanskaya who performs at the Sovremennik Theatre. Yevgeny Yevstigneyev on IMDb Yevgeny Yevstigneyev at the Moscow Art Theatre website Biography of Yevgeny Yevstigneyev Yevstigneyev Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Слёзы и любовь Евгения Евстигнеева
A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date. Government bonds are denominated in the country's own currency, in which case the government cannot be forced to default, although it may choose to do so. If a government is close to default on its debt the media refer to this as a sovereign debt crisis; the terms on which a government can sell bonds depend on how creditworthy the market considers it to be. International credit rating agencies will provide ratings for the bonds, but market participants will make up their own minds about this; the first general government bonds were issued in the Netherlands in 1517. Because the Netherlands did not exist at that time, the bonds issued by the city of Amsterdam are considered their predecessor which merged into Netherlands government bonds; the average interest rate at that time fluctuated around 20%. The first bond issued by a national government was issued by the Bank of England in 1694 to raise money to fund a war against France.
It was in the form of a tontine. The Bank of England and government bonds were introduced in England by William III of England, who financed England's war efforts by copying the approach of issuing bonds and raising government debt from the Seven Dutch Provinces, where he ruled as a Stadtholder. Governments in Europe started issuing perpetual bonds to fund wars and other government spending; the use of perpetual bonds ceased in the 20th century, governments issue bonds of limited term to maturity. A government bond in a country's own currency is speaking a risk-free bond, because the government can if necessary create additional currency in order to redeem the bond at maturity. There have however been instances where a government has chosen to default on its domestic currency debt rather than create additional currency, such as Russia in 1998. Currency risk is the risk that the value of the currency a bond pays out will decline compared to the holder's reference currency. For example, a German investor would consider United States bonds to have more currency risk than German bonds.
A bond paying in a currency that does not have a history of keeping its value may not be a good deal if a high interest rate is offered. Inflation risk is the risk. Investors expect some amount of inflation, so the risk is that the inflation rate will be higher than expected. Many governments issue inflation-indexed bonds, which protect investors against inflation risk by linking both interest payments and maturity payments to a consumer prices index. If a central bank purchases a government security, such as a bond or treasury bill, it increases the money supply, in effect creating money. In the UK, government bonds are called gilts. Older issues have names such as "Treasury Stock" and newer issues are called "Treasury Gilt". Inflation-indexed gilts are called Index-linked gilts. UK gilts have maturities stretching much further into the future than other European government bonds, which has influenced the development of pension and life insurance markets in the respective countries. Consol Foreign exchange reserves of the People's Republic of China Government debt List of government bonds Municipal bond Treasury War Bonds