The Big Tall Wish
"The Big Tall Wish" is episode twenty-seven of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone, with an original score by Jerry Goldsmith. It aired on April 8, 1960 on CBS. Bolie Jackson is a washed-up boxer, he is knocked down and just about to be counted out, when he magically switches places with the other boxer. Bolie is now standing over his vanquished opponent. Bolie celebrates his victory, he remembers being knocked down and has no memory of getting back up to win, nor can he figure out why his knuckles feel fine. His manager tells Bolie. Bolie figures. However, there is one other person. Henry Temple, the young son of Bolie's girlfriend Frances, not only remembers, he has an explanation for what happened. Henry tells Bolie that he made "the biggest, tallest wish" he could come up with for Bolie, for the two boxers to switch positions, it came true. Bolie cannot accept this. Henry warns him. If Bolie does not believe, the wish will not work, but he is unswayed. As soon as he rejects the idea that a wish could have been responsible for what happened, he is returned to the fight, on the canvas.
This time the referee finishes counting Bolie out. Neither Bolie nor Henry have any memory of the alternate outcome. Henry remembers making the biggest wish he could for Bolie, but it did not work, so he declares with resignation that he will not be making any more wishes. "There ain't no such thing as magic, is there?", he asks Bolie. "I guess Henry", Bolie replies sadly. "Or maybe...maybe there is magic. And maybe there's wishes, too. I guess the trouble is...there's not enough people around to believe..." Ivan Dixon as Bolie Jackson Stephen Perry as Henry Temple Kim Hamilton as Frances Temple Walter Burke as Joe Mizell Charles Horvath as Joey Consiglio Carl McIntire as Announcer The all-black principal cast was a novelty for television in 1960. Said Rod Serling at the time:Television, like its big sister, the motion picture, has been guilty of the sin of omission... Hungry for talent, desperate for the so-called'new face,' searching for a transfusion of new blood, it has overlooked a source of wondrous talent that resides under its nose.
This is the Negro actor. A few other Twilight Zones followed the example of this episode and cast blacks in significant roles, including the pastor in "I Am the Night—Color Me Black", with Ivan Dixon, a child in the mall in "The Night of the Meek", the electrician in "The Brain Center at Whipple's"; these inclusions, though insignificant by modern standards, were so revolutionary at the time that The Twilight Zone was awarded the Unity Award for Outstanding Contributions to Better Race Relations in 1961. Cast in the lead role was champion boxer Archie Moore, who exclaimed, "Man, I was in the Twilight Zone!" when describing the punch delivered by his opponent Yvon Durelle. This is one of several episodes from season one where some broadcast prints have the opening title sequence replaced with that of season two; this was done during the summer of 1961 to help the season one shows fit in with the new look the show had taken during the following season. They use the same hallway shown in this episode in "Mr. Bevis", episode 33, but altered.
However, the door and stair railings remain the same. The boxing match takes place at "St. Nick's Arena", the name of a boxing arena in New York City, the St. Nicholas Rink. Zircee, Marc Scott: The Twilight Zone Companion. Sillman-James Press, 1982 DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 "The Big Tall Wish" on IMDb
Lois June Nettleton was an American film, stage and television actress. She won two Daytime Emmy Awards. Lois Nettleton was born on August 16, 1927, in Oak Park, Illinois, to Virginia and Edward L. Nettleton, she graduated from Senn High School in Chicago. She was Miss Chicago of 1948, a semifinalist at the Miss America 1948 Pageant, her professional acting career began in 1949. She understudied Barbara Bel Geddes in the original Broadway production of Tennessee Williams' Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, first appeared on television in a 1954 episode of Captain Video. Nettleton played Patsy in the radio soap opera The Brighter Day, she performed in dozens of guest-starring roles on television shows. Early roles included The Twilight Zone. B. I.. In 1973, she appeared on The Mary Tyler Moore Show as Lou Grant's new boss, Barbara Coleman, where she had a crush on Mr. Grant, she appeared in the pilot episode of The Eddie Capra Mysteries in 1978, as well as hit TV miniseries such as Washington: Behind Closed Doors and Centennial, as the murderous Maude Wendell.
In 1987, she portrayed the role of Penny VanderHof Sycamore on the TV series version of the classic Kaufman and Hart comedy play You Can't Take It with You with Harry Morgan and Richard Sanders. She was a regular celebrity guest on various versions of the game show Pyramid from the 1970s through 1991. Nettleton won two Emmy Awards during her career, she won one for her role as Susan B. Anthony in the television film The American Woman: Profiles in Courage, for "A Gun For Mandy", an episode of the religious anthology, Insight, she received an Emmy Award nomination for "Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series" for an episode of The Golden Girls. She received Emmy nominations for her work in the TV movie Fear on Trial and for a recurring role on the series In the Heat of the Night, in 1989. Nettleton appeared in The Christmas Card. A life member of the Actors Studio, Nettleton made her Broadway debut in the 1949 production of Dalton Trumbo's play, The Biggest Thief in Town using the name Lydia Scott.
She appeared in a 1959 off-Broadway production of Look Charlie, written by her future husband, humorist Jean Shepherd. She received critical praise for her performance as Blanche DuBois in a 1973 revival of A Streetcar Named Desire. Nettleton was nominated for a Tony Award for her performance as Amy in a 1976 revival of They Knew What They Wanted. Other stage credits include Broadway productions of Darkness at Lonely Night, she continued to act onstage into her 70s. Her final stage performance was in an off-Broadway play, How to Build a Better Tulip. In her years, she did several voice roles for Disney, such as Disney's House of Mouse and Mickey's House of Villains, Herc's Adventures, she appeared in episodes of the CBS Radio Mystery Theater. She was the first caller to Jean Shepherd's late-night radio program on WOR becoming his second wife, she became a regular guest, known to listeners as "the Caller". They appeared together in Shepherd's off-Broadway play Look, Charlie in 1959, married in 1960.
They divorced seven years later. She never had children, her last public appearance was at the 2007 Twilight Zone Convention, in Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey, in August 2007. Nettleton died at the age of 80 from lung cancer in Woodland Hills, California on January 18, 2008, she was interred in New York City's Saint Raymond's Cemetery. Lois Nettleton on IMDb Lois Nettleton at the Internet Broadway Database Lois Nettleton at Find a Grave
An anthology series is a radio, television or book series that presents a different story and a different set of characters in each episode or season. These have a different cast each week, but several series in the past, such as Four Star Playhouse, employed a permanent troupe of character actors who would appear in a different drama each week; some anthology series, such as Studio One, began on radio and expanded to television. Medieval Greek anthologiā, collection of epigrams, from Greek, flower gathering, from anthologein, to gather flowers: antho-, antho- + logos, a gathering. Many popular old-time radio programs were anthology series. On some series, such as Inner Sanctum Mysteries, the only constant was the host, who introduced and concluded each dramatic presentation. One of the earliest such programs was The Collier Hour, broadcast on the NBC Blue Network from 1927 to 1932; as radio's first major dramatic anthology, it adapted stories and serials from Collier's Weekly in a calculated move to increase subscriptions and compete with The Saturday Evening Post.
Airing on the Wednesday prior to each week's distribution of the magazine, the program soon moved to Sundays in order to avoid spoilers with dramatizations of stories appearing in the magazine. Radio drama anthology series include: Academy Award Theater Arch Oboler's Plays The Campbell Playhouse Cavalcade of America CBS Radio Workshop Earplay Four Star Playhouse Lux Radio Theater The Mercury Theatre on the Air The Screen Guild Theater Stars over Hollywood Radio anthology series provided a format for science fiction, horror and mystery genres: Mystery House The Witch's Tale Lights Out The Hermit's Cave Famous Jury Trials Dark Fantasy Inner Sanctum Mysteries The Whistler Suspense The Mysterious Traveler Creeps by Night Mystery Playhouse The Strange Dr. Weird The Haunting Hour The Sealed Book Mystery in the Air The Weird Circle Quiet, Please! Escape The Unexpected The Hall of Fantasy 2000 Plus Dimension X ABC Mystery Theater, anthology and mystery series Sleep No More Theater 10:30 X Minus One The final episode of Suspense was broadcast on September 30, 1962, a date that has traditionally been seen as marking the end of the old-time radio era.
However, genre series produced since 1962 include: The Black Mass The Creaking Door Beyond Midnight The Zero Hour Mystery Theater Nightfall The Cabinet of Dr. Fritz 2000X The Twilight Zone In the history of television, live anthology dramas were popular during the Golden Age of Television of the 1950s with series such as The United States Steel Hour and The Philco Television Playhouse. Dick Powell came up with an idea for an anthology series, Four Star Playhouse, with a rotation of established stars every week, four stars in all; the stars would own the studio and the program, as Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz had done with Desilu studio. Powell had intended for the program to feature himself, Charles Boyer, Joel McCrea, Rosalind Russell; when Russell and McCrea backed out, David Niven came on board as the third star. The fourth star was a guest star. CBS liked the idea, Four Star Playhouse made its debut in fall of 1952, it ran on alternate weeks only during the first season, alternating with Andy.
It was successful enough to be renewed and became a weekly program from the second season until the end of its run in 1956. Ida Lupino was brought on board as the de facto fourth star, though unlike Powell and Niven, she owned no stock in the company. American television networks would sometimes run summer anthology series which consisted of unsold television pilots. Beginning in 1971, the long-run Masterpiece Theatre drama anthology series brought British productions to American television. In 2011, American Horror Story debuted a new type of anthology format in the U. S; each season, rather than each episode, is a standalone story. Several actors have appeared in the various seasons, but playing different roles—in an echo of the Four Star Playhouse format; the success of American Horror Story has spawned other season-long anthologies such as American Crime Story and Feud. The 20th Century Fox Hour ABC Movie of the Week ABC Stage 67 Academy Theatre Actors Studio Alcoa-Goodyear Theatre The Alcoa Hour Alcoa Premiere American Crime American Crime Story American Horror Story American Film Theatre American Playhouse The American Playwrights Theater: The One Acts Th
A World of Difference
"A World of Difference" is episode 23 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. You're looking at a tableau of reality, things of substance, of physical material: a desk, a window, a light; these things have dimension. Now this is Arthur Curtis, age thirty-six, real, he has flesh and blood and mind. But in just a moment we will see how thin a line separates that which we assume to be real with that manufactured inside of a mind. Arthur Curtis is a businessman planning a vacation to San Francisco with his wife Marian. After arriving at his office and talking with his secretary Sally, after finding that his telephone is not functional and hearing someone yell "cut," he discovers his office to be a movie set on a sound stage, he is told that Arthur Curtis is a role he is playing, that his real identity is Gerald Raigan, a movie star, caught in the middle of a brutal divorce from a hostile wife Nora, his own alcoholism, a declining career. He leaves the studio with Nora, he tries in vain to locate Arthur Curtis's house, mistakes a little girl for his daughter, scaring her.
Nora drives him to their actual home. Inside, he meets his agent, who tells him that if he fails to continue work that day, he will drop him as a client. Curtis still protests that he is not Raigan, tries to call his workplace, but the operator cannot find any listing of it, his agent believes that he is having a nervous breakdown, shows him the shooting script of a movie called The Private World of Arthur Curtis. He tells him that the movie is being canceled due to his outburst in the studio. Raigan/Curtis rushes back to the set, being dismantled, pleads not to be left in the uncaring world of Gerald Raigan. Curtis reappears in his office. Sally gives Arthur his plane tickets; as Arthur hears echoes of the studio sounds, he tells Marian that he never wants to lose her, that they should leave for their vacation immediately. Meanwhile, in the other world, Raigan's agent shows up on the set to find; as the set is being dismantled, a teaser shows the "Arthur Curtis" script left on a table, waiting to be thrown into the rubbish bin.
In the last scene and Marian board a plane, which takes flight and fades away into the sky. The modus operandi for the departure from life is a pine box of such and such dimensions, this is the ultimate in reality, but there are other ways for a man to exit from life. Take the case of Arthur Curtis, age thirty-six, his departure was along a highway with an exit sign that reads, "This Way To Escape". Arthur Curtis, en route to the Twilight Zone. DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 "A World of Difference" on IMDb "A World of Difference" at TV.com the-croc.com episode page
Missile launch facility
A missile launch facility known as an underground missile silo, launch facility, or nuclear silo, is a vertical cylindrical structure constructed underground, for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles. The structures have the missile some distance below ground, protected by a large "blast door" on top, they are connected, physically and/or electronically, to a missile launch control center. The La Coupole facility is the earliest known precursor to modern underground missile silos still in existence, it was built by the forces of Nazi Germany in northern Occupied France, between 1943 and 1944, to serve as a launch base for V-2 rockets. The facility was designed with an immense concrete dome to store a large stockpile of V-2s, warheads and fuel, was intended to launch V-2s on an industrial scale. Dozens of missiles a day were to be fuelled and rolled just outdoors of the facility's concrete casing, launched from either of two outdoor launch pads in rapid sequence against London and southern England.
A similar-purpose but less-developed facility, the Blockhaus d'Eperlecques, had been built, some 14.4 kilometers north-northwest of La Coupole, closer to intended targets in southeastern England. Following repeated heavy bombing by Allied forces during Operation Crossbow, the Germans were unable to complete construction of the works and the complex never entered service; the United Kingdom conducted post-war investigations, determining that it was "an assembly site for long projectiles most conveniently handled and prepared in a vertical position". The first underground missile silo was built in the 1950s by the United Kingdom, to house their Blue Streak missiles. Only one test underground missile silo was built at RAF Spadeadam; the UK cancelled the Blue Streak silo project, since the Soviets had developed missiles that could attack with little warning and insufficient time to arm Blue Streak missiles. The UK's ICBM nuclear missile launch mode was changed in 1960, to submarine-launched ballistic missiles.
The German idea of an underground missile silo was adopted and developed by the United States for missile launch facilities for its intercontinental ballistic missiles. Most silos were based in Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and other western states. There were three main reasons behind this siting: reducing the flight trajectory between the United States and the Soviet Union, since the missiles would travel north over Canada and the North Pole, they had many defense systems to keep out intruders and other defense systems to prevent destruction. The Atlas missiles used four different launching methods; the first version were vertical and above ground launchers, at Vandenberg Air Force Base on the Central Coast of California. The second version were stored horizontally in a shed-like structure with a retractable roof, to be raised to the vertical and launched, at Francis E. Warren Air Force Base in Wyoming; the third version were stored horizontally, but better protected in a concrete building known as a "coffin" raised to the vertical shortly before launch.
These rather poorly protected designs were a consequence of the cryogenic liquid fuels used, which required the missiles to be stored unfueled and be fueled prior to launch. The fourth version were stored vertically in underground silos, for the Atlas F ICBM, they were fueled in the silo, since they could not be launched from within the silo, were raised to the surface to launch. The Titan I missile used a similar silo basing of the fourth version. Launch facility configurations varied by U. S. missile systems. LGM-25C Titan II ICBMs were in a one ICBM launch control center with one LF configuration. Titan missiles were located near their control operations personnel. Access to the missile was through tunnels connecting launch facility. An example of this can be seen at the Titan Missile Museum, located south of Arizona; the solid fueled LGM-30 series Minuteman I, II, III, Peacekeeper ICBM configurations consist of one LCC that controls ten LFs. Five LCCs and their fifty associated LFs make up a squadron.
Three squadrons make up a wing. Measures were taken such that if any one LCC was disabled, a separate LCC within the squadron would take control of its ten ICBMs; the LGM-30 LFs and LCCs are separated by several miles, connected only electronically. This distance ensures that a nuclear attack could only disable a small number of ICBMs, leaving the rest capable of being launched immediately. Dense Pack was a proposed configuration strategy for basing LGM-118 Peacekeeper ICBMs, developed under the Reagan administration, for the purpose of maximizing their survivability in case of a surprise nuclear first-strike on their silos conducted by a hostile foreign power. According to the Dense Pack strategy, a series of ten to twelve hardened silos would be grouped together in a line; this line of silos would run north-to-south, as the primary flight path for Soviet inbound nuclear ICBMs would be expected to come from the north over the North Pole. The proposed Dense Pack initiative met with strong criticism in the media and in the government, the idea was never implemented.
The former Soviet Union had missile silos in Russia and adjacent Soviet states during the Cold War, such as the Plokštinė missile base in Lithuania. The Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning, near Solnech
Time Enough at Last
"Time Enough at Last" is the eighth episode of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. The episode was adapted from a short story written by Lynn Venable; the short story appeared in the January 1953 edition of the science fiction magazine If: Worlds of Science Fiction about seven years before the television episode first aired. "Time Enough at Last" became one of the most famous episodes of the original Twilight Zone and has been parodied since. It is "the story of a man who seeks salvation in the rubble of a ruined world" and tells of Henry Bemis, played by Burgess Meredith, who loves books, yet is surrounded by those who would prevent him from reading them; the episode follows Bemis through the post-apocalyptic world, touching on such social issues as anti-intellectualism, the dangers of reliance upon technology, the difference between aloneness and loneliness. Witness Mr. Henry Bemis, a charter member in the fraternity of dreamers. A bookish little man whose passion is the printed page, but, conspired against by a bank president and a wife and a world full of tongue-cluckers and the unrelenting hands of a clock.
But in just a moment, Mr. Bemis will enter a world without bank presidents or wives or clocks or anything else. He'll have a world all to himself... without anyone. Henpecked, far sighted bank teller and avid bookworm Henry Bemis works at his window in a bank, while reading David Copperfield, which causes him to shortchange an annoyed customer. Bemis's angry boss, his nagging wife, both complain to him that he wastes far too much time reading "doggerel"; as a cruel joke, his wife asks him to read poetry from one of his books to her. Seconds she destroys the book by ripping the pages from it, much to Henry's dismay; the next day, as usual, Henry takes his lunch break in the bank's vault, where his reading will not be disturbed. Moments after he sees a newspaper headline, which reads "H-Bomb Capable of Total Destruction", an enormous explosion outside the bank violently shakes the vault, knocking Bemis unconscious. After regaining consciousness and recovering the thick glasses required for him to see, Bemis emerges from the vault to find the bank demolished and everyone in it dead.
Leaving the bank, he sees that the entire city has been destroyed, realizes that a nuclear war has devastated Earth, but that his being in the vault has saved him. Seconds, hours, they crawl by on hands and knees for Mr. Henry Bemis, who looks for a spark in the ashes of a dead world. A telephone connected to nothingness. A neighborhood bar, a movie, a baseball diamond, a hardware store, the mailbox of what was once his house and is now a rubble, they lie at his feet as battered monuments to what is no more. Mr. Henry Bemis on an eight-hour tour of a graveyard. Finding himself alone in a shattered world with canned food to last him a lifetime and no means of leaving to look for other survivors, Bemis succumbs to despair; as he prepares to commit suicide using a revolver he has found, Bemis sees the ruins of the public library in the distance. Investigating, he finds that the books are still legible, his despair gone, Bemis contentedly sorts the books he looks forward to reading for years to come, with no obligations to get in the way.
Just as he bends down to pick up the first book, he stumbles, his glasses fall off and shatter. In shock, he picks up the broken remains of the glasses he is blind without, says, "That's not fair. That's not fair at all. There was time now. There was—was all the time I needed…! It's not fair! It's not fair!" and bursts into tears, surrounded by books he now can never read. The best laid plans of mice and men... and Henry Bemis... the small man in the glasses who wanted nothing but time. Henry Bemis, now just a part of a smashed landscape, just a piece of the rubble, just a fragment of what man has deeded to himself. Mr. Henry Bemis... in the Twilight Zone. "Time Enough at Last" was one of the first episodes written for The Twilight Zone. It introduced Burgess Meredith to the series, he narrated for the 1983 film Twilight Zone: The Movie, which made reference to "Time Enough at Last" during its opening sequence, with the characters discussing the episode in detail. Footage of the exterior steps of the library was filmed several months after production had been completed.
These steps can be seen on the exterior of an Eloi public building in MGM's 1960 version of The Time Machine. John Brahm was nominated for a Directors Guild award for his work on the episode; the book that Bemis was reading in the vault and that flips open when the bomb explodes is A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus by Washington Irving. Although the overriding message may seem to "be careful what you wish for, you just might get it", there are other themes throughout the episode as well. Paramount among these is the question of solitude versus loneliness, as embodied by Bemis' moment of near-suicide. Additionally, the portrayal of societal attitudes towards books speaks to the contemporary decline of traditional literature and how, given enough time, reading may become a relic of the past. At the same time, the ending "punishes Bemis for his antisocial behavior, his greatest desire is thwarted". Rod Serl
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient. A thermometer has two important elements: a temperature sensor in which some change occurs with a change in temperature. Thermometers are used in technology and industry to monitor processes, in meteorology, in medicine, in scientific research; some of the principles of the thermometer were known to Greek philosophers of two thousand years ago. The modern thermometer evolved from the thermoscope with the addition of a scale in the early 17th century and standardisation through the 17th and 18th centuries. While an individual thermometer is able to measure degrees of hotness, the readings on two thermometers cannot be compared unless they conform to an agreed scale. Today there is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. Internationally agreed temperature scales are designed to approximate this based on fixed points and interpolating thermometers; the most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990.
It extends from 0.65 K to 1,358 K. Various authors have credited the invention of the thermometer to Hero of Alexandria; the thermometer was not a single invention, but a development. Hero of Alexandria knew of the principle that certain substances, notably air and contract and described a demonstration in which a closed tube filled with air had its end in a container of water; the expansion and contraction of the air caused the position of the water/air interface to move along the tube. Such a mechanism was used to show the hotness and coldness of the air with a tube in which the water level is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the gas; these devices were developed by several European scientists in the 16th and 17th centuries, notably Galileo Galilei. As a result, devices were shown to produce this effect reliably, the term thermoscope was adopted because it reflected the changes in sensible heat; the difference between a thermoscope and a thermometer is. Though Galileo is said to be the inventor of the thermometer, what he produced were thermoscopes.
The first clear diagram of a thermoscope was published in 1617 by Giuseppe Biancani: the first showing a scale and thus constituting a thermometer was by Robert Fludd in 1638. This was a vertical tube, closed by a bulb of air at the top, with the lower end opening into a vessel of water; the water level in the tube is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the air, so it is what we would now call an air thermometer. The first person to put a scale on a thermoscope is variously said to be Francesco Sagredo or Santorio Santorio in about 1611 to 1613; the word thermometer first appeared in 1624 in La Récréation Mathématique by J. Leurechon, who describes one with a scale of 8 degrees; the word comes from the Greek words θερμός, meaning "hot" and μέτρον, meaning "measure". The above instruments suffered from the disadvantage that they were barometers, i.e. sensitive to air pressure. In 1629, Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, a student of Galileo, published what is the first description and illustration of a sealed liquid-in-glass thermometer.
It is described as having a bulb at the bottom of a sealed tube filled with brandy. The tube has a numbered scale. Delmedigo does not claim to have invented this instrument, nor does he name anyone else as its inventor. In about 1654 Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany produced such an instrument, the first modern-style thermometer, dependent on the expansion of a liquid, independent of air pressure. Many other scientists experimented with various designs of thermometer. However, each inventor and each thermometer was unique—there was no standard scale. In 1665 Christiaan Huygens suggested using the melting and boiling points of water as standards, in 1694 Carlo Renaldini proposed using them as fixed points on a universal scale. In 1701, Isaac Newton proposed a scale of 12 degrees between the melting point of ice and body temperature. In 1714 Dutch scientist and inventor Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first reliable thermometer, using mercury instead of alcohol and water mixtures.
In 1724 he proposed a temperature scale. He could do this because he manufactured thermometers, using mercury for the first time and the quality of his production could provide a finer scale and greater reproducibility, leading to its general adoption. In 1742, Anders Celsius proposed a scale with zero at the boiling point and 100 degrees at the freezing point of water, though the scale which now bears his name has them the other way around. French entomologist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur invented an alcohol thermometer and temperature scale in 1730 that proved to be less reliable than Fahrenheit's mercury thermometer; the first physician that put thermometer measurements to clinical practice was Herman Boerhaave. In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt invented a clinical thermometer that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty. In 1999, Dr. Francesco Pompei of the Exergen Corporation introduced the world's first temporal artery thermometer, a non-