Michael Anthony Richards is an American actor, television producer and comedian known for his portrayal of Cosmo Kramer on the television sitcom Seinfeld, for which he received the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series three times. Richards began his career as a stand-up comedian, first entering the national spotlight when he was featured on Billy Crystal's first cable TV special, he went on to become a series regular on ABC's Fridays. Prior to Seinfeld, he made numerous guest appearances on a variety of television shows, such as Cheers, his film credits include So I Married an Axe Murderer, Young Doctors in Love, Problem Child, Coneheads, UHF, Trial and Error, one of his few starring roles. During the run of Seinfeld, he made a guest appearance in Mad About You. After Seinfeld, Richards starred in his own sitcom, The Michael Richards Show, which lasted less than one full season; when Seinfeld ended in 1998, Richards returned to stand-up comedy. He incited media furor while performing at the Laugh Factory comedy club in late 2006 after a cell phone video was published of him launching into an expletive-laced racist tirade after earlier interruptions from a group of late-arriving audience members.
Subsequently due to significant media coverage of the event he announced his retirement from stand-up early in 2007. He appeared as himself in the seventh season of Curb Your Enthusiasm in 2009, acting alongside his fellow cast members for the first time since Seinfeld's finale, as well as lampooning his incident at the Laugh Factory. In 2013, Richards returned to television. Richards was born in California, to a Catholic family, he is the son of Phyllis, a medical records librarian of Italian descent and William Richards, an electrical engineer of Scottish and English descent. His father died in a car crash when Michael was two and his mother never remarried. Richards graduated from Thousand Oaks High School. In 1968, he appeared as a contestant on The Dating Game, however he was not chosen for the date, he was drafted into the United States Army in 1970. He was stationed in West Germany. After being honorably discharged he used the benefits of the G. I. Bill to enroll in the California Institute of the Arts, received a BA degree in drama from The Evergreen State College in 1975.
He had a short-lived improv act with Ed Begley, Jr.. During this period, he enrolled at Los Angeles Valley College and continued to appear in student productions. Richards got his big TV break in 1979. In 1980, he began as one of the cast members on ABC's Fridays television show, where Larry David was a writer; this included a famous instance in which guest Andy Kaufman refused to deliver his scripted lines, leading Richards to bring the cue cards on screen to Kaufman, causing him to throw his drink into Richards's face before a small riot ensued. The film Man on the Moon featured a re-enactment of the Andy Kaufman incident in which Richards was portrayed by actor Norm Macdonald. In 1989, Richards had a supporting role in "Weird Al" Yankovic's comedy film UHF as janitor Stanley Spadowski. On television, Richards appeared in Miami Vice and made several guest appearances with Jay Leno as an accident-prone fitness expert. According to an interview with executive producer David Hoberman, ABC first conceived the series Monk as a procedural police comedy with an Inspector Clouseau-like character suffering from obsessive–compulsive disorder.
Hoberman said that ABC wanted Richards to play Adrian Monk. In 1989, he was cast as Cosmo Kramer in the NBC television series Seinfeld, created by fellow Fridays cast member Larry David and comedian Jerry Seinfeld. Although it got off to a slow start, by the mid-1990s, the show had become one of the most popular sitcoms in television history; the series ended its nine-year run in 1998 at #1 in the Nielsen ratings. In the setting of Seinfeld, Kramer is referred to by his last name only and is the neighbor of the show's eponymous character. Kramer's first name, was revealed in the sixth-season episode "The Switch". Richards won more Emmys than any other cast member on Seinfeld, he took home the award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 1993, 1994 and 1997. Starting in 2004, he and his fellow Seinfeld cast members provided interviews and audio commentaries for the Seinfeld DVDs, but Richards stopped providing audio commentary after Season 5 though he continued to provide interviews.
In 2000, after the end of Seinfeld, Richards began work on a new series for NBC, his first major project since Seinfeld's finale. The Michael Richards Show, for which the actor received co-writer and co-executive producer credits, was conceived as a comedy/mystery starring Richards as a bumbling private investigator. However, after the first pilot failed with test audiences, NBC ordered that the show be retooled into a more conventional, office-based sitcom before its premiere. After a few weeks of poor ratings and negative reviews, it was cancelled. During a performance on November 17, 2006 at the Laugh Factory in Hollywood, California Richards shouted a racist response to reported heckling and being interrupted by a small group of black audience members, shouting "He's a nigger!" Several times, referring to lynching and the Jim Crow era. Kyle Doss, a member of the group Richards addressed, said that the group had arriv
Castle Rock Entertainment
Castle Rock Entertainment is an American film and television production company founded in 1987 by Martin Shafer, director Rob Reiner, Andrew Scheinman, Glenn Padnick and Alan Horn. It is a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Reiner named the company in honor of the Maine town that serves as the setting of several stories by Stephen King, after the success of his film Stand by Me, based on The Body, a novella by King. Reiner and Scheinman had a production company, they were friends with Shafer. Horn was agreed to join the trio at forming the company. Horn brought along Padnick, an executive at Embassy Television. In Castle Rock, Horn became the CEO, Shafer ran the film division, Padnick ran TV, Reiner and Scheinman became involved in the development of productions; the company was backed by The Coca-Cola Company the parent company of Columbia Pictures. Coca-Cola and Castle Rock's founders jointly owned stakes in the company. Months after the deal, Coca-Cola exited the entertainment business, was succeeded by Columbia Pictures.
In 1989, Castle Rock was supported by Group W, a subsidiary of Westinghouse. Castle Rock struck a deal with Nelson Entertainment, the company that owned the domestic home video rights to Reiner's This Is Spinal Tap, The Sure Thing, The Princess Bride, to co-finance Castle Rock's films. Under the deal, Nelson distributed the films on video in North American markets, handled international theatrical distribution, while Columbia, which Nelson forged a distribution deal with, would receive domestic theatrical distribution rights; some of Nelson's holdings were acquired by New Line Cinema, which took over Nelson's duty. Columbia, shortly after the company's formation, thereafter had to re-invest with a substantial change in terms when accumulated losses exhausted its initial funding. Reiner has stated. Castle Rock was to make films of the highest quality, whether they lost money. Castle Rock has produced several television shows, including the sitcom Seinfeld. In August 1993, Turner Broadcasting System agreed to acquire Castle Rock, along with co-financing partner New Line Cinema.
The sale was completed on December 22, 1993. The motivation behind the purchase to allow a stronger company to handle the overhead. By 1994, Castle Rock launched a foreign sales operation, Castle Rock International, planned to produce 12-15 films annually. Castle Rock had aspirations to distribute its own films once its deal with Columbia expired in 1998. Turner Broadcasting merged with Time Warner in 1996. After a failed attempt to divest the company, Time Warner integrated Castle Rock Entertainment into Warner Bros. and cut its production slate to five films per year. On June 27, 1997, Castle Rock's staff was reduced to 60 employees and Castle Rock International was folded into Warner Bros. In January 1998, Warner and PolyGram Filmed Entertainment formed a deal to co-finance and co-distribute Castle Rock films; the Warner/Universal deal expired in 2000. In April 2002, Warner Bros reduced Castle Rock Entertainment's budget following a string of box office bombs. Castle Rock fired 16 of its 46 employees, Castle Rock's physical production and public relations departments, back-office duties, remaining employees were absorbed into Warner Bros.
Castle Rock Entertainment on IMDb
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and record or broadcast a scene, it is contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. The two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or "crosses" of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a wider master shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action; this is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent in film or video editing. It is a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle.
It reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television. Drawbacks include a less optimized lighting which needs to provide a compromise for all camera angles and less flexibility in putting the necessary equipment on scene, such as microphone booms and lighting rigs; these can be efficiently hidden from just one camera but can be more complicated to set up and their placement may be inferior in a multiple-camera setup. Another drawback is in film usage—a four-camera setup may use up to four times as much film per take, compared with a single-camera setup. While shooting, the director and assistant director create a line cut by instructing the technical director to switch between the feeds from the individual cameras. In the case of sitcoms with studio audiences, this line cut is displayed to them on studio monitors; the line cut might be refined in editing, as the output from all cameras is recorded, both separately and as a combined reference display called the q split.
The camera being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators. The use of multiple film cameras dates back to the development of narrative silent films, with the earliest example being the first Russian feature film Defence of Sevastopol and directed by Vasily Goncharov and Aleksandr Khanzhonkov; when sound came into the picture multiple cameras were used to film multiple sets at a single time. Early sound was recorded onto wax discs; the use of multiple video cameras to cover a scene goes back to the earliest days of television. The BBC used multiple cameras for their live television shows from 1936 onward. Although it is claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos'n Andy Show, filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
The technique was developed for television by Hollywood short-subject veteran Jerry Fairbanks, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, first seen on the anthology series The Silver Theater, another CBS program, in February 1950. Desilu's innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a live studio audience. In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy. Actor Robin Williams could not stay on his marks due to his physically active improvisations during shooting, so Marshall had them add the fourth camera just to stay on Williams so they would have more than just the master shot of the actor. Soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies; the multiple-camera method gives the director less control over each shot but is faster and less expensive than a single-camera setup. In television, multiple-camera is used for sports programs, news programs, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, some sitcoms.
Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, the earliest anthology programs utilized multiple camera methods. Multiple cameras can take different shots of a live situation as the action unfolds chronologically and is suitable for shows which require a live audience. For this reason, multiple camera productions can be taped much faster than single camera. Single camera productions are shot in takes and various setups with components of the action repeated several times and out of sequence. Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, The Cosby Show, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, One Day at a Time. Many American sitcom
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
A private investigator, a private detective, or inquiry agent, is a person who can be hired by individuals or groups to undertake investigatory law services. Private investigators work for attorneys in civil and criminal cases. In 1833, Eugène François Vidocq, a French soldier and privateer, founded the first known private detective agency, "Le Bureau des Renseignements Universels pour le commerce et l'Industrie" and hired ex-convicts. Official law enforcement tried many times to shut it down. In 1842, police arrested him in suspicion of unlawful imprisonment and taking money on false pretences after he had solved an embezzlement case. Vidocq suspected that it had been a set-up, he was sentenced to five years and fined 3,000-francs. Vidocq is credited with having introduced record-keeping and ballistics to criminal investigation, he made. He created indelible ink and unalterable bond paper with his printing company, his form of anthropometrics is still used by French police. He is credited for philanthropic pursuits – he claimed he never informed on anyone who had stolen for real need.
After Vidocq, the industry was born. Much of what private investigators did in the early days was to act as the police in matters for which their clients felt the police were not equipped or willing to do. A larger role for this new private investigative industry was to assist companies in labor disputes; some early private investigators provided armed guards to act as a private militia. In the United Kingdom, Charles Frederick Field set up an enquiry office upon his retirement from the Metropolitan Police in 1852. Field became a friend of Charles Dickens, the latter wrote articles about him. In 1862, one of his employees, the Hungarian Ignatius Paul Pollaky, left him and set up a rival agency. Although little-remembered today, Pollaky's fame at the time was such that he was mentioned in various books of the 1870s and immortalized as "Paddington" Pollaky for his "keen penetration" in the 1881 comic opera, Patience. In the United States, Allan Pinkerton established the Pinkerton National Detective Agency – a private detective agency – in 1850.
Pinkerton became famous when he foiled a plot to assassinate President-elect Abraham Lincoln in 1861. Pinkerton's agents performed services which ranged from undercover investigations and detection of crimes, to plant protection and armed security, it is sometimes claimed with exaggeration, that at the height of its existence, the Pinkerton National Detective Agency employed more agents than the United States Army. Allan Pinkerton hired Kate Warne in 1856 as a private detective, making her the first female private detective in America. During the union unrest in the US in the late 19th century, companies sometimes hired operatives and armed guards from the Pinkertons. In the aftermath of the Homestead Riot of 1892, several states passed so-called "anti-Pinkerton" laws restricting the importation of private security guards during union strikes; the federal Anti-Pinkerton Act of 1893 continues to prohibit an "individual employed by the Pinkerton Detective Agency, or similar organization" from being employed by "the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia."Pinkerton agents were hired to track western outlaws Jesse James, the Reno brothers, the Wild Bunch, including Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.
Many private detectives/investigators with special academic and practical experience work with defense attorneys on capital punishment and other criminal defense cases. Many others are insurance investigators. Before the advent of no-fault divorce, many private investigators sought evidence of adultery or other conduct within marriage to establish grounds for a divorce. Despite the lack of legal necessity for such evidence in many jurisdictions, according to press reports, collecting evidence of spouses' and partners' adultery or other "bad behaviour" is still one of their most profitable undertakings, as the stakes being fought over now are child custody, alimony, or marital property disputes. Private investigators can perform due diligence for an investor considering investing with an investment group, fund manager, or other high-risk business or investment venture; this could help the prospective investor avoid being the victim of Ponzi scheme. A licensed and experienced investigator could reveal the investment is risky and/or the investor has a suspicious background.
This is called investigative due diligence, is becoming more prevalent in the 21st century with the public reports of large-scale Ponzi schemes and fraudulent investment vehicles such as Madoff, Petters and the hundreds of others reported by the Securities and Exchange Commission along with other law enforcement agencies. Private investigators engage in a variety of work not associated with the industry in the mind of the public. For example, many are involved in process serving, the personal delivery of summons and other legal documents to parties in a legal case; the tracing of absconding debtors can form a large part of a PI's work load. Many agencies specialize in a particular field of expertise. For example, some PI agencies deal only in tracing. A handful of firms specialize in technical surveillance counter-measures, sometimes called electronic counter measures, the locating and dealing with unwanted forms of electronic surveillance; this niche service is conducted by those with backgrounds
Warner Bros. Television
Warner Bros. Television is the television production arm of Warner Bros. Entertainment; the division was started on March 21, 1955 with its first and most successful head being Jack L. Warner's son-in-law William T. Orr. ABC had major success against its competition with Walt Disney's Disneyland TV series and approached Warner Bros. with the idea of purchasing the studio's film library. WB formally entered television production with the premiere of its self-titled anthology series Warner Bros. Presents on ABC; the one-hour weekly show featured rotating episodes of television series based on the WB films and Kings Row, as well as an original series titled Cheyenne with Clint Walker. The first one-hour television western, Cheyenne became a big hit for the network and the studio with the added advantage of featuring promotions for upcoming Warner Bros. cinema releases in the show's last ten minutes. One such segment for Rebel Without a Cause featured Gig Young notably talking about road safety with James Dean.
With only Cheyenne being a success, WB ended the ten-minute promotions of new films and replaced Warner Bros. Presents with an anthology series titled Conflict, it was felt. Conflict showed the pilots for 77 Sunset Strip; the success of Cheyenne led WBTV to produce many series for ABC such as Westerns, crime dramas, other shows such as The Gallant Men and The Roaring Twenties using stock footage from WB war films and gangster films respectively. The company produced Jack Webb's Red Nightmare for the U. S. Department of Defense, shown on American television on Jack Webb's General Electric True. All shows were made in the manner of WB's B pictures in the 1940s. During the 1960 Writers Guild of America strike, WB reused many plots from its films and other television shows under the nom de plume of "W. Hermanos"; this was another example of imitating Warner Bros' B Pictures who would remake an "A" film and switch the setting. Two of the most popular stars, James Garner and Clint Walker, quit over their conditions.
Garner never returned to the Warner's fold during this period. Successful Warner's television stars found themselves in leading roles of many of the studio's films with no increase in salary. Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. was the lead of 77 Sunset Strip, in a recurring role on Maverick, headlined several films until exhaustion forced the studio to give him a rest. Many other actors under contract to Warner's at the time, who despite their work conditions, did see their stars rise over time, albeit for most only included Jack Kelly, Will Hutchins, Peter Brown, Ty Hardin, Wayde Preston, John Russell, Donald May, Rex Reason, Richard Long, Van Williams, Roger Smith, Mike Road, Anthony Eisley, Robert Conrad, Robert McQueeney, Dorothy Provine, Diane McBain, Connie Stevens, who had recorded songs, "Kookie, Kookie" with Edd Byrnes in 1959. Burns and Troy Donahue would become teen heartthrobs. Another contract player, Englishman Roger Moore, was growing displeased with Warner as his contract was expiring and would relocate to Europe from Hollywood, becoming an international star on TV, in films.
Warners contracted established stars such as Ray Danton, Peter Breck, Jeanne Cooper and Grant Williams. These stars appeared as guest stars, sometimes reprising their series role in another TV series; the stars appeared in WB cinema releases with no additional salary, with some such as Zimbalist, Walker and Danton playing the lead roles. Some stars such as Connie Stevens, Edd Byrnes, Robert Conrad and Roger Smith made albums for Warner Bros. Records. One particular recording, a novelty tune titled Kookie, Kookie became a big hit for Edd Byrnes and Connie Stevens; the following year, Connie Stevens had her own hit, with Sixteen Reasons. It was during this period, that shows Westerns like Cheyenne and Maverick. Depending on the particular show, William Lava or David Buttolph would compose the music, with lyrics by Stan Jones or Paul Francis Webster, among others. For the crime shows, it was up to the songwriting team of Jerry Livingston and Mack David, who scored the themes for the sitcom Room for One More, The Bugs Bunny Show.
In 1960, WBTV turned its attentions to the younger viewer, for one program, anyway, as they brought Bugs Bunny and the other WB cartoon characters to prime time, with The Bugs Bunny Show, which featured cartoons released after July 31, 1948, combined with newly animated introductory material. That year saw the debut of The Roaring Twenties (which was thought to be a more benign alternative to Desilu's The Untouchables. Whether or
Cosmo Kramer referred to as "Kramer", is a fictional character on the American television sitcom Seinfeld, played by Michael Richards. The character is loosely based on Larry David's ex-neighbor across the hall. Kramer is the friend and neighbor of main character Jerry, residing in Apartment 5B, is friends with George and Elaine. Of the series' four central characters, only Kramer has no visible means of support, his trademarks include his upright hairstyle and vintage wardrobe, whose combination led Elaine to characterize him as a "hipster doofus". He's been described as "an extraordinary cross between Eraserhead and Herman Munster". Kramer appeared in all but two episodes: "The Chinese Restaurant" and "The Pen", in the second and third seasons, respectively. In "The Trip", Kramer admits. In "The Big Salad" Kramer reveals to Jerry that he grew up in a strict household where he had to be in bed every night by 9:00PM. In "The Letter", Kramer tells two art patrons that he ran away from home at age seventeen and stowed away aboard a steamer bound for Sweden.
Kramer never completed high school. Unlike George and Jerry, Kramer's character does not have a well-developed network of family members shown in the sitcom, he is the only main character on the show. He mentions in "The Lip Reader" that he has or had a deaf cousin, from whom he learned fluent American Sign Language, but when Kramer tries to communicate in ASL, he speaks complete gibberish and cannot translate the ASL he sees others using, he apparently has no biological children, although he adopted mile 114 of the Arthur Burkhardt Expressway in "The Pothole". During an opening discussion, Kramer reveals to Jerry that in 1979 he was struck on the head by a falling air conditioner while walking on the sidewalk. Jerry asks if, when Kramer lived in Greenwich Village, to which Kramer replies that he cannot remember; this is discussed in the beginning of "The Little Kicks". In "The Strong Box", it is revealed that Kramer spent a brief time in the Army, although info about this time is "classified".
In episode three of season one he says. Kramer has conflicting personality traits. He's sometimes shallow and indifferent. Though eccentric, Kramer is caring and kind-hearted, he is confident in his own unique way of doing things. His quirkiness, strange body movements and frequent gibberish mutterings have become his trademark. Kramer gets his friends directly into trouble by talking them into unwise or illegal actions such as parking illegally in a handicapped space, urinating in a parking garage, committing mail fraud or hiring an assassin to get rid of a dog. Kramer is known to mooch off his friends Jerry. Kramer enters and uses Jerry's apartment without his consent or knowledge, helps himself to Jerry's food. Kramer uses tools/appliances of Jerry's, only with permission, returning them in a state of disrepair; the reason for all this is because Kramer is told "What's mine is yours" on his first meeting with Jerry. Kramer is known for his extreme honesty and, lack of tact. In "The Kiss Hello" when Elaine tries to take advantage of this personality quirk by inviting Kramer to meet her friend, whose hairstyle she feels is outdated, Kramer tells her he loves it.
Instead of being horrified, many characters end up thanking Kramer for his candor. Kramer gets into trouble for it, but his friends do. One explanation as to Kramer's personality and traits, with respect to his mysterious childhood and background, is hinted in "The Chicken Roaster". After a series of conflicts, Jerry is forced to live in Kramer's vice versa. Jerry, bothered by the many oddities and idiosyncrasies associated with Kramer's home, begins behaving like his wacky friend. Conversely, when Kramer begins living in Jerry's regular, normal apartment, he becomes more like his calm, quick-witted friend. In general, Kramer excels at persuading Jerry into doing things against his better judgment. On the other hand, Kramer has displayed an unbending loyalty toward Jerry in many episodes when choosing to help him against Newman in many episodes, including "The Suicide" and "The Millennium". In the same respect, Jerry has helped Kramer out of good will and always seems to forgive and ultimately