The Last Metro
The Last Metro is a 1980 historical drama and directed by François Truffaut, that stars Catherine Deneuve and Gérard Depardieu. Opening in 1942 during the German occupation of France, it follows the fortunes of a small theatre in the Montmartre area of Paris which keeps up passive resistance by maintaining its cultural integrity, despite censorship and material shortages, to emerge triumphant at the war’s end; the title evokes two salient facts of city life under the Germans: fuel shortages led people to spend their evenings in theatres and other places of entertainment, but the curfew meant they had to catch the last Métro train home. In 1981, the film won ten Césars for: best film, best actor, best actress, best cinematography, best director, best editing, best music, best production design, best sound and best writing, it received Best Foreign Film nominations in the Academy Golden Globe Awards. The Last Metro was one of Truffaut's most successful productions, grossing $3,007,436 in the United States.
On his way to start rehearsals at the Théâtre Montmartre, where he has been hired as male lead for a new production, young Bernard Granger tries to talk to an attractive woman, who rebuffs him. When he arrives, she turns out to be a lesbian, he is taken to see the icily beautiful Marion, both owner of the theater and leading lady. Her Jewish husband Lucas is believed to have left Paris but is in fact living in the cellars, where Marion visits him each evening to bring books and food and talk about the new production; however Marion is quite struck by Bernard, whom Lucas can just hear through a heating vent but never see. Unknown to anybody at the theater, Bernard is a member of a Resistance group and delivers the bomb that kills a German admiral; the first night is loved by a full house but one of the newspaper reviews next morning is viciously hostile, damning the show as Jewish. The writer Daxiat, an anti-semite, hopes to take over her theatre. While cast and crew are celebrating their success in a night club, Daxiat enters.
Bernard, furious that the man has insulted the gentile Marion, hustles him out to the street and pushes him around. Furious that Bernard has jeopardised her theatre, Marion refuses all contact. One night, pretending to be air raid wardens, two Gestapo men start searching the theatre and it is Bernard who Marion turns to in desperation for urgent help in concealing Lucas and his effects; when Bernard's Resistance contact is arrested by the Gestapo, he decides to devote his life to the cause and give up acting. As he is clearing out his little dressing room, Marion comes in to say goodbye and the two make love on the floor. After the war, Bernard returns to be male lead in a new play that the freed Lucas wrote while hiding. In it, the female lead played by Marion offers to share her life, but he claims he never loved her. At the end of the opening night, Bernard and Lucas stand hand in hand to take the applause. Truffaut had wanted to create a film set during the French occupation period for a long time, as his uncle and grandfather were both part of the French Resistance, were once caught while passing messages.
This event was recreated in The Last Metro. Truffaut was inspired by the actor Jean Marais’ autobiography, basing the film on this and other documents by theatre people from during the occupation; this film was one installment—dealing with theatre—of a trilogy on the entertainment world envisaged by Truffaut. The installment that dealt with the film world was 1973's La Nuit Américaine, which had won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Truffaut completed the screenplay for the third installment, L'Agence Magique, which would have dealt with the world of music hall. In the late 1970s he was close to beginning filming, but the failure of his film The Green Room forced him to look to a more commercial project, he filmed Love on the Run instead. Truffaut began casting in September 1979, he wrote the role of Marion with Catherine Deneuve in mind for her energy. Gérard Depardieu did not want to be involved in the film, as he did not like Truffaut’s directing style, but he was subsequently convinced.
Most of the filming took place in an abandoned chocolate factory on Rue du Landy in Clichy, converted into a studio. During shooting Deneuve suffered an ankle sprain from a fall, resulting in having to shoot over scenes at short notice. Scriptwriter Suzanne Schiffman was hospitalised with a serious intestinal obstruction; the film shoot lasted fifty-nine days and ended on April 21, 1980. A recurring theme in Truffaut's films has been linking film film watching; the Last Metro is self-conscious in this respect. In the opening the film mixes documentary footage with period re-creations alongside shots of contemporary film posters. Truffaut commented “this film is not concerned with anti-semitism but intolerance in general” and a tolerance is shown through the characters of Jean Poiret playing a homosexual director and Andrea Ferreol plays a lesbian designer; as in Truffaut's earlier film Jules et Jim, there is a love triangle between the three principal characters: Marion Steiner, her husband Lucas and Bernard Granger, an actor in the theatre's latest production.
The film recorded admissions in France of 3,384,045. Academy Awards Nominated: Best Foreign Language Film National Board of Review Nominated: Best Foreign Language Film Boston Film Critics Won: Best Foreign Language Film César Awards (Franc
Tharunka is a student magazine published at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Established in 1953 at the New South Wales University of Technology, Tharunka has been published in a variety of forms by various student organisations. At present, Tharunka is published 8 times a year by Arc @ UNSW Limited; the name Tharunka means "message stick" in a Central Australian Aboriginal language. The first issue of Tharunka was published in March 1953 by the Students' Union, with Sid Dunk and Harold Spies as editors; until 1980, Tharunka was a weekly newspaper, switching to a fortnightly magazine format from 1981. In 2004 and 2005, Tharunka returned to a tabloid newspaper format. In 2006, Tharunka returned to the fortnightly magazine format. Since 2013, the newspaper has been published in a tabloid newspaper format. Tharunka was published by the UNSW Students Union from 1953 until 1992, when that body was replaced by the University of New South Wales Student Guild; the Guild published Tharunka from 1993 until 2006.
A new student organisation, Arc @ UNSW Limited, took over publication of Tharunka from 2007, with Tharunka now published by a student team under the steerage of its Marketing Department. Tharunka is managed by a wider group of volunteers. Including staff wages, the publication's budget is under $40,000 per year; the content of Tharunka varies year to year in line with the priorities of student politicians, the editors and the wider contributor base. Tharunka's at times irreverent approach has seen copies seized by police, destroyed by political opponents and censored by the student organisation, it is traditional for a parody edition of Tharunka to be released as part of the university's annual Foundation Day celebrations. News satire is a regular feature of the publication; as the journal of a political organisation, Tharunka's editorial direction was influenced by the dominant faction within the student body at the time. Where the editors distanced themselves from the agenda of student representatives, conflict was the result.
A plan by editor Michael Shane to devote an issue to coverage of issues facing men was met with fierce resistance by the Student Guild's governing council in 2000. Rules were enacted to give the Guild Women's Department a right of veto over content. With the end of the Guild and Union, founding of Arc, Tharunka is now under the auspices of Arc's Marketing Department, rather than a political organisation. However, editorial remains edgy with Issue 1 of 2010 containing the word'fuck' on its front cover. In November 2004, the Guild was attacked by Daily Telegraph columnist Michael Duffy for attempting to prevent the expression of support for voluntary student unionism at UNSW. "Student politics is still notoriously corrupt and secretive", Duffy wrote, reporting that "the editors of the student union magazine Tharunka, have been told by the Guild Council... not to publish articles in support of voluntary unionism."In October 2010 the Arc withheld the final edition of Tharunka for the year though 2000 copies had been printed.
The edition had included an article on the subject of BDSM sexual practices, which the CEO of Arc refused to publish. The editors complied by withdrawing the offending article, but printed in its place a mocking note making fun of censorship; as a result, the magazine was refused distribution. Social commentator and writer Richard Neville was features editor of Tharunka in the early 1960s. Artists Peter Kingston and Martin Sharp had cartoons published in Tharunka before going on to contribute to Oz magazine. Academic and investigative journalist Wendy Bacon was elected as an editor of Tharunka in 1970. Artist and political cartoonist Jenny Coopes contributed cartoons to Tharunka in the 1960s. Writer Frank Moorhouse edited a Tharunka literary supplement in 1970. Contributors included Thomas Keneally, Judith Wright, A. D. Hope, Robert Adamson, Frank Hardy, Michael Wilding, Alex Buzo and Thomas Shapcott. Tharunka is one of a number of periodicals. Blitz is a fortnightly, 24 page full-colour campus events guide that evolved from newsletters circulated by the University of New South Wales Union in the 1970s.
The name "Blitz" was adopted in mid-1988. In mid-1994, the Union introduced more editorial material to Blitz, hiring former Tharunka editor Alf Conlon to expand the range of content. In 2010, Blitz remains a "What's On" guide with content steered towards providing coverage to on-campus news and events, as a conduit of communication for the Student Representative Council. Blitz and Tharunka are now both published by Arc. Students at the university's College of Fine Arts produced regular zines under the titles Xerox Positive, since 2005, Zing Tycoon with'COFAtopia' now launched, which retains the A5 format, "zine" feel. Tharunka contributors were instrumental in the establishment of The Student Leader in 2004; the paper has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project of the National Library of Australia. Tharunka website Tharunka at Trove Interview with Wendy Bacon, vol. 46 Past issues of Tharunka are available for access at UNSW Archives
New Musical Express is a British music journalism website and former magazine, published since 1952. It was the first British paper to include a singles chart, in the edition of 14 November 1952. In the 1970s it became the best-selling British music newspaper. During the period 1972 to 1976, it was associated with gonzo journalism became associated with punk rock through the writings of Julie Burchill, Paul Morley and Tony Parsons, it started as a music newspaper, moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s and 1990s, changing from newsprint in 1998. An online version, NME.com, was launched in 1996. It became the world's biggest standalone music site, with over sixteen million users per month. With newsstand sales falling across the UK magazine sector, the magazine's paid circulation in the first half of 2014 was 15,830. In 2013, the list of NME's The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time and the way it was conceived was criticized by the media; the printed magazine NME was relaunched in September 2015 to be distributed nationally as a free publication.
The first average circulation published in February 2016 of 307,217 copies per week was the highest in the brand's history, beating the previous best of 306,881, recorded in 1964 at the height of the Beatles' fame. By December 2017, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, average distribution of NME had fallen to 289,432 copies a week, although its publisher Time Inc. UK claimed to have more than 13m global unique users per month, including 3m in the UK. In March 2018, the publisher announced that the print edition of NME would cease publication after 66 years, leaving it as an online-only title. NME's headquarters are in Southwark, England; the brand's current editor is Charlotte Gunn, replacing Mike Williams, who stepped down in February 2018. The paper was established in 1952; the Accordion Times and Musical Express was bought by London music promoter Maurice Kinn, for the sum of £1,000, just 15 minutes before it was due to be closed. It was relaunched as the New Musical Express, was published in a non-glossy tabloid format on standard newsprint.
On 14 November 1952, taking its cue from the US magazine Billboard, it created the first UK Singles Chart, a list of the Top Twelve best-selling singles. The first of these was, in contrast to more recent charts, a top twelve sourced by the magazine itself from sales in regional stores around the UK; the first number one was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino. During the 1960s the paper championed the new British groups emerging at the time; the NME circulation peaked under Andy Gray with a figure of 306,881 for the period from January to June 1964. The Beatles and the Rolling Stones were featured on the front cover; these and other artists appeared at the NME Poll Winners' Concert, an awards event that featured artists voted as most popular by the paper's readers. The concert featured a ceremony where the poll winners would collect their awards; the NME Poll Winners' Concerts took place between 1959 and 1972. From 1964 onwards they were filmed and transmitted on British television a few weeks after they had taken place.
In the mid-1960s, the NME was dedicated to pop while its older rival, Melody Maker, was known for its more serious coverage of music. Other competing titles included Record Mirror, which led the way in championing American rhythm and blues, Disc, which focused on chart news; the latter part of the decade saw the paper chart the rise of psychedelia and the continued dominance of British groups of the time. During this period some sections of pop music began to be designated as rock; the paper became engaged in a sometimes tense rivalry with Melody Maker. By the early 1970s, NME had lost ground to Melody Maker, as its coverage of music had failed to keep place with the development of rock music during the early years of psychedelia and progressive rock. In early 1972 the paper found itself on the verge of closure by its owner IPC. According to Nick Kent: After sales had plummeted to 60,000 and a review of guitar instrumentalist Duane Eddy had been printed which began with the immortal words "On this, his 35th album, we find Duane in as good as voice as ever," the NME had been told to rethink its policies or die on the vine.
Alan Smith was made editor in 1972, was told by IPC to turn things around or face closure. To achieve this and his assistant editor Nick Logan raided the underground press for writers such as Charles Shaar Murray and Nick Kent, recruited other writers such as Tony Tyler, Ian MacDonald and Californian Danny Holloway. According to The Economist, the New Musical Express "started to champion underground, up-and-coming music.... NME became the gateway to a more rebellious world. First came glamrock, bands such as T. Rex, came punk....by 1977 it had become the place to keep in touch with a cultural revolution, enthralling the nation's listless youth. Bands such as Sex Pistols, X-Ray Spex and Generation X were regular cover stars, eulogised by writers such as Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons, whose nihilistic tone narrated the punk years perfectly." By the time Smith handed the editor's chair to Logan in mid-1973, the paper was selling nearly 300,000 copies per week and was outstripping Melody Maker, Record Mirror and Sounds.
According to MacDonald: I think all the other papers knew by 1974 that NME had become the best music paper in Britain. We had most of the best writers and photographers, the best layouts
Sydney Town Hall
The Sydney Town Hall is a late 19th-century heritage-listed town hall building in the city of Sydney, the capital city of New South Wales, housing the chambers of the Lord Mayor of Sydney, council offices, venues for meetings and functions. It is located at 483 George Street, in the Sydney central business district opposite the Queen Victoria Building and alongside St Andrew's Cathedral. Sited above the Town Hall station and between the city shopping and entertainment precincts, the steps of the Town Hall are a popular meeting place, it was designed by John H. Wilson, Edward Bell, Albert Bond, Thomas Sapsford, John Hennessy and George McRae and built from 1869 to 1889 by Kelly and McLeod and Bennett, McLeod and Noble, J. Stewart and Co, it is known as Town Hall, Centennial Hall, Main Hall, Peace Hall, Great Hall and Old Burial Ground. The Town Hall is listed on the Register of the National Estate and the New South Wales State Heritage Register and is part of the heritage-listed Town Hall precinct which includes the Queen Victoria Building, St Andrew's Cathedral, the Gresham Hotel and the former Bank of New South Wales.
In latter years, it has been discovered. Renovations were undertaken in 2008-9 to upgrade the mechanical, hydraulic and communication services within the building; the renovations, completed by Sydney builder Kell & Rigby, included removing 6,000 cubic metres of sandstone from underneath the building. The Sydney Town Hall is built within the former Old Sydney Burial Ground; the cemetery was Sydney's first permanent cemetery and it is estimated that at least 2,000 burials were made in the Old Sydney Burial Ground between 1782 and 1820. The cemetery boundary extended into George Street and up to the southern side of Druitt Street; the cemetery was Sydney's first permanent cemetery, burials being reported in land adjacent to the Military Barracks and in the Rocks. The cemetery was set out in September 1782 by Governor Phillip and the Reverend Richard Johnson on land that had belonged to Marine Captain Shea and the first interments took place from this time. More land was added on the northern and western sides of the cemetery in 1812.
The cemetery was closed in 1820 when the Brickfield cemetery was opened. The majority of the people who died in Sydney would have been buried there and prominent citizen alike, unless they were buried on their own land. Certain parts of the cemetery were set aside for particular groups. After it closed in 1820 the state of the cemetery deteriorated so that in 1845 evidence was given to a committee inquiring into its future that most of the graves were no longer marked and that it would be impossible to find them without clearing the land down to coffins. Notice was given in The Sydney Morning Herald that remains of the interred "so far as they can by reasonable search be discovered" would be reburied at Rockwood Cemetery. Since that time, works in the vicinity of the Town Hall expose remains of graves; the City Corporation was formed in 1842 meeting in various temporary offices. They lobbied the NSW Government for a suitable site for many years and were granted the Old Burial Ground, in the heart of the commercial district.
The site was used as Sydney's official burial ground from 1792 to 1820. Graves ranged from paupers unmarked burials to elaborate vaults. Vandalism of the site is described in the 1840s to 1860s and some tombstones were used in footpaths; when the site was developed for the Town Hall remains that where disturbed where reintered in a memorial in Rookwood Cemetery. Where graves were not disturbed they were left untouched; the construction of Sydney Town Hall commenced in 1869, it was designed to be a symbol of the wealth and status of the city. The building was constructed in two stages, Stage I: 1868 - 1878 and Stage II: the Main Hall, 1885 - 1890; the Town Hall design was the result of a competition, won by J. H. Willson; the Second Empire style design was modified by the City Engineer to reduce the cost. Following Willson's death Stage I was completed by successive City Architects; the design and construction were associated with intense personal battles. In 1875 council occupied the incomplete building in temporary offices on the lower floor.
Discussion continued about Stage II, including a report by McBeath in 1878 with costs for the foundations. These were faulty and work halted; the building was extended from 1884-86 with construction of Centennial Hall to the west. In 1881 Stage II was redesigned by Thomas Sapsford, City Architect, assisted by John Hennessy, after Sapsford's death was completed under the supervision of George McRae, City Architect; the new design featured curved corridors. The new foundation stone was laid by Lady Mayoress Lizzie Harris in 1883 and the contract for the superstructure was let in 1885. John Harris was mayor five times from 1875 to 1900; the completion was delayed waiting for roof girders from England and was opened in 1889. Electric lighting was used from the start produced by an engine on site; the practice of inscribing names in the building continued in the form of plaques and bronze medallions unveiled by important public figures. From the late 1880s through the 1890s, Town Hall was the site where a number of important meetings on the issue of Federation took place.
It was the venue for the formation and official launch of the Aust
Redfern railway station
The Redfern railway station is a heritage-listed former railway bridge and now railway station located on the Main Suburban railway line in the inner western Sydney suburb of Redfern in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built by Department of Railways, it is known as Redfern Railway Station group and Tenterfield railway. The property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The station that opened on 26 September 1855 is located on what was the Illawarra line, it is now served by all Sydney Trains lines except the Cumberland Line, Carlingford Line and the airport branch of the Airport & South Line. Some NSW TrainLink Intercity services call at the station. Redfern's natural landscape was defined by sand swamps; the Carrahdigang, more known as the Cadigal people, valued the area for its abundant supply of food. The name Redfern originates from an early land grant to William Redfern in 1817.
It was known as Roberts Farm and Boxley's Swamp. William Redfern was a surgeon's mate in the Royal Navy and was aboard HMS Standard when its crew took part in the revolt in 1797 known as the Mutiny of the Nore; because he had advised the men to be more united, he was included among leaders who were court-martialled. Although sentenced to death, he was reprieved because of his youth and in 1801 arrived in Sydney as a convict, he served on Norfolk Island as an assistant surgeon. In 1803 he was pardoned, but remained on the island until 1808, when he returned to Sydney and was appointed assistant surgeon after being examined in medicine and surgery by Surgeons Jamison and Bohan. In 1816 he maintained a private practice. In 1814 he reported on conditions on convict transport ships and his recommendation that all have a surgeon on board whose duties were to superintend the health of convicts was put into practice, he resigned from Government service in 1819 when not appointed to succeed D'Arcy Wentworth as principal surgeon.
Despite his valuable service, many were contemptuous of him as he was an emancipist, although he had the friendship of Governor Macquarie. In 1818 Redfern received a grant of 526 hectares in Airds and received more land in the area and by his death in 1823 he owned, by grant and purchase, over 9,308 hectares in NSW. In 1817 he had been granted 40 hectares in the area of the present suburb of Redfern; the boundaries were the present-day Cleveland, Regent and Elizabeth Streets. The commodious home Redfern built on his land was considered to be a country house, surrounded by flower and kitchen gardens, his neighbours were John Baptist and Captain Cleveland, an officer of the 73rd regiment, remembered by today's street of that name, before its demolition, by Cleveland House, his home. The passing of the Sydney Slaughterhouses Act in 1849 brought other businesses to the district; this act banned noxious trades from the city. Tanners, wool scourers and wool-washers, boiling down works and abattoirs had ten years to move their businesses outside city boundaries.
Many of the trades moved to Redfern and Waterloo - attracted by the water. The sand hills still existed but by the late 1850s Redfern was a flourishing suburb housing 6,500 people; the Municipalities Act of 1858 gave districts the option of municipal incorporation. Public meetings were held and after a flurry of petitions Redfern Municipality was proclaimed on August 11, 1859, the fourth in Sydney to be formed under the Act. Redfern Town Hall opened in 1870 and the Albert Cricket Ground in 1864. Redfern Post Office came in 1882; the majority of houses in Redfern in the 1850s were of timber. From the 1850s market gardeners congregated in Alexandria south of McEvoy Street, around Shea's Creek and Bourke Road; when Sydney's original railway terminus was built in the Cleveland Paddocks, which extended from Devonshire and Cleveland Streets to Chippendale, the station's name was chosen to honour William Redfern. The station was built of iron and the first stationmaster was a Mr Fielding. In 1874 the station was replaced by a stone structure, covering two platforms.
At that time the present Redfern station was known as Eveleigh, after a lovely old home standing on the western side of the railway line. When Central railway station was built, on the site of the Devonshire Street cemetery, the name of Eveleigh Station was changed to Redfern; the name Eveleigh was retained for the huge railway workshops, just beyond the station, on the site of the original Hutchinson Estate. All that remains of the Cleveland Paddocks is Prince Alfred Park, where the exhibition building was erected in 1870 for an inter-colonial exhibition opened by Governor Belmore, after whom Belmore Park was named, on 30 August 1870. Redfern was the scene of the maiden trip of the first double-decker tram in 1879, it travelled between the old Redfern station to the corner of Hunter and Elizabeth Streets in the city. In 1885 the Sands Sydney Directory listed 54 market gardens. While many were worked by European-Australians, by the 1870s Chinese market gardeners had acquired leases in the district and a decade were dominating the trade.
The Eveleigh complex in 1886 became one of the largest employers in the state. Redfern was an industrial working class suburb by the end of the 19th century. Reschs brewery and other factories attracted migrants; the Syrian/Lebanese community began settling around Surry Hills by the 1880s. In the early history of the New South Wales Government Ra
If I Needed Someone
"If I Needed Someone" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, written by George Harrison, the group's lead guitarist. It was released in December 1965 on their album Rubber Soul, except in North America, where it appeared on the 1966 release Yesterday and Today; the song reflects the reciprocal influences shared between the Beatles and American band the Byrds. On release, it was considered to be Harrison's best song to date. A recording by the Hollies was issued in Britain on the same day as Rubber Soul and peaked at number 20 on the national singles chart. Harrison wrote the song for Pattie Boyd, the English model whom he married in January 1966; the lyrics convey an ambivalent tone and have invited interpretation as a message to a casual love interest. Harrison based the song's jangly guitar riff on a riff used by Roger McGuinn in the Byrds' adaptation of "The Bells of Rhymney". "If I Needed Someone" features prominent three-part harmony vocals and Rickenbacker twelve-string electric guitar – the instrument that the Byrds had adopted to replicate Harrison's sound in the 1964 film A Hard Day's Night.
The song's use of drone and Mixolydian harmony reflected Harrison's nascent interest in Indian classical music. Following its inclusion in the set list for the Beatles' 1965 UK tour, it became the only Harrison composition performed live by the group; the Hollies' success with the song gave Harrison his first chart hit as a songwriter, although his criticism of their performance led to a terse exchange in the press between the two groups. Several other artists covered the track in the first year after its release, including the American bands Stained Glass and the Kingsmen. A live recording by Harrison, taken from his 1991 tour with Eric Clapton, appears on the album Live in Japan. Clapton performed the song at the Concert for George tribute to Harrison in 2002, while McGuinn released a cover version on his 2004 album Limited Edition. In addition to reflecting George Harrison's interest in Indian classical music, "If I Needed Someone" was inspired by the music of the Byrds, who in turn had based their sound and image on those of the Beatles after seeing the band's 1964 film A Hard Day's Night.
According to music journalist David Fricke, the composition resulted from "a remarkable exchange of influences between the Beatles and one of their favorite new bands, the Byrds". The two groups formed a friendship in early August 1965, when the Byrds were enjoying international success with their debut single, a folk rock interpretation of Bob Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man", Harrison and John Lennon attended their first shows in London. Although the concerts received unfavourable reviews in the British music press, Harrison lauded the band as "the American Beatles". In late August, the Byrds' Jim McGuinn and David Crosby met up with the Beatles in Los Angeles, where they discussed with Lennon and Harrison the music of Indian sitarist Ravi Shankar and American Indo-jazz pioneer John Coltrane; the meeting led to Harrison introducing the sitar on Lennon's song "Norwegian Wood", to Crosby and McGuinn incorporating Indian influences into the Byrds' "Why" and "Eight Miles High". Harrison likened "If I Needed Someone" to "a million other songs" that are based on a guitarist's finger movements around the D major chord.
The song is founded on a riff played on a Rickenbacker 360/12, the twelve-string electric guitar that McGuinn had adopted as the Byrds' signature instrument after seeing Harrison playing one in A Hard Day's Night. When McGuinn told him this in Los Angeles, Harrison was appreciative of the recognition as his contributions to the Beatles were overshadowed by those of Lennon and Paul McCartney. In late 1965, Harrison acknowledged the Byrds' influence on "If I Needed Someone" when he sent a copy of the Beatles' new album, Rubber Soul, along with a message for McGuinn and Crosby, to Derek Taylor, the Byrds' publicist. In his note, Harrison said that the riff was based on the one McGuinn had played on the Byrds' adaptation of "The Bells of Rhymney", that the rhythm was based on the drum part in "She Don't Care About Time". McGuinn recalled: "George was open about it, he sent to us in advance and said,'This is for Jim' – because of that lick."Writing in The Beatles Anthology, Harrison commented on the difficulties he faced as a nascent songwriter during the Rubber Soul period, relative to Lennon and McCartney, both of whom had been writing "since they were three years old".
He said he wrote "If I Needed Someone" as a love song to Pattie Boyd, the English model whom he married soon after the song's release. The lyrics have invited interpretation as being about a groupie or, in the words of music journalist Robert Fontenot, "some other attempt by the singer to juggle two affairs at once". Author Peter Doggett comments on Harrison's inspiration, in the context of the Beatlemania that continually encroached on the band's lifestyle: "'If I Needed Someone' may be the first pop song written from the jaded, though not quite exhausted viewpoint of a man who had women lined up outside his hotel door in every city of the world." As recorded by the Beatles, "If I Needed Someone" is in the key of A major, over the verses, B minor in the middle eights. The time signature throughout is 4/4. After its introduction, the composition consists of two verses, a bridge, three verses, followed by a repeat of the bridge, a further verse, an outro; the song is in the folk rock style, but incorporates aspects of Indian music through the suggestion of drone over the main musical phrase and its Mixolydian harmony.
Harrison uses a capo on the guitar's seventh fret, thereby transposing the D majo
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr