Divided Loyalties (novel)
Divided Loyalties is a BBC Books original novel written by Gary Russell and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It features the Fifth Doctor, Tegan Jovanka, Nyssa and the Celestial Toymaker; the book is divided into four rounds, each named after the title of an Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark song, as well as all the chapters within each round. The Doctor dreams about a familiar voice calling to him for help, awakens to find that the TARDIS has materialized aboard an Earth space station orbiting the planet Dymok; the Dymova have cut themselves off from the rest of the galaxy, refuse to communicate with anyone beyond their planet apart from a repeated signal warning others away. At the same moment that the TARDIS materializes, all communication from Dymok ceases and the crew of the Little Boy 2 find themselves unable to detect any life signs from the planet. Commander Oakwood leads a team into the cargo bays to investigate the energy spike caused by the TARDIS materialization, the Doctor and his companions are captured as they explore their surroundings.
The Doctor reluctantly leads Oakwood's security team to the TARDIS to explain his and his friends' presence—only to find that someone or something has placed a force field around the TARDIS, blocking him out. Tegan is transported to what appears to be her home city of Brisbane. Although vicious replicas of Adric and Nyssa appear in the maze to spur her on, she refuses to play the game, set for her, thus proving herself ideal for the Observer's purposes; as she demands to know what is happening, she experiences a vision of a strange man begging for help, of another man in the clothing of a Chinese Mandarin, who dismisses her as unsuitable and sends her back to the space station at the moment of her departure, with no memory of what has happened to her. The Doctor convinces Oakwood to tell him what has happened to Dymok, Tegan realizes to her disgust that once again he is involving himself in a dangerous situation, no concern of his. In fact, events on Dymok are all part of the trap, he has collected a new set of players from across time and space.
A World War Two aviatrix is plucked from her crashing aeroplane and forced to play backgammon for her life. Nyssa tells the curious Lieutenant Paladopous about the death of her world and how the Master took over her father's body, killing him. Adric has a vision of the Toymaker, who tells him that he will soon have to decide just how much he trusts this new Doctor. Meanwhile, Oakwood refuses to send an away team to Dymok to investigate the sudden silence, until an energy spike from the planet's surface possesses Tegan, who speaks with an alien voice and orders the crew of the station to bring her to Dymok. Faced with such an invitation, Oakwood has little choice; the Doctor takes Tegan and Nyssa but orders Adric to remain behind and keep an eye on the TARDIS. As the away team's shuttle approaches Dymok, some unknown power forces it to land near a single black pyramid, the only landmark on the planet's surface; the Doctor finds it oddly familiar, when Oakwood comments on its puzzling appearance he realizes why too late—the pyramid resembles the famous Towers of Hanoi puzzle, or the Celestial Toymaker's Trilogic Game.
The Observer appears to them and destroys their shuttle with minimal mental effort, leaving them with no choice but to follow him into the depths of the pyramid. There, Tegan experiences a vision of her father's death from cancer, realizes that because the Doctor abducted her from the site of her aunt Vanessa's murder, her mother will be left alone, believing her to be dead. Tegan's sudden fury at the Doctor is something the Observer can use for his own ends, he therefore separates Tegan from the others, who find themselves abandoned in the heart of the pyramid amongst the sleeping forms of comatose Dymova. With little choice, they eat the food, laid out for them, but it has been drugged and all find themselves falling asleep... The Doctor dreams of his misspent youth at the Time Lords' Academy, of the time that he refused to return home to Lungbarrow for his Name Day because Kithriarch Quences seemed to expect his automatic, unthinking obedience, his tutor Delox, learning of his refusal, suspended him from the Academy until he had learned humility.
It was on this day that the Doctor visited the hermit behind the Academy and learned the secret of life in a daisy. Armed with his new determination to prove to the Time Lords that things could change, he convinced his friend Mortimus to hack into the Time Lords' secret files and find something of interest that he could investigate. Mortimus found an entry on a legendary being, or beings, called the Toymakers, the Doctor set off to investigate with his friends Rallon and Millennia, stealing a TARDIS with the help of their fellow student Magnus. Upon entering the realm of the Toymaker, Rallon was consumed and possessed by the spirit of the Toymaker, an ancient collective intelligence which took on Rallon's physical form and forced the Doctor to play its games; the Doctor won a game of Capture the Flag against a tin soldier by setting a trap on the muddy battlefield, the Toymaker, impressed
Doctor Who Magazine
Doctor Who Magazine is a magazine devoted to the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. Its current editor is Marcus Hearn, who took over from the magazine's longest-serving editor, Tom Spilsbury, in July 2017, it is recognised by Guinness World Records as the longest running TV tie-in magazine. Licensed by the BBC, the magazine began life as Doctor Who Weekly in 1979, published by the UK arm of Marvel Comics; the first issue was priced 12p. The magazine moved from weekly to monthly publication with issue 44 in September 1980, becoming Doctor Who Monthly with a cover price of 30p. Styled on the cover as'Doctor Who – A Marvel Monthly' the tagline was not part of the name, but a descriptor which appeared on many of Marvel UK's monthly titles at that point; the copyright notice continued describing the publication as'Doctor Who Weekly' until issue 48. The cover title changed to Doctor Who Monthly with issue 61; the title changed to The Official Doctor Who Magazine with issue 85 in February 1984.
It became The Doctor Who Magazine with issue 99 in April 1985, Doctor Who Magazine with issue 107 in December 1985. The magazine has remained under that title since, although an exception was made for issue 397 in June 2008 when the cover only featured the words Bad Wolf following transmission of the Doctor Who episode "Turn Left" on Saturday 21 June. In 1990 the magazine started appearing once every four weeks. Despite the BBC discontinuing production of Doctor Who in 1989, the magazine continued to be published, providing new adventures in the form of comics; the television programme was revived in 2005, providing a new generation of fans which the magazine was seeking to attract. Geared towards children, DWM has grown into a more mature magazine exploring the behind-the-scenes aspects of the series. Due to its longevity, it is seen as a source of'official' and exclusive information, sharing a close relationship with the television production team and the BBC. In 2006, however, it lost its exclusivity when BBC Worldwide launched its own comic, Doctor Who Adventures, aimed at a younger audience.
DWM is now published by Panini Comics, which purchased the title along with the rest of the Marvel UK catalogue in 1995. Panini has begun to digitally reprint older DWM comics in trade paperback format. Twenty-five volumes have been printed so far: two featuring the comics adventures of the Fourth Doctor, one with the adventures of the Fifth Doctor, two featuring the Sixth Doctor, five with the adventures of the Seventh Doctor, four focusing on the Eighth Doctor, one with the adventures of the Ninth Doctor, three featuring the Tenth Doctor, four collecting the adventures of the Eleventh Doctor and three with the adventures of the Twelfth Doctor. Panini published a one-shot magazine-format reprinting of the complete Ninth Doctor strips in 2006 and most of the Tenth Doctor and Martha Jones strips in 2008. DWM issue 426 reported. DWM's 400th issue was published in September 2008, the publication celebrated its 30th anniversary in October 2009. In April 2010, it was confirmed in issue 420 that Doctor Who Magazine now holds the Guinness World Record for "Longest Running Magazine Based on a Television Series."
The magazine reached its 500th issue in May 2016. In April 2011, Panini Comics released a new monthly magazine titled Doctor, it was announced on 27 January 2012 that Doctor Who Insider had ceased publication after nine issues. Doctor Who Insider returned for a special edition issue in 1 November 2012. DWM features an ongoing comic starring the current incarnation of the Doctor, though for a period between 1989 and 1996, when the series was off the air, it featured previous Doctors. Notable writers and artists who have worked on the comic include John Wagner, Pat Mills, Alan Moore, Grant Morrison, Dave Gibbons, Mike McMahon, John Ridgway and Ian Edginton. Selected stories from the comic were reprinted in North America by Marvel Comics. Supporting characters that have crossed over from the comic to other spin-off media include Frobisher, the shape-changing companion of the Sixth and Seventh Doctors; the magazine has featured other comics over the years, most notably "Doctor Who?", a humorous look at the series by Tim Quinn and Dicky Howett.
This was principally a three-panel comic strip, though page-long parodies were featured. Doctor Who?'s spiritual successor, was a single-panel strip "Doctor Whoah!", by'Baxter'. Embedded into the Galaxy Forum letters page, it lampooned a recent episode, DVD release of stories or other such event by showing alternative and expanded versions of Doctor Who scenes. For example, after the broadcast of "Partners in Crime", the strip portrayed the Doctor's arrival on the "Planet of the Hats", referred to in the episode; the strip was known for its characters. Since 2014, "Doctor Whoah!" has been replaced by "The Daft Dimension", a sized strip in three panels by Lew Stringer. Between 1989 and 92 "The Comic Assassins" was a series of parody strips by Steve Noble and Kev F. Sutherland. In the 1990s a secondary serious comic was featured on the inside cover; the TV Century 21 comic "T
David Graeme Garden OBE is a Scottish comedian, author and television presenter, best known as a member of The Goodies and for being a cast member on I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue. Born in Aberdeen, Scotland, he grew up in England. Garden was educated at Repton School, studied medicine at Emmanuel College, where he joined the prestigious Cambridge University Footlights Club, performed with the 1964 Footlights revue, Stuff What Dreams Are Made Of at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. Garden has never practised. Asked how he justified making jokes rather than saving lives, he answered: I don't think I would have done it as well. It's an interesting question – whether you've contributed more to the vast store of human enjoyment by doing comedy or by being a doctor, but the answer for me is that I don't think I would have been as successful or as happy being a doctor. Garden was co-writer and performer in the classic BBC radio comedy sketch show, I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again, in the late 1960s. Garden was studying medicine during the early series of I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again, this commitment made it difficult for him to be a member of the cast during the third series because of a midwifery medical course in Plymouth.
However, he continued sending scripts for the radio show by mail – and rejoined the cast upon his return to his medical studies in London. On several occasions his medical qualifications are lampooned. Garden: "Here's something I wrote this morning". Hatch: "It's a prescription". "Yes," says Garden, "but it's a funny one..." Garden is a permanent panellist on the long-running BBC Radio improvisation show I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue in a cast which includes Tim Brooke-Taylor. He stars in and co-writes, with Barry Cryer, You'll Have Had Your Tea, a direct spin-off of ISIHAC, has contributed to several books from the series including guides to the game Mornington Crescent. Garden wrote for and appeared with Barry Cryer and Alison Steadman in the 1989 BBC radio comedy sketch show The Long Hot Satsuma. In 2001 and 2002, Garden wrote for and appeared in the BBC radio comedy sketch show The Right Time, along with Eleanor Bron, Paula Wilcox, Clive Swift, Roger Blake and Neil Innes, he was script editor for The Hudson and Pepperdine Show.
Garden is chair of the spoof radio game show Beat the Kids. He has appeared on the UK version of the improvisation television series Whose Line Is It Anyway?, which has a similar format. He was a co-writer of the BBC Radio 4 comedy Giles Wemmbley-Hogg Goes Off, in 2006, Garden co-devised and appeared on the BBC Radio 4 comedy quiz show, The Unbelievable Truth. In 2003, Garden wrote the Radio 4 sitcom About a Dog, based on an original idea by Debbie Barham, with a second series in 2007. Garden has appeared in two of Big Finish's Doctor. In Bang-Bang-a-Boom! he plays Professor Fassbinder, a parody of Victor Bergman in Space: 1999. In Max Warp he plays TV presenter Geoffrey Vantage, parodying Top Gear presenter Jeremy Clarkson, he plays Abbot Thelonious in the Eighth Doctor audio play The Book of Kells in 2010, subsequently returns as a recurring antagonist to the Eighth Doctor. Garden's best known television work is freeform sitcom The Goodies, which he wrote and performed along with Tim Brooke-Taylor and Bill Oddie from 1970 to 1982.
The three appeared. Garden and Bill Oddie co-wrote many episodes of the television sitcom Doctor in the House, including most of the first series episodes, all of the second series episodes - as well as co-writing episodes of the subsequent Doctor at Large and Doctor in Charge series. Garden was co-writer and performer in the sketch show Twice a Fortnight with Bill Oddie, Terry Jones, Michael Palin and Jonathan Lynn, sketch show Broaden Your Mind with Tim Brooke-Taylor, with Bill Oddie joining the cast for the second series. In 1982 Garden and Oddie wrote, but did not perform in, a six-part science fiction sitcom called Astronauts for Central, shown on ITV; the show was set in an international space station in the near future. Garden was the voice of the title character in Bananaman, in addition to General Blight and Maurice of the Heavy Mob in the children's animated television comedy series, which featured the rest of the Goodies team; the series parodied comic book super-heroes. Garden wrote for the sitcom Surgical Spirit.
Graeme Garden has presented three series of the BBC's health magazine Bodymatters. Garden appeared in the political sitcom Yes Minister, in the role of Commander Forrest of the Special Branch in the episode The Death List, he appeared as a television presenter in the Doctor in the House episode, Doctor on the Box. He was a regular team captain on the political satire game show. Brooke-Taylor appeared as a guest in one episode and during the game "I Couldn't Disagree More" he proposed that it was high time The Goodies episodes were repeated. Garden was obliged by the rules of the game to refute this statement, replied, "I couldn't disagree more... it was time to repeat them ten, fifteen years ago."In 2004, Garden and Brooke-Taylor were co-presenters of Channel 4's daytime game show Beat the Nation, in which they indulged in usual game show "banter", but took the quiz itself seriously. It was notable for its use of a "laugh track" instead of a studio audience. Garden has hosted the quiz game Tell the Truth and presented a series of history programmes, A Se
Rufus Hound is an English comedian and presenter. Hound was educated at Hoe Bridge School Woking, Frensham Heights and Godalming College, where he was elected as a Student Representative and built the college radio station. After leaving school he started performing comedy in the evenings. In 2000 he began working full-time as a stand-up comedian. While working at the Edinburgh Festival he adopted. Hound hosted Destination Three, the coverage of the Glastonbury Festival and Top of the Pops in 2005 and 2006 alongside Fearne Cotton, he presented the idiosyncratic reality show Grime Scene Investigation on BBC Three with staff and students from Aston University, narrated BBC Two's broadcasts of MythBusters. He has appeared in many comedy shows and quizzes such as Street Cred Sudoku, Nevermind the Buzzcocks and Celebrity Juice, where he was a regular panellist, he narrated the 2009 series Rocket Science and has appeared on The Apprentice: You're Fired! and Richard & Judy. He presented Outtake TV on BBC1, replacing Anne Robinson.
In early 2008, Hound appeared twice on ITV's Thank God You're Here in the UK, after working as the warm-up act. In late summer 2008, Hound joined. Hound was the narrator for the gaming series Playr and presents What Do Kids Know? on UKTV-owned channel Watch. Hound took part in Let's Dance for Sport Relief, dancing to Cheryl Cole's "Fight for This Love" and won the final of the series on 13 March 2010. Partnered with Flavia Cacace, Hound won the 2013 Strictly Come Dancing Christmas special. Hound hosted the year 2000 edition of My Funniest Year, a look at a past year of British television, broadcast on Channel 4 in September 2010, he has been a regular panelist on Celebrity Juice, hosted by Keith Lemon, has appeared at Bright Club a number of times. In January 2011, Hound participated in the former Channel 4 reality series Fearless, he came third for the boys' team, was referred to as "The Ruthless Hound". In 2012, Hound was a team captain for Mad Mad World. Since 2012, he has presented a programme on BBC Radio Four called My Teenage Diary, in which celebrities talk about the diary that they kept in their teenage years.
On 22 February 2016, Hound made his debut as a panellist on BBC Radio 4's Just A Minute alongside regular Paul Merton and semi-regulars Pam Ayres and Graham Norton Hound plays a fictionalised version of himself in the CBBC TV Series Hounded as the protagonist, a normal television presenter who must foil the plans of Dr Muhahaha who plans on taking over the world. In 2015, Hound played Sam Swift in an episode of the ninth series of Doctor Who, titled "The Woman Who Lived", appeared in the Channel 4 drama series Cucumber as an eccentric character called Rupert. Hound contributed his voice to the track'Tazer Beam' by The Skints from their album FM, released in March 2015. In 2016, Hound played the part of Duncan in the sixth series of the Sky 1 sitcom Trollied. In November 2017, Hound temporarily took over hosting responsibilities of Iain Lee's talkRADIO show, named The Late Night Alternative as Iain Lee joined the cast of the 2017 series of I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here!. Hound made his acting debut in the Direct-to-DVD film Big Fat Gypsy Gangster, directed by Ricky Grover.
He stars in the 2012 film The Wedding Video. From October 2012 through February 2013, Hound played the lead role of Francis Henshall in the National Theatre's second touring production of One Man, Two Guvnors. Following the end of the tour, he took over the role in the West End production from 4 February 2013. In summer 2013 he played Roy in Chichester Festival Theatre's revival of Neville's Island by Tim Firth at the Theatre in the Park. In 2014, Hound played the role of Freddie in the West End production of Dirty Rotten Scoundrels after out-of-town tryouts in Manchester and Aylesbury. In early 2016 he played the role of Sancho Panza in the Royal Shakespeare Company's production of Don Quixote, adapted by James Fenton; the production transferred to the Garrick Theatre in London's West End for a limited season from October 2018 to February 2019. In late 2016, he played Toad in the world premiere of the new musical, The Wind In The Willows in Plymouth and Southampton. In June 2017 he will reprise the role for a West End transfer at the London Palladium, after playing Dr Prentice in a revival of What The Butler Saw by Joe Orton at the Curve Theatre and Theatre Royal Bath in March 2017.
In April 2018, he returned to Chichester Festival Theatre to play Gary Essendine in a revival of Present Laughter by Noël Coward. From June 2018 he will play Billings / Ray in Dusty - The Dusty Springfield Musical on a UK tour. Hound campaigned for the Liberal Democrats at the 2010 general election, he has subsequently declared his support for the Labour Party. In an episode of The Jonathan Ross Show, which aired on 25 January 2014, Hound announced plans to run as a Member of the European Parliament for the party in the London constituency. Hound was the fifth candidate on the National Health Action Party list, which came ninth, receiving 23,253 votes. In August 2015, Hound endorsed Jeremy Corbyn's campaign in the Labour Party leadership election, he tweeted: "Corbyn = alternative. The others =Tory policies inflicted with mea culpa eyes". In July 2016, he supported Corbyn after mass resignations from his cabinet and a leadership challenge, he tweeted: "About to go on. #istillbelieve #jc4pm". In May 2017, Hound
Silurian (Doctor Who)
The Silurians are a fictional race of reptile-like humanoids in the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. The species first appeared in Doctor Who in the 1970 serial Doctor Who and the Silurians, were created by Malcolm Hulke; the first Silurians introduced are depicted as prehistoric and scientifically advanced sentient humanoids who predate the dawn of man. The Silurians introduced in the 1970 story are broad, three-eyed land-dwellers; the 1972 serial The Sea Devils by Hulke, introduced their amphibious cousins, the so-called "Sea Devils". Both Silurians and Sea Devils made an appearance in 1984's Warriors of the Deep. After Warriors of the Deep, the Silurians did not appear in the show again before its 1989 cancellation. Redesigned Silurans were reintroduced to the series in 2010, following the show's 2005 revival, have recurred since then. Called Silurians, after their supposed origins in the Silurian period, the creatures have been referred to by other names. In The Sea Devils, the Third Doctor claims that "properly speaking", the Silurians should have been called "Eocenes".
The name Homo reptilia is first used to describe the creatures in the novelisation Doctor Who and the Cave-Monsters, is first used in the series proper in the episode "The Hungry Earth". In The Sea Devils, an amphibious Silurian is dubbed a "Sea Devil" by the human workman Clark, while in Warriors of the Deep, the land-dwelling Silurians use the term "Sea Devil" to refer to their aquatic counterparts. Drawing on the ideas of the Quatermass serials, producer Peter Bryant and producer and script editor Derrick Sherwin decided that for the series' seventh season, the show's protagonist the Doctor should be restricted to contemporary Earth and work alongside the UNIT organisation, featured prominently in the sixth season's serial The Invasion. Producer Barry Letts and script editor Terrance Dicks, inheriting this new vision for the series wanted their stories for the seventh season to have a serious, deeper subtext, they approached Malcolm Hulke, co-writer of the Patrick Troughton serials The Faceless Ones and The War Games, to write a serial for this new season.
Hulke saw limitations with this earthbound format – he believed there would be two types of stories, one featuring mad scientists and the other alien invasions. Terrance Dicks claims credit for thinking of the idea of creatures, there all along. While planning stories for Doctor Who's ninth season and Letts decided to revive the Silurian concept, this time with the twist of these new Silurians originating in the sea. Dubbed "Sea Silurians", they were rechristened "Sea Devils" for dramatic effect as Hulke's storyline was edited. Johnny Byrne, writer of the Peter Davison serial Warriors of the Deep, notes that the Myrka creature was created to absolve the Silurians from the guilt of genocide, using the creature as a weapon of last resort. In their first appearance in Doctor Who and the Silurians, a group of Silurians are awakened from hibernation by the energy from a nearby nuclear power research center in Derbyshire; the Third Doctor manages to negotiate an honourable compromise with the colony's leader.
The colony's leader is murdered by a younger Silurian who becomes the new leader, intent on a far more aggressive policy. To that end, the Silurians attempt to reclaim the planet from humanity by releasing a deadly virus and attempting to disperse the Van Allen radiation belt. Both plans were thwarted by the Doctor. Despite the Doctor's best efforts to broker a peaceful solution, the Silurians are still determined to exterminate humanity, only to have their base destroyed by the fictional organisation UNIT on the orders of Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart to preempt this open threat. In The Sea Devils, an amphibious variety of Silurians are awakened from their hibernation by a renegade Time Lord known as the Master, who persuades them to reclaim the planet from the human race. Despite the Third Doctor's efforts to convince them otherwise, the Sea Devils decide to go to war, forcing the Doctor to destroy their base, it is revealed, that there were many colonies still in hibernation around the world.
The land-based Silurians and the "Sea Devils" next appeared, together, in Warriors of the Deep, where they attempt again to reclaim Earth from the humans. Set in the year 2084 during a prolonged "cold war" between factions of humanity, the serial describes the Sea Devils as being elite warriors; the Fifth Doctor tries in vain to prevent any bloodshed against either species. The last surviving Silurian in the episode, however, is killed by Turlough, leaving the Doctor despondent. Silurians are reintroduced to the series, following its cancellation and revival, in the 2010 two-parter "The Hungry Earth" / "Cold Blood", in which Silurians are awoken in 2020 by an underground drilling operation; these Silurians lack the third eye of their 1970–1984 counterparts, wear masks. Having misinterpreted the drilling as a deliberate attack, the Silurians take hostages. After a protracted conflict, the Eleventh Doctor leaves behind two humans i
Kingdom of Northumbria
The Kingdom of Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now Northern England and south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old English Norþan-hymbre meaning "the people or province north of the Humber", which reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber Estuary. Northumbria started to consolidate into one kingdom in the early seventh century, when the two earlier core territories of Deira and Bernicia entered into a dynastic union. At its height, the kingdom extended from the Humber, Peak District and the River Mersey on the south to the Firth of Forth on the north. Northumbria ceased to be an independent kingdom in the mid-tenth century, though a rump Earldom of Bamburgh survived around Bernicia in the north to be absorbed into the mediaeval kingdoms of Scotland and England. Today, Northumbria refers to a smaller region corresponding to the counties of Northumberland, County Durham and Tyne and Wear in North East England; the term is used in the names of some North East regional institutions the Northumbria Police, (based in Newcastle upon Tyne, the Northumbria Army Cadet Force, the regionalist Northumbrian Association.
The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park uses the term Northumbria to describe its area. However, the term is not the official name for the EU region of North East England; the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria was two kingdoms divided around the River Tees: Bernicia was to the north of the river and Deira to the south. It is possible that both regions originated as native British Kingdoms which the Germanic settlers conquered, although there is little information about the infrastructure and culture of the British kingdoms themselves. Much of the evidence for them comes from regional names that are British rather than Anglo-Saxon in origin; the names Deira and Bernicia are British in origin, for example, indicating that some British place names retained currency after the Anglo-Saxon migrations to Northumbria. There is some archeological evidence to support British origins for the polities of Bernicia and Deira. In what would have been southern Bernicia, in the Cheviot Hills, a hill fort at Yeavering called Yeavering Bell contains evidence that it was an important centre for first the British and the Anglo-Saxons.
The fort is pre-Roman, dating back to the Iron Age at around the first century. In addition to signs of Roman occupation, the site contains evidence of timber buildings that pre-date Germanic settlement in the area that are signs of British settlement. Moreover, Brian Hope-Taylor has traced the origins of the name Yeavering, which looks deceptively English, back to the British gafr from Bede's mention of a township called Gefrin in the same area. Yeavering continued to be an important political centre after the Anglo-Saxons began settling in the north, as King Edwin had a royal palace at Yeavering. Overall, English place-names dominate the Northumbrian landscape, suggesting the prevalence of an Anglo-Saxon elite culture by the time that Bede—one of Anglo-Saxon England's most prominent historians—was writing in the eighth century. According to Bede, the Angles predominated the Germanic immigrants that settled north of the Humber and gained political prominence during this time period. While the British natives may have assimilated into the Northumbrian political structure contemporary textual sources such as Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People depict relations between Northumbrians and the British as fraught.
The Anglo-Saxon countries of Bernicia and Deira were in conflict before their eventual semi-permanent unification in 654. Political power in Deira was concentrated in the East Riding of Yorkshire, which included York, the North York Moors, the Vale of York; the political heartlands of Bernicia were the areas around Bamburgh and Lindisfarne and Jarrow, in Cumbria, west of the Pennines in the area around Carlisle. The name that these two countries united under, may have been coined by Bede and made popular through his Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Information on the early royal genealogies for Bernicia and Deira comes from Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and Welsh chronicler Nennius’ Historia Brittonum. According to Nennius, the Bernician royal line begins with son of Eoppa. Ida was able to annex Bamburgh to Bernicia. In Nennius’ genealogy of Deira, a king named Soemil was the first to separate Bernicia and Deira, which could mean that he wrested the kingdom of Deira from the native British.
The date of this supposed separation is unknown. The first Deiran king to make an appearance in Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum is Ælle, the father of the first Roman Catholic Northumbrian king Edwin. A king of Bernicia, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith, was the first ruler to unite the two polities under his rule, he exiled the Deiran Edwin to the court of King Rædwald of the East Angles in order to claim both kingdoms, but Edwin returned in 616 to conquer Northumbria with Rædwald's aid. Edwin, who ruled from 616 to 633, was one of the last kings of the Deiran line to reign over all of Northumbria. Oswald's brother Oswiu succeeded him to the Northumbrian throne despite initial attempts on Deira's part to pull away again. Although the Bernician line became the royal line of Northumbria
A police box is a public telephone kiosk or callbox for the use of members of the police, or for members of the public to contact the police. It was used in the United Kingdom throughout the 20th century from the early 1920s. Unlike an ordinary callbox, its telephone was located behind a hinged door so it could be used from the outside, the interior of the box was, in effect, a miniature police station for use by police officers to read and fill in reports, take meal breaks and temporarily hold detainees until the arrival of transport. Police boxes predate the era of mobile telecommunications. Most boxes have been withdrawn from service; the typical police box contained a telephone linked directly to the local police station, allowing patrolling officers to keep in contact with the station, reporting anything unusual or requesting help if necessary. A light on top of the box would flash to alert an officer that they were requested to contact the station. Members of the public could use the phone to contact a police station in an emergency or, in the case of the Metropolitan Police, for assistance with any matter within the purview of the police.
Police boxes were blue, with the most notable exception being Glasgow, where they were red until the late 1960s. In addition to a telephone, they contained equipment such as an incident book, a fire extinguisher and a first aid kit; the blue police box is associated with the science fiction television programme Doctor Who, in which the protagonist's time machine, a TARDIS, is in the shape of a 1960s British police box. The first police telephone was installed in Albany, New York in 1877, one year after Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone. Call boxes for use by both police and trusted members of the public were first installed in Chicago in 1880 housed in kiosks to protect the inner signal boxes from the weather and to limit access to them so as to discourage false alarms. In 1883, Washington, D. C. installed its own system. These were direct line telephones placed inside a metal box on a post which could be accessed by a key or breaking a glass panel. In Chicago, the telephones were restricted to police use, but the boxes contained a dial mechanism which members of the public could use to signal different types of alarms via telegraph: there were 11 signals, including "Police Wagon Required", "Thieves", "Forgers", "Murder", "Accident", "Fire" and "Drunkard".
The first public police telephones in Britain were introduced in Glasgow in 1891. These tall, cast-iron boxes were painted red and had large gas lanterns fixed to the roof, as well as a mechanism which enabled the central police station to light the lanterns as signals to police officers in the vicinity to call the station for instructions; as with Chicago's boxes, the original intent was that trusted members of the public would be allowed access to the telephone in case of emergency using a special key, registered to them, which would remain trapped in the lock until released by a master key carried by a policeman. A newer, rectangular type of cast-iron police box was introduced in Glasgow in 1912, but with the signal light now powered by electricity rather than gas, access to the telephone now restricted to the police. Rectangular, garden shed style police boxes were introduced in Sunderland in 1923 by Chief Constable Frederick J. Crawley, in Newcastle in 1925 when he took over as Chief Constable there.
Crawley was arguably the first proponent of the concept of the police box as a miniature police station rather than just a communications point, including unrestricted access to the telephone by the general public for contacting police and fire services. His well-publicised success with these boxes, the revised policing methods they allowed, soon led to the adoption of similar police box systems in many of the larger cities in the north of England, including Manchester and Sheffield; the Metropolitan Police introduced police boxes throughout London between 1928 and 1937, the design that became the most well-known was created by the Met's own surveyor and architect, Gilbert MacKenzie Trench, in 1929. Two competing prototype designs were installed on the newly built Becontree Estate in December 1928, with the winning builder being contracted to erect 43 boxes made of wood with concrete roofs in the final Trench pattern as part of experimental installations in the Richmond and Wood Green sub-divisions, which were completed in December 1929 and January 1930 respectively.
Their success resulted in the widespread adoption of the system throughout Greater London over the next eight years using newer models of the Mackenzie Trench design now made of concrete for increased durability, save the doors, which were still made of teak. Constables complained that the concrete boxes were cold and damp compared to their wooden predecessors, so provisions were made for more powerful heaters. For use by officers, the interiors of the boxes contained a stool, a table with drawer, a brush and duster, a fire extinguisher, a first aid kit, a small electric heater. Like the 19th and early 20th century Glaswegian boxes, the London police boxes had a light at the top of each box, which would flash as a signal to police officers indicating that they should contact the station. By 1953, there were 685 police boxes on the streets of Greater London, with an additional 72 smaller police posts designed by Trench, used in the inner divisions where there was no space for the larger kiosks.