Trouw is a Dutch daily newspaper appearing in compact size. It was founded in 1943 as an orthodox Protestant underground newspaper during World War II. Since 2009, it is owned by De Persgroep. Trouw received the European Newspaper Award in 2012. Cees van der Laan is the current editor-in-chief. Trouw is a Dutch word meaning "fidelity", "loyalty", or "allegiance", is cognate with the English adjective "true"; the name was chosen to reflect allegiance and loyalty to God and Country in spite of the German occupation of The Netherlands. Trouw was started during World War II by members of the Dutch Protestant resistance. Hundreds of people involved in the production and distribution of the newspaper were arrested and killed during the war; the newspaper was published irregularly during the war due to lack of paper. In 1944 the Nazi occupying forces tried to stop publication by rounding up and imprisoning some 23 of the couriers, they issued an ultimatum to the leaders of Trouw. Amongst the people that lost their life during the war due to their involvement with the newspaper was Trouw co-founder and resistance member Wim Speelman.
After the war the paper became its allegiance to the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands. By 1967, the paper's chief editor made it clear that Trouw was not to be considered a paper only for Christians: it wanted to be a paper for everyone. In the course of time the percentage of Trouw readers that belong to the Reformed churches shrank considerably: in 1965 69% of readers belonged to one of those churches, but by 1979 this had dropped to 48%, by 1999 to 28%. Circulation at the end of the 20th century was a little over 133,000. On 3 February 2005 Trouw changed its format from broadsheet to compact. In their own words, in 2005, they intended to "remain a newspaper rooted in a Christian tradition and to be a source of contemplation and inspiration for everyone, churchgoer or not, who feels a need for moral and spiritual orientation."Today, Trouw is a part of the De Persgroep Nederland, the name given to the former PCM group after the Belgian publishing house De Persgroep bought a majority stake in PCM in the summer of 2009.
NRC Handelsblad, Het AD, Het Parool and de Volkskrant are owned by De Persgroep Nederland. NRC Handelsblad was sold before the summer of 2010. Trouw is considered one of the Dutch national quality newspapers – next to NRC Handelsblad and de Volkskrant. Due to its history, more than those other two, it pays specific attention to religion: Christianity and all the other world religions. Letter&Geest is the weekly supplement of Trouw. Official website Illegale Trouw, underground issues from 1943–1945
Alfred A. Knopf
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house, founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915. Blanche and Alfred traveled abroad and were known for publishing European and Latin American writers in addition to leading American literary trends, it was acquired by Random House in 1960, acquired by Bertelsmann in 1998, is now part of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The Knopf publishing house is associated with its borzoi colophon, designed by co-founder Blanche Knopf in 1925. Knopf was founded in 1915 by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. along with Blanche Knopf, on a $5,000 advance from his father, Samuel Knopf. The first office was located in New York's Candler Building; the publishing house was incorporated in 1918, with Alfred Knopf as president, Blanche Knopf as vice president, Samuel Knopf as treasurer. From the start, Knopf focused on European translations and high-brow works of literature. Among their initial publications were French author Émile Augier's Four Plays, Russian writer Nikolai Gogol's Taras Bulba, Polish novelist Stanisław Przybyszewski's novel Homo Sapiens, French writer Guy de Maupassant's Yvette, a Novelette, Ten Other Stories.
During World War I these books were cheap to obtain and helped establish Knopf as an American firm publishing European works. Their first bestseller was a new edition of Green Mansions, a novel by W. H. Hudson which went through nine printings by 1919 and sold over 20,000 copies, their first original American novel, The Three Black Pennys by Joseph Hergesheimer, was published in 1917. With the start of the 1920s Knopf began using innovative advertising techniques to draw attention to their books and authors. Beginning in 1920, Knopf produced a chapbook, for the purpose of promoting new books; the Borzoi was published periodically over the years, the first being a hardback called the Borzoi and sometimes quarterly as the Borzoi Quarterly. For Floyd Dell's coming-of-age novel, Moon-Calf, they paid men to walk the streets of the financial and theatre districts dressed in artist costumes with sandwich boards; the placards directed interested buyers to local book shops. The unique look of their books along with their expertise in advertising their authors drew Willa Cather to leave her previous publisher Houghton Mifflin to join Alfred A. Knopf.
As she was still under contract for her novels, the Knopfs suggested publishing a collection of her short stories and the Bright Medusa in 1920. Cather was pleased with the results and the advertisement of the book in the New Republic and would go on to publish sixteen books with Knopf including their first Pulitzer prize winner, One Of Ours. Before they had married, Alfred had promised Blanche that they would be equal partners in the publishing company, but it was clear by the company's fifth anniversary that this was not to be the case. Knopf published a celebratory 5th anniversary book in which Alfred was the focus of anecdotes by authors and Blanche's name was only mentioned once to note that "Mrs. Knopf" had found a manuscript; this despite ample evidence from authors and others that Blanche was in fact the soul of the company. This was covered extensively in The Lady with the Borzoi by Laura Claridge. In 1923 Knopf started publishing periodicals, beginning with The American Mercury, founded by H. L. Mencken and George Jean Nathan, which it published through 1934.1923 marked the year that Knopf published Kahlil Gibran's the Prophet.
Knopf had published Gibran's earlier works. In its first year, the Prophet only sold 1,159 copies, it would double sales the next year and keep doubling becoming one of the firm's most successful books. In 1965 the book sold 240,000 copies. Samuel Knopf died in 1932. William A. Koshland joined the company in 1934, worked with the firm for more than fifty years, rising to take the positions of President and Chairman of the Board. Blanche became President in 1957 when Alfred became Chairman of the Board, worked for the firm until her death in 1966. Alfred Knopf retired in 1972, becoming chairman emeritus of the firm until his death in 1984. Alfred Knopf had a summer home in Purchase, New York. Following the Good Neighbor policy, Blanche Knopf visited South America in 1942, so the firm could start producing texts from there, she was one of the first publishers to visit Europe after World War II. Her trips, those of other editors, brought in new writers from Europe, South America, Asia. Alfred traveled to Brazil in 1961, which spurred a corresponding interest on his part in South America.
Penn Publishing Company was acquired in 1943. The Knopfs' son, Alfred "Pat" Jr. was hired on as trade books manager after the war. In 1952, editor Judith Jones joined Knopf as an editor. Jones discovered Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl in a slush pile and acquired Julia Child's Mastering the Art of French Cooking. Jones would remain with Knopf, retiring in 2011 as a senior editor and vice-president after a career that included working with John Updike and Anne Tyler. Pat Knopf left his parents' publishing company in 1959 to launch his own, Atheneum Publishers, with two other partners; the story made the front page of the New York Times. In a 1957 advertisement in the Atlantic Monthly, Alfred A. Knopf published the Borzoi Credo; the credo includes a list of what Knopf's beliefs for publishing including the statement that he never published an unworthy book. Among a list of beliefs listed is the final one--"I believe that magazines, movies and radio will never replace good books." In 1960 Random House acquired Alfred A. Knopf.
It is believed that the decision to sell was prompted by Alfred A. Knopf, Jr. leaving Knopf to found his own book company, Atheneum Bo
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Godhra train burning
The Godhra Train Burning was an incident that occurred on the morning of 27 February 2002, in which 59 people died in a fire inside the Sabarmati Express train near the Godhra railway station in the Indian state of Gujarat. The victims were Hindu pilgrims who were returning from the city of Ayodhya after a religious ceremony at the disputed Babri Masjid site; the commission set up by the Government of Gujarat to investigate the train burning spent 6 years going over the details of the case, concluded that the fire was arson committed by a mob of 1,000 to 2,000 people. A commission appointed by the central government, whose appointment was held to be unconstitutional, stated that the fire had been an accident. A court convicted 31 Muslims for the conspiracy for the crime; the conviction was upheld by the Gujarat High Court,The event is perceived as the trigger for the Gujarat riots that followed, which resulted in widespread loss of life, destruction of property and homelessness. Estimates of casualties range from the official figures of 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus, to upwards of 2,000 casualties.
In February 2002, thousands of devotees of Rama had gone from Gujarat to Ayodhya at the behest of the Vishva Hindu Parishad to take part in a ceremony called the Purnahuti Maha Yagna. On 25 February, 1,700 people, a mix of pilgrims and karsevaks boarded the Sabarmati Express, bound for Ahmedabad. On 27 February 2002, the train made its scheduled stop at Godhra at 7:43 am; as the train started leaving the platform, someone pulled the emergency brake and the train stopped near the signal point. The driver of the train stated that the chain had been pulled multiple times, judging by the instruments in his cabin; the train was attacked by a mob of around 2,000 people. After some stone-pelting, four coaches of the train were set trapping many people inside. 59 people including 27 women and 10 children were burnt to death, 48 others were injured. According to J Mahapatra, additional director general of the Gujarat police, "miscreants had kept the petrol-soaked rags ready for use much before the train had arrived at Godhra".
Martha Nussbaum has challenged this narrative, stating that several inquiries have found that the conflagration was an accident rather than a planned conspiracy. Madhu Kishwar has blamed the "amazing distortions introduced by Congress and its leftist allies" as the reason why the facts are not known and accepted. A study conducted by the Gujarat Forensic Science Laboratory report states that 60 liters of inflammable liquid had been poured into coach S-6 of the train using a wide mouthed container, it had been poured by standing on the passage between the northern side-door of the eastern side of the coach, set on fire thereafter. The report concluded that there had been heavy stone pelting on the train. On 6 March 2002 the Gujarat government set up a commission of inquiry to investigate the incident and submit a report, the chairman and sole member of, retired Gujarat High Court judge K G Shah. However, Shah's alleged closeness to Narendra Modi generated fierce criticism from the victims, human rights organisations, political parties, led to a demand for the appointment of a Supreme Court judge to the commission.
As a result, the government reconstituted the commission into a two-member committee, appointing retired Supreme Court judge G T Nanavati to lead the commission, which thus became known as the "Nanavati-Shah Commission". Shah died in March 2008, just a few months prior to the committee submitting its first report, the Gujarat High Court appointed retired judge Akshay Kumar Mehta to the committee on 6 April 2008; the commission, during its six-year probe, examined more than 40,000 documents and the testimonies of more than 1,000 witnesses. The initial term of the committee was three months long. In September 2008, the commission submitted the "Part I" of the report dealing with the Godhra incident, in which it supported the conspiracy theory propounded by the Gujarat police. Maulvi Husain Haji Ibrahim Umarji, a cleric in Godhra, a dismissed Central Reserve Police Force officer named Nanumiyan were presented as the "masterminds" behind the operation; the evidence marshalled by the committee in favour of this conclusion was a statement made by Jabir Binyamin Behra, a criminal in custody at the time, although he denied giving any such statement.
In addition, the alleged acquisition of 140 litres of petrol hours before the arrival of the train and the storage of the petrol at the guest house of Razzak Kurkur, accused of being a key conspirator, forensic evidence showing that fuel was poured on the train coach before it burnt, was presented by the committee. The report concluded; the Communist Party of India and the Indian National Congress objected to the exoneration of the Gujarat government by the commission citing the timing of the report as evidence of unfairness. Congress spokesperson Veerappa Moily commented at the strange absolvement of the Gujarat government for complacency for the carnage before the commission's second and final report had been brought out; the CPI said. The commission has been criticised by academics such as Christophe Jaffrelot for obstructing the course of justice, supporting the conspiracy theory too and for ignoring evidence of governmental complicity in the incident. On 17 May 2004, with the victory of the United Progressive Alliance in the Indian g
Hijra (Indian subcontinent)
Hijra is a term given to eunuchs, intersex people, transgender people who are part of the Hijra community in the Indian subcontinent. Known as Aravani, Jagappa, or Chhakka, the hijra community in India prefer to call themselves Kinnar or Kinner, referring to the mythological beings that excel at song and dance. Hijras are recognized as third gender in countries in the Indian subcontinent, being considered neither male nor female. Hijras have a recorded history in the Indian subcontinent from antiquity onwards as suggested by the Kama Sutra period. Many hijras live in organised all-hijra communities, led by a guru; these communities have consisted over generations of those who are in abject poverty, rejected by, or flee, their family of origin. Many work as sex workers for survival; the word "hijra" is a Hindustani word. It has traditionally been translated into English as "eunuch" or "hermaphrodite", where "the irregularity of the male genitalia is central to the definition". However, in general hijras are born male, only a few having been born with intersex variations.
Some Hijras undergo an initiation rite into the hijra community called nirwaan, which refers to the removal of the penis and testicles. Since the late 20th century, some hijra activists and non-government organizations have lobbied for official recognition of the hijra as a kind of "third sex" or "third gender", as neither man nor woman. Hijras have gained this recognition in Bangladesh and are eligible for priority in education. In India, the Supreme Court in April 2014 recognized hijras, transgender people and intersex people as a'third gender' in law. Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh have all accepted the existence of a third gender, with India and Nepal including an option for them on passports and certain official documents; the Hindustani word hijra may alternately be romanized as hijira, hijada, hijrah and is pronounced Hindustani pronunciation:. This term is considered derogatory in Urdu and the word Khwaja Sara is used instead. Another such term is khusaraa. In Bengali, hijra is called হিজড়া, hijla, hizra, or hizre.
A number of terms across the culturally and linguistically diverse Indian subcontinent represent similar sex or gender categories. While these are rough synonyms, they may be better understood as separate identities due to regional cultural differences. In Odia, a hijra is referred to as hinjida, hinjda or napunsaka, in Telugu as napunsakudu, kojja or maada, in Tamil as thiru nangai, aravanni, aravani or aruvani, in Punjabi as khusra or jankha, in Kannada as mangalamukhi or chhakka, in Sindhi as khadra, in Gujarati as pavaiyaa. In North India, the goddess Bahuchara Mata is worshipped by Pavaiyaa. In South India, the goddess Renuka is believed to have the power to change one's sex. Male devotees in female clothing are known as Jogappa, they perform similar roles such as dancing and singing at birth ceremonies and weddings. The word kothi is common across India, similar to the Kathoey of Thailand, although kothis are distinguished from hijras. Kothis are regarded as feminine men or boys who take a feminine role in sex with men, but do not live in the kind of intentional communities that hijras live in.
Additionally, not all kothis have undergone initiation rites or the body modification steps to become a hijra. Local equivalents include durani, menaka and zenana. Hijra used to be translated in English as "eunuch" or "hermaphrodite", although LGBT historians or human rights activists have sought to include them as being transgender. In a series of meetings convened between October 2013 and Jan 2014 by the transgender experts committee of India's Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and other trans activists asked that the term "eunuch" be discontinued from usage in government documents, as it is not a term with which the communities identify; these identities have no exact match in the modern Western taxonomy of gender and sexual orientation, challenge Western ideas of sex and gender. In India, some Hijras do not define themselves by specific sexual orientation, but rather by renouncing sexuality altogether. Sexual energy is transformed into sacred powers. However, these notions can come in conflict with the practical, that hijras are employed as prostitutes.
Furthermore, in India a feminine male who takes a "receptive" role in sex with a man will identify as a kothi. While kothis are distinguished from hijras as a separate gender identity, they dress as women and act in a feminine manner in public spaces using feminine language to refer to themselves and each other; the usual partners of hijras and kothis are men who consider themselves heterosexual as they are the ones who penetrate. These male partners are married, any relationships or sex with "kothis" or hijras are kept secret from the community at large; some hijras may form relationships with men and marry, although their marriage is not recognized by law or religion. Hijras and kothis have a name for these masculine sexual or romantic partners. Most hijras live at the margins of society with low status; the Indian lawyer and author Rajesh Talwar has written a book, titled The Third Sex and Human Rights, highlighting the human rights abuses suffered by the community. Few employment opportunities are available to hijras.
Many get their income