Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Coal Harbour is the name for a section of Burrard Inlet lying between Vancouver, Canada's downtown peninsula and the Brockton Peninsula of Stanley Park. It has now become the name of the neighbourhood adjacent to its southern shoreline. Coal Harbour is used to designate the new official neighbourhood of the City of Vancouver bounded by Burrard Street and Pender near the Financial District to West Georgia Street near the West End in the south to Stanley Park in the north; the neighbourhood consists of numerous high-rise residential apartment and condo towers with luxury townhome podiums catering to the upper-crust. The northwestern section near Stanley Park features picturesque parkland, private marinas, several rowing and boating clubs, high-end shoppes and restaurants, a community centre designed by architect Gregory Henriquez. To the east is Deadman's Island, the site of the naval station and museum HMCS Discovery, where the harbour itself opens up to the Burrard Inlet. Towards the Financial District in the southeast, the neighbourhood is dominated by high-rise office buildings and numerous apartment towers.
South lies Vancouver's Luxury Zone along Alberni Street. Coal Harbour is home to Vancouver Harbour Water Aerodrome, located a few blocks from Canada Place and the Vancouver Convention Centre. Within the harbour is a floating gas station for marine vessels; the six floating homes in Coal Harbour, along with the twelve across town in False Creek are the only legal floating homes within the city of Vancouver. The discovery of coal in the harbour in 1862 inspired the name. In the days when the area along West Pender Street was an upper-class residential district, Coal Harbour was known as Blueblood Alley because of the many large mansions along it. Notable inhabitants and developments in Coal Harbour's past include: Squamish settlements, notably on Deadman Island, Brockton Point and Lumberman's Arch. In 1862 minor exploration began of the visible coal seams on the flank of the bluff overlooking the harbour, first noted by Captain Vancouver; this bluff was where most of West Hastings Street is today.
The coal was low-grade, but its occurrence in clays similar to porcelain-making clays of the English Midlands led to the staking of what is known as the Brickmaker's Claim by the Three Greenhorns. The Brickmaker's Claim is now the West End. No clay was mined nor porcelain made, but one of the Greenhorns was the developer of the clay mine and brickworks at Clayburn on Sumas Mountain near Abbotsford. A settlement of Kanakas near today's Bayshore Inn and the eastern end of Lost Lagoon was known as the Kanaka Rancherie, or the Cherry Orchard due to its many cherry trees; the area is now called Devonian Harbour Park, memorial cherry trees have been planted there in memory of AIDS victims. The Vancouver Boating Club, now Vancouver Rowing Club, from 1887 the Pacific Lumber Mill Company in the late 19th century The Royal Vancouver Yacht Club Denman Arena was built in 1911 to house the Vancouver Millionaires professional ice hockey club on the Kanakas Ranch site at Georgia and Denman; the Arena would host the only victory by a Vancouver team of the Stanley Cup in 1915.
The Denman Auditorium was built adjacent to the Arena in 1927 for smaller events. The Arena was destroyed by fire in 1936; the Auditorium remained in use until its demolition in 1959. Boeing Canada's Boat Factory beginning in the 1910s; the Vancouver Shipyards through the 1930s the CP Rail Station & Canadian Pacific Steamships passenger terminal/dock The Royal Canadian Air Force began work on a seaplane base and reconnaissance station at Coal Harbour in 1940. As part of the war effort, the RCAF turned over its direction finding and intercept facility to the Royal Canadian Navy. Due to an organizational change in 1942, the RCN ratings stationed at Coal Harbour and the ones from Ucluelet were withdrawn and moved to Gordon Head near Victoria. Harbour Ferries, a tour-boat and water-taxi service, continues to operate from docks in Coal Harbour Howard Hughes, who resided in the top two floors of the Bayshore Inn for 5 months and 28 days in the 1970s. Denman Arena, an indoor ice arena that stood from 1911 to 1936.
Trader Vic's, for many years held to be Vancouver's best night-out, was launched in a tiki-style hut next to the Bayshore. HMCS Discovery, a naval base on Deadman Island. In 1993 Vancouver City Council froze applications for development of the Marathon Realty lands between Canada Place and the Bayshore Hotel; the company was required to reach an agreement with The First Narrows Floating Co-op, representing floating home and live-aboard boat residents in pre existing marinas, for their inclusion in the redevelopment of the waterfront. Negotiations concluded with the guarantee of space for residents in Coal Harbour Marina on extended leases. Official Coal Harbour Website Coal Harbour Community Centre Several historical photos of Coal Harbour City of Vancouver Archives VancouverHistory.ca for historical references Coal Harbour Residents Association Map of Coal Harbour from Google Maps
Downtown Vancouver is the southeastern portion of the peninsula in the north-central part of the City of Vancouver. It is the main city centre and central business district of the city, Metro Vancouver, the Lower Mainland regions; the downtown area is considered to be bounded by Burrard Inlet to the north, Stanley Park and the West End to the west, False Creek to the south, the Downtown Eastside to the east. Most sources include the full downtown peninsula as downtown Vancouver, but the City of Vancouver defines them as separate neighbourhoods. Besides the identifiable office towers of the financial and central business districts, Downtown Vancouver includes residential neighbourhoods in the form of high-rise apartment and condominiums, in Yaletown and Coal Harbour. Other downtown neighbourhoods include the Granville Mall and Entertainment District, Downtown's South, Gastown and Chinatown; the downtown area includes most of the remaining historic buildings and many of the larger notable buildings in the region.
There are two major sporting facilities in Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium. The NHL's Vancouver Canucks play at Rogers Arena, while the CFL's BC Lions and the MLS's Vancouver Whitecaps FC use the neighbouring BC Place Stadium. SkyTrain Stadium-Chinatown station provides easy rapid transit access to the district; the presence of water on three sides limits access to downtown Vancouver. There are four major bridges: the Lions Gate Bridge, connecting to the North Shore municipalities and the Trans Canada Highway, the Burrard Street Bridge, Cambie Street Bridge, Granville Street Bridge provides access to the commercial and residential areas south of False Creek; the historic Waterfront station is the principal transit hub for the downtown core. There are six subway stations located in downtown Vancouver running on two SkyTrain lines: the Expo Line and Canada Line; the Expo Line travels from Waterfront station at the foot of the central harbor and through Dunsmuir Tunnel to the east. The Canada Line travels from Waterfront station and tunnels south under Granville Street and Davie Street, linking downtown to central Richmond and Vancouver International Airport.
SeaBus is a passenger-only ferry that connects from Waterfront station to the North Shore in 10–12 minutes. The West Coast Express commuter rail system travels from Waterfront station to the eastern suburbs and exurbs. Terminals are available near Waterfront station for float planes and helicopters. Most north-south Vancouver bus routes serve Downtown Vancouver, in addition to suburban routes from the North Shore and Burnaby; the bus rapid transit line 98 B-Line had eight stops in the downtown core along Seymour Street and Burrard Street. This service was replaced on August 2009 by SkyTrain's Canada Line; the 95 B-Line started service in December 2016 in conjunction with the opening of the Evergreen Extension, connecting downtown to Simon Fraser University along Hastings Street. There are two private passenger water taxi operators, providing service between several downtown neighbourhoods, False Creek, Granville Island; the city is planning to extend the downtown streetcar from its current route of Granville Island to the Main Street SkyTrain station, with future plans extending it to Chinatown and to Stanley Park.
City of Vancouver Community Profiles: Downtown Downtown page, Vancouver Then and Now website, comparisons of old photos with modern locations
A storey or story is any level part of a building with a floor that could be used by people. The plurals are "stories", respectively; the terms "floor", "level", or "deck" are used in a similar way, except that it is usual to talk of a "14-storey building", but "the 14th floor". The floor at ground or street level is called the "ground floor" in many places; the words "storey" and "floor" exclude levels of the building that are not covered by a roof, such as the terrace on the top roof of many buildings. Houses have only one or two floors. Buildings are classified as low-rise, mid-rise and high-rise according to how many levels they contain, but these categories are not well-defined. A single-storey house is referred to in the United Kingdom, as a bungalow; the tallest skyscraper in the world, Burj Khalifa, has 163 floors. The height of each storey is based on the ceiling height of the rooms plus the thickness of the floors between each pane; this is around 14 feet total. Storeys within a building need not be all the same height—often the lobby is taller, for example.
Additionally, higher levels may have less floor area than the ones beneath them. In English, the principal floor or main floor of a house is the floor that contains the chief apartments. In Italy the main floor of a home is above the ground level, may be called the piano nobile; the attic or loft is a storey just below the building's roof. A penthouse is a luxury apartment on the topmost storey of a building. A basement is a storey below the main or ground floor. Split-level homes have floors. A mezzanine, in particular, is a floor halfway between the ground floor and the next higher floor. Homes with a split-level entry have the entire main floor raised half a storey height above the street entrance level, a basement, half a storey below this level. In Macy's Herald Square, there is a "one-and-a-half" floor between the second. There are multi-storey car parks known as parking garages. Floor numbering is the numbering scheme used for a building's floors. There are two major schemes in use across the world.
In one system, used in the majority of European countries, the ground floor is the floor at ground level having no number, identified sometimes as "G" or "0". The next floor up is assigned the number 1 and is the first floor, so on; the other system, used in the United States and Canada, counts the bottom floor as the first floor, the next floor up as the second floor, so on. In both systems, the numbering of higher floors continues sequentially as one goes up, as shown in the following table: Each scheme has further variations depending on how one refers to the ground floor and the subterranean levels; the existence of two incompatible conventions is a common source of confusion in international communication. In all English-speaking countries the storeys in a building are counted in the same way: a "seven-storey building" is unambiguous, although the top floor would be called "6th floor" in Britain and "7th floor" in America. Mezzanines may not be counted as storeys. In most of Europe, the "first floor" is the second level.
This scheme is used in many former British colonies, many Latin American countries, in Hawaii and in many of the Commonwealth nations. This convention can be traced back to Medieval European usage. In countries that use this system, the floor at ground level is referred to by a special name translating as "ground floor" or equivalent. For example, Erdgeschoss in Germany, piano terra in Italy, begane grond in the Netherlands, planta baja or planta baixa in Spain, beheko solairua in Basque, andar térreo in Brazil, rés-do-chão in Portugal, földszint in Hungary, parter in Romania and Poland, prízemie in Slovakia and pritličje in Slovenia. In some countries that use this scheme, the higher floors may be explicitly qualified as being above the ground level, such as in Slovenian "prvo nadstropje". In Spain, the level above ground level is sometimes called "entresuelo", elevators may skip it; the next level is sometimes called "principal". The "first floor" can therefore be three levels above ground level.
In Italy, in the ancient palaces the first floor is called piano nobile, since the noble owners of the palace lived there. In France, there are two distinct names for storeys in buildings which have two "ground floors" at different levels; the lower one is called rez-de-chaussée, the upper one is rez-de-jardin (lit. "adjacent to the gar