Johanna Mansfield Sullivan Macy, better known as Anne Sullivan, was an American teacher best known for being the instructor and lifelong companion of Helen Keller. At the age of five, Sullivan contracted trachoma, an eye disease, which left her blind and without reading or writing skills, she received her education as a student of the Perkins School for the Blind, where upon graduation she became a teacher to Keller when she was 20. Sullivan was born on April 14, 1866, in Feeding Hills, Massachusetts. According to her baptismal certificate, her name at birth was Johanna Mansfield Sullivan, she was the oldest child of Alice Sullivan. Her family emigrated to the United States from Ireland during the Great Famine; when she was only five years old she contracted a bacterial eye disease known as trachoma, which created painful infections and over time made her nearly blind. When she was eight, her mother died, her father abandoned the children two years for fear he could not raise them on his own, she and her younger brother, were sent to an overcrowded almshouse in Tewksbury, Massachusetts.
Jimmie died two to three months into their stay. Sullivan remained at the Tewksbury house for four years after his death, where she had eye operations that offered some short-term relief for her eye pain but proved ineffective. Sullivan lost her sight at a young age and therefore had no skills in reading, writing, or sewing, the only work she could find was as a housemaid. Another blind resident staying at the Tewksbury almshouse told her of schools for the blind. During an 1880 inspection of the almshouse, she persuaded inspector Franklin Benjamin Sanborn to allow her to leave and enroll in the Perkins School for the Blind in Boston, where she began her studies on October 7, 1880. Although her rough manners made her first years at Perkins humiliating for her, she managed to connect with a few teachers and made progress with her learning. While there, she befriended and learned the manual alphabet from Laura Bridgman, a graduate of Perkins and the first blind and deaf person to be educated there.
While there, she had a series of eye operations that improved her vision. In June 1886, she graduated at age 20 as the valedictorian of her class, she stated, "Fellow-graduates: duty bids us go forth into active life. Let us go cheerfully and earnestly, set ourselves to find our especial part; when we have found it, willingly and faithfully perform it. The summer following Sullivan's graduation, the director of the Perkins Institution, Michael Anagnos, was contacted by Arthur Keller, in search of a teacher for his seven-year-old blind and deaf daughter, Helen. Anagnos recommended Sullivan for this position and she began her work on March 3, 1887, at the Kellers' home in Tuscumbia, Alabama; as soon as she arrived there, she argued with Helen's parents about the Civil War and over the fact that they used to own slaves. However, she quickly connected with Helen, it was the beginning of a 49-year relationship: Sullivan evolved from teacher to governess and to companion and friend. Sullivan's curriculum involved a strict schedule with constant introduction of new vocabulary words.
Instead, she began to teach her vocabulary based on her own interests, by spelling each word out into Keller's palm. Sullivan encouraged Helen's parents to send her to the Perkins School, where she could have an appropriate education. Once they agreed to this, Sullivan stayed with her there. Sullivan continued to teach her bright protégée. With the help of Anagnos, Keller became a public symbol for the school, helping to increase its funding and donations and making it the most famous and sought-after school for the blind in the country. However, an accusation of plagiarism against Keller upset Sullivan: She left and never returned, but did remain influential to the school. Sullivan remained a close companion to Keller and continued to assist in her education, which included a degree from Radcliffe College. On May 3, 1905, Sullivan married Harvard University instructor and literary critic John Albert Macy, who had helped Keller with her publications, he moved in with them, they lived together.
However, within a few years, the marriage began to disintegrate. By 1914 they separated, though he is listed as living as a "lodger" with them in the 1920 U. S. Census, they never divorced. As the years progressed after their separation, he appears to have faded from her life, she never remarried. In 1932 Keller and Sullivan were each awarded honorary fellowships from the Educational Institute of Scotland, they were awarded honorary degrees from Temple University. In 1955 Keller was awarded an honorary degree from Harvard University, in 1956 the director's cottage at the Perkins School was named the Keller-Macy Cottage. In 2003, Sullivan was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. Sullivan had been visually impaired for all of her life, but by 1935 she was blind in both eyes. On October 15, 1936, she had a coronary thrombosis, fell into a coma, died five days on October 20 at age 70
Tuscumbia is a city in and the county seat of Colbert County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,423; the city is part of The Shoals metropolitan area. Tuscumbia was the hometown of Helen Keller and much of the city is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Tuscumbia Historic District; the city serves as the location for the Alabama Music Hall of Fame. Tuscumbia had its beginnings when the Michael Dixon family arrived about 1816, they traded with Chief Tucumseh for the Tuscumbia Valley and built their home at the head of the big spring. From these humble dwellings developed a village known as the Big Spring Community; the men of the community requested. The town is one of Alabama's oldest towns. In 1821, its name was changed to Big Spring and on December 22, 1822, to Tuscumbia, after the Chief Rainmaker of the Chickasaws. Although shoals on the nearby Tennessee River made the river nearly impassable, a federal highway completed in 1820 provided the area with good access to markets.
Tuscumbia soon became the center for agriculture in northern Alabama. A line to the town on the Tuscumbia and Decatur Railroad was completed in 1832, by 1850 Tuscumbia was a major railroad hub for train traffic throughout the South. Tuscumbia became the county seat for Colbert County in 1867. During the Civil War, the railroad hub made Tuscumbia a target of the Union Army, which destroyed the railroad shops and other parts of the town. In April 1894, three African-Americans suspected of planning arson were removed from the Tuscumbia jail by a mob of 200 men who hung them from the bridge over the Tennessee River. Tuscumbia is located northeast of the center of Colbert County at 34°43′51″N 87°42′10″W, it is bordered to the north by the city of Sheffield and to the northeast by the city of Muscle Shoals. The Tennessee River is 1 mile to the northwest. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.8 square miles, of which 8.8 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.50%, is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 8,423 people, 3,704 households, 2,279 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,076.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,120 housing units at an average density of 520.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.91% White, 21.16% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.48% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races. 1.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,704 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.64% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 30.15% from 25 to 44, 19.50% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,793, the median income for a family was $39,831. Males had a median income of $32,159 versus $18,860 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,302. About 11.1% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.7% of those under age 18 and 19.92% of those age 65 or over. Tuscumbia City Schools and the Colbert County Board of Education provide public education for Tuscumbia; the following public schools are located in Tuscumbia: Deshler Area Vocational Center Deshler High School Colbert Heights High School Deshler Middle School Colbert Heights Elementary School New Bethel Elementary R. E. Thompson Intermediate School G. W. Trenholm Primary School Private schools in Tuscumbia include Covenant Christian School. Radio stations: WVNA 1590 AM WZZA 1410 AM Cynthia Bailey, housewife on The Real Housewives of Atlanta Beverly Barton, novelist Deion Belue, cornerback for the Jacksonville Jaguars John A. Caddell and former president of the Alabama Bar Association Archibald Hill Carmichael, former U.
S. Representative from 1933 to 1937 Mike Cooley, guitarist for the alt-country/rock band Drive-By Truckers James Deshler, Confederate brigadier general during the American Civil War Al Gamble, session musician Howell Thomas Heflin, former U. S. senator from Alabama, former Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Richard H. Jackson, former four-star admiral in the United States Navy Helen Keller, deafblind author, activist and socialist Robert B. Lindsay, 22nd Governor of Alabama Frank Manush, former Major League Baseball third baseman for the Philadelphia Athletics Heinie Manush, member of the Baseball Hall of Fame Jimmy Orr, former National Football League wide receiver Margaret Pellegrini, played one of the Munchkins in the movie The Wizard of Oz Billy Pettinger, songwriter and author Will Reynolds, mass murderer William Henry Sawtelle, United States federal judge from 1931 to 1934 William H. Steele, member of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama Larry Stutts, State Senator whose patient's death inspired "Rose's Law" Wilson D. Watson, United States
Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. It was one of the Seven Sisters colleges, among which it shared with Bryn Mawr College, Wellesley College, Smith College, others the popular reputation of having a intellectual and independent-minded female student body. Radcliffe conferred Radcliffe College diplomas to undergraduates and graduate students for the first 70 or so years of its history and joint Harvard-Radcliffe diplomas to undergraduates beginning in 1963. A formal "non-merger merger" agreement with Harvard was signed in 1977, with full integration with Harvard completed in 1999. Today, within Harvard University, Radcliffe's former administrative campus is home to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, former Radcliffe housing at the Radcliffe Quadrangle has been incorporated into the Harvard College house system. Under the terms of the 1999 consolidation, the Radcliffe Yard and the Radcliffe Quadrangle retain the "Radcliffe" designation in perpetuity.
The "Harvard Annex," a private program for the instruction of women by Harvard faculty, was founded in 1879 after prolonged efforts by women to gain access to Harvard College. Arthur Gilman, Cambridge resident, banker and writer, was the founder of what became The Annex/Radcliffe. At a time when higher education for women was a controversial topic, Gilman hoped to establish a higher educational opportunity for his daughter that exceeded what was available in female seminaries and the new women's colleges such as Vassar and Wellesley, most of which in their early years had substantial numbers of faculty who were not university trained. In conversations with the chair of Harvard's classics department, he outlined a plan to have Harvard faculty deliver instruction to a small group of Cambridge and Boston women, he approached Harvard President Charles William Eliot with the idea and Eliot approved. Gilman and Eliot recruited a group of prominent and well-connected Cambridge women to manage the plan.
These women were Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, Mary H. Cooke, Stella Scott Gilman, Mary B. Greenough, Ellen Hooper Gurney, Alice Mary Longfellow and Lillian Horsford. Building upon Gilman's premise, the committee convinced 44 members of the Harvard faculty to consider giving lectures to female students in exchange for extra income paid by the committee; the program came to be known informally as "The Harvard Annex." The course of study for the first year included 51 courses in 13 subject areas, an "impressive curriculum with greater diversity than that of any other women's college at its inception. Courses were offered in Greek, English, French and Spanish; the first graduation ceremonies took place in the library of Longfellow House on Brattle Street, just above where George Washington's generals had slept a century earlier. The committee members hoped that by raising an enticing endowment for The Annex they would be able to convince Harvard to admit women directly into Harvard College. However, the university resisted.
In his inaugural address as president of Harvard in 1869, Charles Eliot summed up the official Harvard position toward female students when he said, "The world knows next to nothing about the capacities of the female sex. Only after generations of civil freedom and social equality will it be possible to obtain the data necessary for an adequate discussion of woman's natural tendencies and capabilities... It is not the business of the University to decide this mooted point." In a similar vein, when confronted with the notion of females receiving Harvard degrees in 1883, the University's treasurer stated, "I have no prejudice in the matter of education of women and am quite willing to see Yale or Columbia take any risks they like, but I feel bound to protect Harvard College from what seems to me a risky experiment."Some of President Eliot's objections stemmed from 19th century notions of propriety. He was against co-education, commenting that "The difficulties involved in a common residence of hundreds of young men and women of immature character and marriageable age are grave.
The necessary police regulations are exceedingly burdensome." The committee persevered despite Eliot's skepticism. Indeed, the project proved attracting a growing number of students; as a result, the Annex was incorporated in 1882 as the Society for the Collegiate Instruction of Women, with Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, widow of Harvard professor Louis Agassiz, as president. This Society did not have the power to confer academic degrees. In subsequent years, on-going discussions with Harvard about admitting women directly into the university still came to a dead end, instead Harvard and the Annex negotiated the creation of a degree-granting institution, with Harvard professors serving as its faculty and visiting body; this modification of the Annex was chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts as Radcliffe College in 1894, the eponym being early Harvard benefactor Lady Ann Mowlson. The Boston Globe reported "President of Harvard To Sign Parchments of the Fair Graduates"). Students seeking admission to the new women's college were required to sit for the same entrance examinations required of Harvard students.
By 1896, the Globe could headline a story: "Sweet Girls. They Graduate in Shoals at Radcliffe. Commencement Exercises at Sanders Theatre. Galleries Filled with Students. Handsome Mrs. Agassiz Made Fine Address. Pres Eliot Commends the Work of the New Inst
Peter Wilton Cushing, OBE was an English actor best known for his roles in the Hammer Productions horror films of the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, as well as his performance as Grand Moff Tarkin in Star Wars. Spanning over six decades, his acting career included appearances in more than 100 films, as well as many television and radio roles. Born in Kenley, Cushing made his stage debut in 1935 and spent three years at a repertory theatre before moving to Hollywood to pursue a film career. After making his motion picture debut in the 1939 film The Man in the Iron Mask, Cushing began to find modest success in American films before returning to England at the outbreak of the Second World War. Despite performing in a string of roles, including one as Osric in Laurence Olivier's film adaptation of Hamlet, Cushing struggled to find work during this period and began to consider himself a failure, his career was revitalized once he started to work in live television plays, he soon became one of the most recognizable faces in British television.
He earned particular acclaim for his lead performance in a 1954 adaptation of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Cushing gained worldwide fame for his appearances in twenty-two horror films by the independent Hammer Productions for his role as Baron Frankenstein in six of their seven Frankenstein films, Doctor Van Helsing in five Dracula films. Cushing appeared alongside actor Christopher Lee, who became one of his closest friends, with the American horror star Vincent Price. Cushing appeared in several other Hammer films, including The Abominable Snowman, The Mummy and The Hound of the Baskervilles, the last of which marked the first of many times he portrayed the famous detective Sherlock Holmes throughout his career. Cushing continued to perform a variety of roles, although he was typecast as a horror film actor, he played Dr. Who in Dr. Who and the Daleks and Daleks' Invasion Earth 2150 A. D. and gained the highest amount of visibility in his career in 1977, when he appeared as Grand Moff Tarkin in the first Star Wars film.
Cushing continued acting into his years, wrote two autobiographies. He was lovingly devoted to his wife of twenty-eight years, Helen Cushing, who died in 1971. Cushing died in 1994 of prostate cancer. Peter Wilton Cushing was born in Kenley, a district in the English county of Surrey, on 26 May 1913 to George Edward Cushing and Nellie Marie Cushing, his mother had so hoped for a daughter that for the first few years of his life, she would dress Peter in girls' frocks, let his hair grow in long curls and tie them in bows of pink ribbon, so others would mistake him for a girl. His father, a quantity surveyor from an upper-class family, was a reserved and uncommunicative man who Peter claimed he never got to know well, his mother considered of a lower class than her husband. Cushing's family consisted of several stage actors, including his paternal grandfather Henry William Cushing, his paternal aunt Maude Ashton and his step-uncle Wilton Herriot, after whom Peter Cushing received his middle name.
The Cushing family lived in Dulwich during the First World War, but moved to Purley after the war ended in 1918. Although raised during wartime, Cushing was too young to understand or become affected by it, was shielded from the horrors of war by his mother, who encouraged him to play games under the kitchen table whenever the threat of possible bombings arose. In his infancy, Cushing twice developed pneumonia and once what was known as "double pneumonia." Although he survived, the latter was fatal during that period. During one Christmas in his youth, Cushing saw a stage production of Peter Pan, which served as an early source of inspiration and interest in acting. Cushing loved dressing up and playing pretend from an early age, claimed he always wanted to be an actor, "perhaps without knowing at first." A fan of comics and toy collectibles in his youth, Cushing earned money by staging puppet shows for family members with his glove-puppets and toys. He began his early education in Dulwich, an affluent area of South London, before attending the Shoreham Grammar School in Shoreham-by-Sea, on the Sussex coast between Brighton and Worthing.
Prone to homesickness, he was miserable at the boarding school and spent only one term there before returning home. He attended the Purley County Secondary School, where he played cricket and rugby. With the exception of art, Cushing was a self-proclaimed poor student in most subjects and had little attention span for that which did not interest him, he got fair grades only through the help of his brother, a strong student who did his homework for him. Cushing harboured aspirations for the arts all throughout his youth acting, his childhood inspiration was an American film actor and star of many Western films. D. J. Davies, the Purley County Secondary School physics teacher who produced all the school's plays, recognized some acting potential in him and encouraged him to participate in the theatre allowing Cushing to skip class to paint sets, he played the lead in nearly every school production during his teenage years, including the role of Sir Anthony Absolute in a 1929 staging of Richard Brinsley Sheridan's comedy of manners play, The Rivals.
Cushing wanted to enter the acting profession after school, but his father opposed the idea, despite the theatrical background of several of his family members. Instead, seizing upon Cushing's interest in art and drawing, he got his son a job as a surveyor's assistant in the
Ivy Green is the name for the childhood home of Helen Keller. It is located in Alabama; the house is a simple white clapboard house. The actual well pump where Helen Keller first communicated with Anne Sullivan is located at Ivy Green; the property includes the cottage where Keller was born and the house where she spent her early childhood. Every summer, for over 30 years, the Helen Keller Foundation has presented outdoor performances of William Gibson's The Miracle Worker; the play is performed from early June through mid-July. It is popular during the Helen Keller Festival held in Tuscumbia every June. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alabama Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. AL-317, "Helen Keller House, 300 West North Commons, Colbert County, AL", 8 photos, 4 data pages
Helen Keller (Hlavka)
Helen Keller is a bronze sculpture depicting the American author and political activist of the same name by Edward Hlavka, installed in the United States Capitol Visitor Center's Emancipation Hall, in Washington, D. C. as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. The statue was gifted by the U. S. state of Alabama in 2009, replaced one depicting Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry, donated in 1908. On October 7, 2009, a bronze statue of Keller was added to the National Statuary Hall Collection, as a replacement for the State of Alabama's former 1908 statue of the education reformer Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry, it is displayed in the United States Capitol Visitor Center and depicts Keller as a seven-year-old child standing at a water pump. The statue represents the seminal moment in Keller's life when she understood her first word: W-A-T-E-R, as signed into her hand by teacher Anne Sullivan; the pedestal base bears a quotation in raised Latin and braille letters: "The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or touched, they must be felt with the heart."
The statue is the first one of a person with a disability and of a child to be permanently displayed at the U. S. Capitol. 2009 in art Media related to Helen Keller in the National Statuary Hall Collection at Wikimedia Commons
American Civil Liberties Union
The American Civil Liberties Union is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike. The ACLU works through litigation and lobbying and it has over 1,200,000 members and an annual budget of over $100 million. Local affiliates of the ACLU are active in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico; the ACLU provides legal assistance in cases. Legal support from the ACLU can take the form of direct legal representation or preparation of amicus curiae briefs expressing legal arguments when another law firm is providing representation. In addition to representing persons and organizations in lawsuits, the ACLU lobbies for policy positions that have been established by its board of directors. Current positions of the ACLU include: opposing the death penalty.
The ACLU consists of two separate but affiliated nonprofit organizations: the American Civil Liberties Union, a 501 social welfare group, the ACLU Foundation, a 501 public charity. Both organizations engage in civil rights litigation and education, but only donations to the 501 foundation are tax deductible, only the 501 group can engage in unlimited political lobbying; the two organizations share employees. The ACLU was founded in 1920 by a committee including Helen Keller, Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Walter Nelles, Morris Ernst, Albert DeSilver, Arthur Garfield Hays, Jane Addams, Felix Frankfurter, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Rose Schneiderman, its focus was on freedom of speech for anti-war protesters. During the 1920s, the ACLU expanded its scope to include protecting the free speech rights of artists and striking workers, working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to decrease racism and discrimination. During the 1930s, the ACLU started to engage in work combating police misconduct and supporting Native American rights.
Many of the ACLU's cases involved Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1940, the ACLU leadership voted to exclude Communists from its leadership positions, a decision rescinded in 1968. During World War II, the ACLU defended Japanese-American citizens, unsuccessfully trying to prevent their forcible relocation to internment camps. During the Cold War, the ACLU headquarters was dominated by anti-communists, but many local affiliates defended members of the Communist Party. By 1964, membership had risen to 80,000, the ACLU participated in efforts to expand civil liberties. In the 1960s, the ACLU continued its decades-long effort to enforce separation of state, it defended several anti-war activists during the Vietnam War. The ACLU was involved in the Miranda case, which addressed conduct by police during interrogations, in the New York Times case, which established new protections for newspapers reporting on government activities. In the 1970s and 1980s, the ACLU ventured into new legal areas, involving the rights of homosexuals, students and the poor.
In the twenty-first century, the ACLU has fought the teaching of creationism in public schools and challenged some provisions of anti-terrorism legislation as infringing on privacy and civil liberties. Fundraising and membership spiked after the 2016 election; the ACLU is led by a president and an executive director, Susan N. Herman and Anthony Romero in 2015; the president acts as chairman of the ACLU's board of directors, leads fundraising, facilitates policy-setting. The executive director manages the day-to-day operations of the organization; the board of directors consists of 80 persons, including representatives from each state affiliate, as well as at-large delegates. The organization has its headquarters in 125 Broad Street, a 40-story skyscraper located in Lower Manhattan, New York City; the leadership of the ACLU does not always agree on policy decisions. In 1937, an internal debate erupted over whether to defend Henry Ford's right to distribute anti-union literature. In 1939, a heated debate took place over whether to prohibit communists from serving in ACLU leadership roles.
During the early 1950s and Cold War McCarthyism, the board was divided on whether to defend communists. In 1968, a schism formed over. In 1973, there was internal conflict over. In 2005, there was internal conflict about whether or not a gag rule should be imposed on ACLU employees to prevent publication of internal disputes. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the ACLU and the ACLU Foundation had a combined income from support and revenue of $100.4 million, originating from grants, membership donations, donated legal services and revenue. Membership dues are treated as donations. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the combined expenses of the ACLU and ACLU Foundation were $133.4 million, s