Sweatshop is a pejorative term for a workplace that has poor unacceptable working conditions. The work may be difficult, climatically challenged or underpaid. Workers in sweatshops may work long hours with low pay, regardless of laws mandating overtime pay or a minimum wage; the Fair Labor Association's "2006 Annual Public Report" inspected factories for FLA compliance in 18 countries including Bangladesh, El Salvador, Guatemala, Thailand, Turkey, India, Honduras, Brazil and the US. The U. S. Department of Labor's "2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor" found that "18 countries did not meet the International Labour Organization's recommendation for an adequate number of inspectors." A sweatshop is a factory or workshop in the clothing industry, where manual workers are employed at low wages for long hours under poor conditions and many health risks. Many workplaces through history have been low-paying and without job security; the terms sweater for the middleman and sweat system for the process of subcontracting piecework were used in early critiques like Charles Kingsley's Cheap Clothes and Nasty, written in 1850, which described conditions in London, England.
The workplaces created for the sweating system, a system of subcontracting in the tailoring trade were called sweatshops and might contain only a few workers or as many as 300 and more. Between 1832 and 1850, sweatshops attracted the rural poor to growing cities, attracted immigrants to places such as London and New York City's garment district, located near the tenements of New York's Lower East Side; these sweatshops incurred criticism: labor leaders cited them as crowded, poorly ventilated, prone to fires and rat infestations: in many cases, there were many workers crowded into small tenement rooms. In the 1890s, a group calling itself the National Anti-Sweating League was formed in Melbourne and campaigned for a minimum wage via trade boards. A group with the same name campaigned from 1906 in the UK, resulting in the Trade Boards Act 1909. In 1910, the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union was founded to try to improve the condition of these workers. Criticism of garment sweatshops became a major force behind workplace safety regulation and labor laws.
As some journalists strove to change working conditions, the term sweatshop came to refer to a broader set of workplaces whose conditions were considered inferior. In the United States, investigative journalists, known as muckrakers, wrote exposés of business practices, progressive politicians campaigned for new laws. Notable exposés of sweatshop conditions include Jacob Riis' photo documentary How the Other Half Lives and Upton Sinclair's book, The Jungle, a fictionalized account of the meat packing industry. In 1911, negative public perceptions of sweatshops were galvanized by the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City; the pivotal role of this time and place is chronicled at the Lower East Side Tenement Museum, part of the Lower East Side Tenement National Historic Site. While trade unions, minimum wage laws, fire safety codes, labour laws have made sweatshops rarer in the developed world, they did not eliminate them, the term is associated with factories in the developing world.
In a report issued in 1994, the United States Government Accountability Office found that there were still thousands of sweatshops in the United States, using a definition of a sweatshop as any "employer that violates more than one federal or state labor law governing minimum wage and overtime, child labor, industrial homework, occupational safety and health, workers' compensation, or industry registration". This recent definition eliminates any historical distinction about the role of a middleman or the items produced, focuses on the legal standards of developed country workplaces. An area of controversy between supporters of outsourcing production to the Third World and the anti-sweatshop movement is whether such standards can or should be applied to the workplaces of the developing world. Sweatshops are sometimes implicated in human trafficking when workers have been tricked into starting work without informed consent, or when workers are kept at work through debt bondage or mental duress, all of which are more if the workforce is drawn from children or the uneducated rural poor.
Because they exist in places without effective workplace safety or environmental laws, sweatshops sometimes injure their workers or the environment at greater rates than would be acceptable in developed countries. Sometimes penal labor facilities are grouped under the sweatshop label. Sweatshops conditions resemble prison labor in many cases from a found Western perspective. In 2014 Apple was caught "failing to protect its workers" in one of its Pegatron factories. Overwhelmed workers were caught falling asleep during their 12-hour shifts and an undercover reporter had to work 18 days in a row. Sweatshops in question carry characteristics such as compulsory pregnancy tests for female laborers and terrorization from supervisors into submission. Workers go into a state of forced labor, if one day of work is not accounted for, most are fired; these working conditions have been the source of suicidal unrest within factories in the past. Chinese sweatshops known to have increased numbers of suicidal employees have suicide nets cover
French Without Tears (film)
French Without Tears is a 1939 British comedy film directed by Anthony Asquith and starring Ray Milland. It was based on the play of the same name by Terence Rattigan who co-wrote the script. An on-off working relationship between Asquith and Rattigan began with this film and continued over the next 15 years; the love affairs of three young Englishmen at a language "cramming" school in the south of France. Diana, the sister of one of the boys, arrives in town to flirt with all of her brothers' schoolmates. Ray Milland as Alan Howard Ellen Drew as Diana Lake Janine Darcey as Jacqueline Maingot David Tree as Chris Neilan Roland Culver as Cmdr. Bill Rogers Guy Middleton as Brian Curtis Kenneth Morgan as Kenneth Lake Margaret Yarde as Marianne Toni Gable as Chi-Chi Jim Gérald as Professor Maingot Mantovani as Himself - Orchestra Leader Stella Roberts Peters Sisters Sky Movies described a "sparkling version of Terence Rattigan's comedy play; the import of Ellen Drew and Ray Milland from Hollywood ensured the film's success world-wide."
Writing for Allmovie, Hal Erickson wrote, "much of the wit and zest of the original stage production has been blunted for the screen, moving one critic to describe French Without Tears as "Comedy Without Laughs". In all fairness, the film does boast a hilarious drunk scene in a musty old French wine cellar." French Without Tears on IMDb
Pygmalion (1938 film)
Pygmalion is a 1938 British film based on the George Bernard Shaw play of the same name, adapted by him for the screen. It stars Wendy Hiller; the film was a financial and critical success, won an Oscar for Best Screenplay and three more nominations. The screenplay was adapted into the 1956 theatrical musical My Fair Lady, which in turn led to the 1964 film of the same name; the Hungarian producer Gabriel Pascal wished to create a set of films based on Shaw's works, beginning with Pygmalion, went to see Shaw in person to gain permission to do so. Shaw was reluctant to allow a film adaptation of Pygmalion owing to the low quality of previous film adaptations of his works, but Pascal managed to convince him and went on to adapt Major Barbara and Cleopatra and Androcles and the Lion; the resulting Pygmalion scenario by Cecil Lewis and W. P. Lipscomb removed exposition unnecessary outside a theatrical context and added new scenes and dialogue by Shaw. Ian Dalrymple, Anatole de Grunwald and Kay Walsh made uncredited contributions to the screenplay.
A long ballroom sequence was added, introducing an new character, Count Aristid Karpathy, written wholly by Shaw. Against Shaw's wishes, a happy ending was added, with Eliza fleeing Higgins with Freddy but returning to Higgins's home. Shaw and his fellow writers did, retain the controversial line "Not bloody likely!" from the play's text, making Hiller the first person to utter that swear word in a British film and giving rise to adverts for the film reading "Miss Pygmalion? Not ****** likely!". Wendy Hiller was chosen by Shaw to play Eliza Doolittle after she had appeared in stage productions of Pygmalion and Saint Joan – though the film's initial credits stated that this movie was introducing her, she had in fact appeared on film in 1937's Lancashire Luck. Shaw's choice for Higgins had been Charles Laughton; the movie includes the first film appearance of Anthony Quayle, as an Italian wigmaker. Cathleen Nesbitt, credited here as Kathleen Nesbitt in the role of'A Lady,' portrayed Mrs. Higgins in the original Broadway production of My Fair Lady 18 years later.
The film's crew included David Lean, set designer Laurence Irving and the camera operator Jack Hildyard. Leslie Howard as Professor Henry Higgins Wendy Hiller as Eliza Doolittle Wilfrid Lawson as Alfred Doolittle Marie Lohr as Mrs. Higgins Scott Sunderland as Colonel George Pickering Jean Cadell as Mrs. Pearce David Tree as Freddy Eynsford-Hill Everley Gregg as Mrs. Eynsford-Hill Leueen MacGrath as Clara Eynsford-Hill Esme Percy as Count Aristid Karpathy Violet Vanbrugh as the Ambassadress Iris Hoey as Ysabel, Social Reporter Viola Tree as Perfide, Social Reporter Irene Browne as the Duchess Kate Cutler as The Grand Old Lady Cathleen Nesbitt as Old Lady O. B. Clarence as Mr. Birchwood, the Vicar Wally Patch as First Bystander H. F. Maltby as Second Bystander Ivor Barnard as Sarcastic Bystander Cecil Trouncer as First Policeman Stephen Murray as Second Policeman Eileen Beldon as Mrs Higgins’s Parlourmaid Frank Atkinson as Taxi DriverUncredited Leo Genn as a Prince Moyna Macgill as a Woman Bystander Patrick Macnee as an Extra Anthony Quayle as Eliza's Hairdresser George Bernard Shaw, Cecil Lewis, Ian Dalrymple, W.
P. Lipscomb won the 1938 Academy Award for Writing; the film received nominations for Best Picture, Best Actor and Best Actress. Shaw's reaction to his award was: "It's an insult for them to offer me any honour, as if they had never heard of me before – and it's likely they never have, they might as well send some honour to George for being King of England." However, his friend Mary Pickford reported seeing the award on display in his home. At the 1938 Venice Film Festival, Leslie Howard won the Volpi Cup and the film was nominated for the Mussolini Cup; the copyright of the film Pygmalion lapsed in the United States in 1966 after its rights holder, Loew's Incorporated, failed to renew its copyright registration. However, in the 9th Circuit case Russell v. Price, Shaw's estate was able to assert its rights in the underlying work, thus retain control over the film's distribution and public performance in the United States as a derivative work. US copyright in Shaw's play ended in 1988, which restored the film to public-domain status.
The Great British Films, pp. 45–48, Jerry Vermilye, 1978, Citadel Press, ISBN 0-8065-0661-X Pygmalion on IMDb Pygmalion at AllMovie Pygmalion at the TCM Movie Database Pygmalion at Rotten Tomatoes Pygmalion at the BFI's Screenonline Synopsis at filmsite.org Pygmalion an essay by David Ehrenstein at the Criterion Collection
Alfie Bass was an English actor. He was born in Bethnal Green, the youngest in a Jewish family with ten children, he appeared in a variety of stage, film and radio productions throughout his career. After leaving primary school in Bethnal Green at the age of 14, he worked as a tailor's apprentice, a messenger boy and a shop-window display fitter, before taking to the stage. Bass's acting career began at Unity Theatre, London in the late 1930s, appearing in Plant in the Sun alongside Paul Robeson, as the pantomime King in Babes In the Wood. After the outbreak of the Second World War, Bass joined the Middlesex Regiment as a despatch rider. Despite being kept busy with his duties, he found time to become involved in concert parties, as well as taking part in documentaries for the Army Film Unit, his stage career included plays by Shaw. During the 1950s he continued to direct shows at Unity, on one occasion appeared in court charged with putting on a play without a licence, his stage work included an adaptation of Gogol's short story "The Bespoke Overcoat", transposed to the East End of London, filmed by Jack Clayton in 1956, won the Oscar for best short.
Bass took over from Chaim Topol in the role of Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof on the West End stage Bass first appeared on film in wartime documentaries. He appeared in a number of feature films including The Lavender Hill Mob, Hell Drivers, A Tale of Two Cities and Alfie starring Michael Caine and Shelley Winters. In the latter he played Harry Clamacraft, a man Alfie befriends in a sanatorium, he starred in Roman Polanski's vampire film The Fearless Vampire Killers as innkeeper Yoine Shagal with his daughter Sarah played by Sharon Tate. In the course of the film, he and his daughter become vampires; when a maid tries to scare him off with a crucifix, he responds with "Oy, have you got the wrong vampire!". Bass appeared in the "Pride" segment of The Magnificent Seven Deadly Sins and had a leading role in the 1977 sex comedy Come Play with Me, he has had many cameo roles, such as the Indian restaurant doorman in the Beatles' film Help!, as Clouseau's seafaring informant in Revenge of the Pink Panther, in Moonraker, in which he was cast as a heavy smoking hard drinker.
Bass had a small part. In his book British Film Character Actors, Terence Pettigrew remembers, "there was a time when no British film seemed complete without Alfie Bass popping up in some guise of other. Playing the same character, he has hopped chirpily from drama to comedy and into costume pieces and back like an energised sparrow. To all of these, he has added an engaging warmth and sanguinity". Bass appeared as a poacher rescued by Robin in the first episode of The Adventures of Robin Hood starring Richard Greene, he appeared in The Army Game, a British TV comedy series, as Private Montague'Excused Boots' Bisley, its sequel Bootsie and Snudge from 1960–63 working at a Gentleman's Club with Bill Fraser as'Claude Snudge' and Clive Dunn as'Henry Beerbohm Johnson'. Bass played the character in another spin-off, Foreign Affairs in 1964. Bass played Lemuel "Lemmy" Barnet in the third and fourth series of the landmark 1950s science fiction radio series Journey into Space, he continued working throughout the 1970s and'80s, in TV series Till Death Us Do Part, Are You Being Served? as Mr. Goldberg, the second in a series of replacements for Arthur Brough's Mr. Grainger character.
As in the Mr. Goldberg role, he emphasised his Jewish background in on-screen characterisations, he played a memorable Silas Wegg in the BBC's 1976 adaptation of Dickens's Our Mutual Friend. He played Isaac Rag in a scene-stealing recurring character role in the 1979-1980 Dick Turpin series and as Morrie Levin, a shrewd accountant in the Minder episode The Sun Also Rises, he guest starred in two episodes of the British comedy television The Goodies, in which he appeared as the "Town Planner" in Camelot, as the Giant in The Goodies and the Beanstalk. He was a subject of the television programme This Is Your Life in March 1970 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews. In 1955 he recorded the novelty song "Pity the Downtrodden Landlord". Bass died of a heart attack on 15 July 1987 in London, his last home was in a suburb of Borehamwood, Hertfordshire. Alfie Bass on IMDb Alfie Bass at the BFI's Screenonline Alfie Bass's appearance on This Is Your Life
Cottage to Let
Cottage to Let is a 1941 spy film starring Leslie Banks, Alastair Sim and John Mills. Set in Second World War Scotland, its plot concerns Nazi spies trying to kidnap an inventor. Upper class Mrs. Barrington takes in two child evacuees from London, including cocky teenager Ronald, lodging them in a cottage she owns. However, it has been let to annoyingly inquisitive Charles Dimble. To compound the confusion, Mrs. Barrington had agreed to allow it to be converted into a military hospital. Spitfire pilot Flight Lieutenant Perry parachutes into the nearby loch and becomes the first patient, tended by Mrs. Barrington's pretty daughter Helen. Mrs. Barrington moves Ronald to the main house, while Perry remain in the cottage. Ronald makes friends with Mrs. Barrington's husband John, a brilliant but eccentric inventor working on a bombsight for the Royal Air Force. However, he insists on working on his own, his assistant, Alan Trently, becomes jealous. Though, Helen lets Trently know that she prefers him.
Meanwhile, the government grows concerned about Barrington's security. Trently comes under suspicion, it turns out. Ronald stows away in the car used to take the captive to an isolated water mill; when Perry shows up, Ronald attacks one of the spies to help in the "rescue". It is all in vain, as Perry is revealed to be the ringleader. Perry intends to take Barrington to Berlin on a seaplane, due to arrive the next night. However, Dimble turns out to be a British counterintelligence officer, he manages to learn where Barrington is being held. All but one of the spies are captured and the prisoners are freed. Perry escapes, but is tracked down and killed in a shootout with Dimble. Leslie Banks as John Barrington Alastair Sim as Charles Dimble John Mills as Flight Lieutenant Perry Jeanne de Casalis as Mrs. Barrington Carla Lehmann as Helen Barrington George Cole as Ronald Michael Wilding as Alan Trently Frank Cellier as Ernest Forest Muriel Aked as Miss Fernery Wally Patch as Evans Muriel George as Mrs. Trimm Hay Petrie as Dr. Truscott Catherine Lacey as Mrs. Stokes Annie Esmond as Lady wrapping parcels for the bazaar Peter Gawthorne as Senior RAF officer Arthur Hambling as Scotland Yard Inspector Roddy Hughes as German agent Brefni O'Rorke as Scottish Police Inspector Charles Rolfe as German agent Ben Williams as Scottish fisherman Cottage to Let on IMDb Cottage to Let at AllMovie Cottage to Let at the TCM Movie Database
Sir George Henry Martin, was an English record producer, composer, audio engineer, musician. He was referred to as the "Fifth Beatle" in reference to his extensive involvement on each of the Beatles' original albums. Martin produced 30 number-one hit singles in the United Kingdom and 23 number-one hits in the United States. Martin produced comedy and novelty records in the early 1950s, working with Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan, Bernard Cribbins, among others, his career spanned more than six decades of work in music, film and live performance. He held a number of senior executive roles at media companies and contributed to a wide range of charitable causes, including his work for The Prince's Trust and the Caribbean island of Montserrat. In recognition of his services to the music industry and popular culture, he was made a Knight Bachelor in 1996. Martin was born in London; when he was six, Martin's family acquired a piano. At eight years of age, Martin persuaded his parents and Betha Beatrice Martin, that he should take piano lessons, but those ended after only eight lessons because of a disagreement between his mother and the teacher.
As a child, he attended several schools, including a "convent school in Holloway", St Joseph's School, at St Ignatius' College, where he had won a scholarship. When WWII broke out, St. Ignatius College students were evacuated to Welwyn Garden City, his family left London, he was enrolled at Bromley Grammar School. I remember well the first time I heard a symphony orchestra. I was just in my teens when Sir Adrian Boult brought the BBC Symphony Orchestra to my school for a public concert, it was magical. Hearing such glorious sounds I found it difficult to connect them with ninety men and women blowing into brass and wooden instruments or scraping away at strings with horsehair bows. Despite Martin's continued interest in music, "fantasies about being the next Rachmaninov", he did not choose music as a career, he worked as a quantity surveyor, for the War Office as a Temporary Clerk, which meant filing paperwork and making tea. In 1943, when he was 17, he joined the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy and became an aerial observer and a commissioned officer.
The war ended before Martin was involved in any combat, he left the service in 1947. Encouraged by Sidney Harrison Martin used his veteran's grant to attend the Guildhall School of Music and Drama from 1947 to 1950, where he studied piano and oboe, was interested in the music of Rachmaninoff and Ravel, as well as Cole Porter. Martin's oboe teacher was Margaret Eliot. After that, Martin explained. On 3 January 1948 – while still at the Academy – Martin married Sheena Chisholm, with whom he would have two children and Gregory Paul Martin, he married Judy Lockhart-Smith on 24 June 1966, they had two children and Giles Martin. Following his graduation, he worked for the BBC's classical music department joined EMI in 1950 as an assistant to Oscar Preuss, the head of EMI's Parlophone Records from 1950 to 1955. Although having been regarded by EMI as a vital German imprint in the past, it was not taken and only used for EMI's insignificant acts. After taking over Parlophone, as head of artists and repertoire, when Preuss retired in 1955, Martin recorded classical and Baroque music, original cast recordings, regional music from around Britain and Ireland.
Martin produced numerous comedy and novelty records. His first hit for Parlophone was the "Mock Mozart" single by Peter Ustinov with Antony Hopkins – a record reluctantly released in 1952 by EMI, only after Preuss insisted they give his young assistant, Martin, a chance; that decade Martin worked with Peter Sellers on two popular comedy LPs. One was released on 10 format and called The Best Of Sellers, the second was released in 1957, being called Songs for Swinging Sellers; as he had worked with Sellers, he came to know Spike Milligan, with whom he became a firm friend, best man at Milligan's second marriage: "I loved The Goon Show, issued an album of it on my label Parlophone, how I got to know Spike." The album was Bridge on the River Wye. It was a spoof of the film The Bridge on the River Kwai, being based on the 1957 Goon Show episode "An African Incident." It was intended to have the same name as the film, but shortly before its release, the film company threatened legal action if the name was used.
Martin edited out the'K' every time the word Kwai was spoken, with Bridge on the River Wye being the result. The River Wye is a river that runs through Wales; the album featured Milligan, Jonathan Miller, Peter Cook, playing various characters. Other comedians Martin worked with included Bernard Cribbins, Charlie Drake, Terry Scott, Bruce Forsyth, Michael Bentine, Dudley Moore and Swann, Lance Percival, Joan Sims, Bill Oddie, The Alberts. Martin worked with whom he had a number of hits. In early 1962, under the pseudonym "Ray Cathode," Martin released an early electronic dance single, "Time Beat" – recorded at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop; as Martin wanted to add rock and roll to Parlophone's repertoire, he struggled to find a "fireproof" hit-making pop artist or group. As a producer, Martin recorded the two-man show featuring Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, At the Drop of a Hat, which sold for
Vittorio De Sica
Vittorio De Sica was an Italian director and actor, a leading figure in the neorealist movement. Four of the films he directed won Academy Awards: Sciuscià and Bicycle Thieves, while Yesterday and Tomorrow and Il giardino dei Finzi Contini won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Indeed, the great critical success of Sciuscià and Bicycle Thieves helped establish the permanent Best Foreign Film Award; these two films are considered part of the canon of classic cinema. Bicycle Thieves was cited by Turner Classic Movies as one of the 15 most influential films in cinema history. De Sica was nominated for the 1957 Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for playing Major Rinaldi in American director Charles Vidor's 1957 adaptation of Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms, a movie, panned by critics and proved a box office flop. De Sica's acting was considered the highlight of the film. Born into poverty in Sora, Lazio, he began his career as a theatre actor in the early 1920s and joined Tatiana Pavlova's theatre company in 1923.
In 1933 he founded his own company with his wife Giuditta Sergio Tofano. The company performed light comedies, but they staged plays by Beaumarchais and worked with famous directors like Luchino Visconti, his meeting with Cesare Zavattini was a important event: together they created some of the most celebrated films of the neorealistic age, like Sciuscià and Bicycle Thieves, both of which De Sica directed. De Sica appeared in the British television series The Four Just Men, his passion for gambling was well known. Because of it, he lost large sums of money and accepted work that might not otherwise have interested him, he never kept his gambling a secret from anyone. In 1937 Vittorio De Sica married the actress Giuditta Rissone, who gave birth to their daughter, Emi. In 1942, on the set of Un garibaldino al convento, he met Spanish actress Maria Mercader, with whom he started a relationship. After divorcing Rissone in France in 1954, he married Mercader in 1959 in Mexico, but this union was not considered valid under Italian law.
In 1968 he married Mercader in Paris. Meanwhile, he had had two sons with her: Manuel, in 1949, a musician, Christian, in 1951, who would follow his father's path as an actor and director. Although divorced, De Sica never parted from his first family, he led a double family life, with double celebrations on holidays. It is said that, at Christmas and on New Year's Eve, he used to put back the clocks by two hours in Mercader's house so that he could make a toast at midnight with both families, his first wife agreed to keep up the facade of a marriage so as not to leave her daughter without a father. Vittorio De Sica died at 73 after a surgery at the Neuilly-sur-Seine hospital in Paris, he was a Roman Catholic. Vittorio De Sica was given the Interfilm Grand Prix in 1971 by the Berlin International Film Festival. Miracolo a Milano Cannes Film Festival Palme D'Or Winner Umberto D. Cannes Film Festival Official Selection Stazione Termini Cannes Film Festival Official Selection L'oro di Napoli Cannes Film Festival Official Selection Il Tetto Cannes Film Festival OCIC Award Winner Anna di Brooklyn Berlin International Film Festival Official Selection La Ciociara Cannes Film Festival Official Selection Matrimonio all'italiana Moscow International Film Festival Official Selection Il Giardino dei Finzi-Contini Berlin International Film Festival Golden Bear Winner Berlin International Film Festival Interfilm Award Winner – Otto Dibelius Film Award Nastro d'Argento for Best Director 1946 for Sciuscià Academy Award 1947 Honorary Award to the Italian production for Sciuscià, 1946 Academy Award 1949 Special Foreign Language Film Award for Bicycle Thieves BAFTA 1950 Best film Bicycle Thieves Academy Award 1965 Best Foreign Language film for Ieri, domani Academy Award 1972 Best Foreign Language film for Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini Note: on many sources, Fontana di Trevi by Carlo Campogalliani and La bonne soupe by Robert Thomas are included but de Sica does not appear in those films.
The Four Just Men, by Sapphire Films Vittorio De Sica on IMDb Vittorio De Sica director bio for The Garden of the Finzi-Continis Sony Pictures Entertainment website, retrieved 8 April 2006 Vittorio De Sica Review Wall Street Journal article, retrieved 9 March 2013