The Tree (short story)
"The Tree" is a macabre short story by American horror fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft, it was written in 1920, published in October 1921 in The Tryout. Set in ancient Greece, the story concerns two sculptors who accept a commission with ironic consequences. Lovecraft wrote "The Tree" early in his career, he was dismissive of the story in a 1936 letter. It was one that, he said, "if typed on good stock make excellent shelf-paper, but little else." The assessment of Lovecraft authority S. T. Joshi was that although the story "may be a trifle obvious… it is an effective display of Lovecraft's skill in handling a historical setting." On a slope of Mount Maenalus in Arcadia is an olive grove that grows around a marble tomb and the ruin of an old villa. There, one gigantic tree resembles a frighteningly distorted man, the roots of the tree have shifted the blocks of the tomb; the narrator explains that the beekeeper who lives next door told him a story about the tree: Two renowned sculptors and Musides, lived in the colonnaded villa, "resplendent" in its day.
Both men created works that were known and celebrated. They were devoted friends, but different in disposition: Musides enjoyed the nightlife, while Kalos preferred the quiet of the olive grove, it was there he was said to receive his inspiration. One day, emissaries from "the Tyrant of Syracuse" ask the sculptors each to create a statue of Tyché; the statue, they are told, must be "of great size and cunning workmanship", since it is to be "a wonder of nations and a goal of travellers." The most beautiful statue will be erected in Syracuse. Kalos and Musides accept the commission. Secretly, the Tyrant expects the sculptors not only to compete but to cooperate, resulting in statuary that will be magnificent; the work proceeds, although Musides is still social and active, he seems morose—apparently because Kalos has fallen ill. Despite Kalos' weakened state, his visitors detect in him a serenity. Despite the efforts of his doctors and his friend Musides, Kalos weakens; when Kalos' death seems imminent, Musides weeps and promises to carve for him an elaborate marble sepulchre.
Kalos asks. Soon after, Kalos dies in the olive grove. Musides buries the olive twigs. From the burial place of the twigs an enormous olive tree grows at an incredible rate. An large branch hangs over the villa and Musides' statue. Three years Musides' work on the statue is complete; the Tyrant's agents arrive head to town to stay the night. That evening, a windstorm whips down the mountain; when the Tyrant's people return to the villa the next morning, they find. Musides himself is nowhere to be found; the end of the story recalls the Latin aphorism that precedes the text: "Fata viam invenient". Lovecraft, Howard P.. "The Tree". In S. T. Joshi. Dagon and Other Macabre Tales. Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. ISBN 0-87054-039-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list Definitive version. Works related to The Tree at Wikisource The Tree title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database The Tree public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Nemed or Nimeth is a character in medieval Irish mythology. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, he is the leader of the third people – that is, after the Muintir Cessair and the Muintir Partholóin – to settle in Ireland, his people are referred to Clann Nemid or Nemedians. They are described as arriving; the Nemedians had left Ireland. The word nemed means "privileged" or "holy" in Old Irish; the reconstructed Proto-Celtic language root nemos means "sky" or "heaven". In the ancient Celtic religions across Europe, a nemeton was a place of worship. Similar roots are found in place names from Spain and Scotland to Galatia. Including the name of the Nemetes tribe of the central Rhine area, their goddess Nemetona. Mention is made in Irish mythology of another Nemed, namely Nemed mac Nama, who may or may not be the same as the Nemed mentioned in the LGE; this Nemed is described as a famous warrior king who raised two horses with the Fairy Folk of Sid Ercmon. When the horses were released from the Sid, a stream called Uanob or Oin Aub chased them from the Sid and released foam over the entire land for a year.
Cúchulainn referred to this river thusly: "Over the foam of the two horses of Emain am I come". According to the Lebor Gabála, like those who settled Ireland before him had a genealogy going back to the biblical Noah. Nemed was the son of Agnoman of Scythia, the son of Piamp, son of Tait, son of Sera, son of Sru, son of Esru, son of Friamaint, son of Fathochta, son of Magog, son of Japheth, one of the sons of Noah. According to other myths, Nemed was descended from the son of Partholón, called Agla, in Eastern regions. Ireland had been uninhabited; the Muintir Nemid set sail from the Caspian Sea in 44 ships, but after a year and a half of sailing, the only ship to reach Ireland is Nemed's. On board are his wife Macha, his four chieftain sons, others, his wife Macha dies twelve days after they is buried at Ard Mhacha. Two quite different dates are given for the arrival of Muintir Nemid: 2350 BCE according to the Annals of the Four Masters, or 1731 BCE in Seathrún Céitinn's chronology. Four lakes burst from the ground in Nemed's time, including Loch Annind, which burst from the ground when Annind's grave was being dug.
The other three lakes were Loch Cál in Uí Nialláin, Loch Munremair in Luigne, Loch Dairbrech in Mide. The Muintir Nemid clear twelve plains: Mag Cera, Mag Eba, Mag Cuile Tolaid and Mag Luirg in Connacht, they build two royal forts: Ráth Chimbaith in Semne and Ráth Chindeich in Uí Nialláin. Ráth Chindeich was dug in one day by Boc, Roboc and Rotan, the four sons of Matan Munremar. Nemed kills them before dawn the next morning. Nemed wins four battles against the mysterious Fomorians. Modern scholars believe the Fomorians were a group of deities who represent the harmful or destructive powers of nature; these battles are at Ros Fraechain, at Badbgna in Connacht, at Cnamros in Leinster, at Murbolg in Dál Riata. However, nine years after arriving in Ireland, Nemed dies of plague along with three thousand of his people, he is buried on the hill of Ard Nemid on Great Island in Cork Harbour. The remaining Muintir Nemid are oppressed by the Fomorians Morc and Conand, who lives in Conand's Tower, on an island off the coast.
Each Samhain, they must give two thirds of their children, their corn and their milk to the Fomorians. This tribute that the Nemedians are forced to pay may be "a dim memory of sacrifice offered at the beginning of winter, when the powers of darkness and blight are in the ascendant". After many years, the Muintir Nemid rise up against the Fomorians and attack the Conand's Tower with 60,000 warriors, defeating Conand. Morc attacks, all of the Nemedians are killed in a tidal wave. Only one ship of thirty men escapes; some of them go "into the north of the world", some go to Britain and become the ancestors of all Britons, some go south to Greece. The island would again be empty for another 200 years; the Historia Brittonum—which is earlier than the Lebor Gabála—says there were only three settlements of Ireland, with the Nemedians being the second. It tells us that the Nemedians came from Iberia and stayed in Ireland for many years, but returned to Iberia; the Lebor Gabála makes the Nemedians the third group.
The number may have been increased to six to match the "Six Ages of the World". The Historia Brittonum mentions settlers being drowned while trying to attack a tower at sea. However, in the Historia Brittonum it is the Milesians who attack the tower, made of glass. O'Donovan, John. "Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters". Ucc.ie. Keating, Geoffrey. "The History of Ireland". CELT: The Corpus of Electronic Texts. University College Cork. Retrieved 21 March 2016. MacKillop, James. "Dictionary of Celtic Mythology". Hull, Vernam. "The Invasion of Nemed"
Beyond the Wall of Sleep (short story)
"Beyond the Wall of Sleep" is a science fiction short story by American writer H. P. Lovecraft, written in 1919 and first published in the amateur publication Pine Cones in October 1919. An intern in a mental hospital relates his experience with Joe Slater, an inmate who died at the facility a few weeks after being confined as a criminally insane murderer, he describes Slater as a "typical denizen of the Catskill Mountain region, who corresponds with the'white trash' of the South", for whom "laws and morals are nonexistent" and whose "general mental status is below that of any other native American people". Although Slater's crime was exceedingly brutal and unprovoked he had an "absurd appearance of harmless stupidity" and the doctors guessed his age at about forty. During the third night of his confinement, Slater had the first of his "attacks", he burst from an uneasy sleep into a frenzy so violent it took four orderlies to strait-jacket him. For nearly fifteen minutes he gave vent to an incredible rant.
The words were in the voice and couched in the paltry vocabulary of Joe Slater but the onlookers could construe from the inadequate language a vision of: green edifices of light, oceans of space, strange music, shadowy mountains and valleys. But most of all did he dwell upon some mysterious blazing entity that shook and laughed and mocked at him; this vast, vague personality seemed to have done him a terrible wrong and to kill it in triumphant revenge was his paramount desire. In order to reach it... he would soar through abysses of emptiness'burning' every obstacle that stood in his way. The ranting stopped as as it had started; this was the first of. The peripheral otherworldly images of Slater's visions were different and more fantastic with each successive night, but always there was the central theme of the blazing entity and its revenge; the doctors were perplexed with the Slater case. Where did a backward man like Slater get such visions, when an illiterate rustic like him would have had little if any exposure to fairy tales or fantasy stories?
Not that there were stories similar to Slater's. Why, was Slater dying? As an undergraduate, the intern had built a device for two-way telepathic communication which he had tested with a fellow student with no result; the device was designed around his principle that thought was a form of radiant energy. Heedless of any ethics, he attached himself with Slater to the device. With the device switched on, he received a message from a being of light whose experiences had been what were transmitted through the medium of Joe Slater; this being explained that, when not shackled to their physical bodies, all humans are light beings. The thought-message went on to explain that, as light beings within the realm of sleep, humans can experience the vistas of many planes and universes which remain unknown to waking awareness; the intern understood that the light being would now become incorporeal, undertake at last a final battle with its nemesis near Algol. Joe Slater died and there were no further transmissions.
That night an enormously bright star was discovered in the sky near Algol. Within a week it had dimmed to the luminosity of an ordinary star and in a few months it had become visible to the naked eye. Lovecraft said the story was inspired by an April 1919 article in the New York Tribune. Reporting on the New York state police, the article cited a family named Slater or Slahter as representative of the backwards Catskills population; the nova mentioned at the end of Lovecraft's story is a real star, known as GK Persei. The title of the story may have been influenced by Ambrose Bierce's "Beyond the Wall". Jack London's 1906 novel Before Adam, which concerns the concept of hereditary memory, contains the passage, "Nor...did any of my human kind break through the wall of my sleep." "Beyond the Wall of Sleep" was first published in October 1919 in Pine Cones, an amateur journal edited by John Clinton Pryor. It was subsequently reprinted in The Fantasy Weird Tales; the book Science-Fiction: The Early Years describes the concepts of both "Beyond the Wall of Sleep" and "From Beyond" as "very interesting, despite stiff, immature writing."
The story was adapted into a 1991 comic book by writer Steven Philip Jones, artist Octavio Cariello, published by Malibu Graphics. In 2016 Caliber Comics reprinted it in the anthology H. P. Lovecraft's Worlds and its own graphic novel; the story was adapted into a 2006 film titled Beyond the Wall of Sleep, directed by Barrett J. Leigh and Thom Maurer; the film's title sequence was created by Kenny Jensen. "Beyond the Wall of Sleep" was adapted as a short film of the same title in 2009 by Nathan Fisher. Several metal bands have recorded songs inspired by this story, including Black Sabbath, Sentenced and Opeth, as well as guitarist Christian Muenzner. Beyond the Wall of Sleep title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Beyond Wall of Sleep public domain audiobook at LibriVox
H. P. Lovecraft bibliography
This is a complete list of works by H. P. Lovecraft. Dates for the fiction and juvenilia are in the format: composition date / first publication date, taken from An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia by S. T. Joshi and D. E. Schultz, Hippocampus Press, New York, 2001. For other sections, dates are the time of composition, not publication. Many of these works can be found on Wikisource. While considered to be collaborations, the status of these works as such is disputed, despite their traditional status as belonging to the Cthulhu Mythos; the Inevitable Conflict. This was published in Amazing Stories under the name P. H. Lovering. A variety of evidence, including statistical analysis of the writing structure, has been put forward to suggest that Lovecraft was not the author; the Poem of Ulysses, or The Odyssey Ovid's Metamorphoses H. Lovecraft's Attempted Journey betwixt Providence & Fall River on the N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R. Poemata Minora, Volume II Ode to Selene or Diana To the Old Pagan Religion On the Ruin of Rome To Pan On the Vanity of Human Ambition C.
S. A. 1861-1865: To the Starry Cross of the SOUTH De Triumpho Naturae The Members of the Men's Club of the First Universalist Church of Providence, R. I. to Its President, About to Leave for Florida on Account of His Health To His Mother on Thanksgiving To Mr. Terhune, on His Historical Fiction Providence in 2000 A. D. New-England Fallen On the Creation of Niggers Fragment on Whitman On Robert Browning On a New-England Village Seen by Moonlight Quinsnicket Park To Mr. Munroe, on His Instructive and Entertaining Account of Switzerland Ad Criticos Frusta Praemunitus De Scriptore Mulieroso To General Villa On a Modern Lothario The End of the Jackson War To the Members of the Pin-Feathers on the Merits of Their Organisation, of Their New Publication, The Pinfeather To the Rev. James Pyke To an Accomplished Young Gentlewoman on Her Birthday, Decr. 2, 1914 Regner Lodbrog's Epicedium The Power of Wine: A Satire The Teuton's Battle-Song New England Gryphus in Asinum Mutatus To the Members of the United Amateur Press Association from the Providence Amateur Press Club March 1914 The Simple Speller's Tale On Slang An Elegy on Franklin Chase Clark, M.
D. The Bay-Stater's Policy The Crime of Crimes Ye Ballade of Patrick von Flynn The Issacsonio-Mortoniad On Receiving a Picture of Swans Unda. R. Kleiner, Laureatus, in Heliconem Temperance Song Lines on Gen. Robert Edward Lee Content My Lost Love The Beauties of Peace The Smile Epitaph on ye Letterr Rrr........ The Dead Bookworm On Phillips Gamwell Inspiration Respite The Rose of England The Unknown Ad Balneum On Kelso the Poet Providence Amateur Press Club to the Athenaeum Club of Journalism Brotherhood Brumalia The Poe-et's Nightmare Futurist Art On Receiving a Picture of the Marshes of Ipswich The Rutted Road An Elegy on Phillips Gamwell, Esq. Lines on Graduation from the R. I. Hospital's School of Nurses Fact and Fancy The Nymph's Reply to the Modern Business Man Pacifist War Song—1917 Percival Lowell To Mr. Lockhart, on His Poetry Britannia Victura Spring A Garden Sonnet on Myself April Iterum Conjunctae The Peace Advocate To Greece, 1917 On Receiving a Picture of ye Towne of Templeton, in the Colonie of Massachusetts-Bay, with Mount Monadnock, in New-Hampshire, Shown in the Distance The Poet of Passion Earth and Sky Ode for July Fourth, 1917 On the Death of a Rhyming Critic Prologue to "Fragments from an Hour of Inspiration" by Jonathan E.
Hoag To M. W. M. To the Incomparable Clorinda To Saccharissa, Fairest of Her Sex To Rhodoclia—Peerless among Maidens To Belinda, Favourite of the Graces To Heliodora—Sister of Cytheraea To Mistress Sophia Simple, Queen of the Cinema An American to the British Flag Autumn Nemesis Astrophobos Lines on the 25th. Anniversary of the Providence Evening News, 1892-1917 Sunset Old C
Dagon (short story)
"Dagon" is a short story by American author H. P. Lovecraft, it is one of the first stories that Lovecraft wrote as an adult. It was first published in the November 1919 edition of The Vagrant. Dagon was published in Weird Tales, it is considered by many to be one of Lovecraft's most forward-looking stories. The story is the testament of a tortured, morphine-addicted man who relates an incident that occurred during his service as an officer during World War I. In the unnamed narrator's account, his cargo ship is captured by an Imperial German sea-raider in "one of the most open and least frequented parts of the broad Pacific", he escapes on a lifeboat and drifts aimlessly, south of the equator, until he finds himself stranded on "a slimy expanse of hellish black mire which extended about in monotonous undulations as far as could see.... The region was putrid with the carcasses of decaying fish and less describable things which saw protruding from the nasty mud of the unending plain." He theorizes that this area was a portion of the ocean floor thrown to the surface by volcanic activity, "exposing regions which for innumerable millions of years had lain hidden under unfathomable watery depths."After waiting three days for the seafloor to dry out sufficiently to walk on, he ventures out on foot to find the sea and possible rescue.
After two days of walking, he reaches his goal, a hill which turns out to be a mound on the edge of an "immeasurable pit or canyon". Descending the slope, he sees a gigantic white stone object that he soon perceives to be a "well-shaped monolith whose massive bulk had known the workmanship and the worship of living and thinking creatures." The monolith, situated next to a channel of water in the bottom of the chasm, is covered in unfamiliar hieroglyphs "consisting for the most part of conventionalized aquatic symbols such as fishes, octopuses, mollusks and the like." There are "crude sculptures" depicting: men—at least, a certain sort of men. Curiously enough, they seemed to have been chiseled badly out of proportion with their scenic background; as the narrator looks at the monolith, a creature emerges from the water: With only a slight churning to mark its rise to the surface, the thing slid into view above the dark waters. Vast, Polyphemus-like, loathsome, it darted like a stupendous monster of nightmares to the monolith, about which it flung its gigantic scaly arms, the while it bowed its hideous head and gave vent to certain measured sounds.
Horrified, the mariner flees back to his stranded boat and vaguely recalls a "great storm". His next memory is of a San Francisco hospital, where he was taken after being rescued in mid-ocean by a U. S. ship. There are no reports of any Pacific upheavals, he does not expect anyone to believe his incredible story, he mentions one abortive attempt to gain understanding of his experience: Once I sought out a celebrated ethnologist, amused him with peculiar questions regarding the ancient Philistine legend of Dagon, the Fish-God. Haunted by visions of the creature, "especially when the moon is gibbous and waning", he describes his fears for the future of humanity: I cannot think of the deep sea without shuddering at the nameless things that may at this moment be crawling and floundering on its slimy bed, worshipping their ancient stone idols and carving their own detestable likenesses on submarine obelisks of water-soaked granite. I dream of a day when they may rise above the billows to drag down in their reeking talons the remnants of puny, war-exhausted mankind --of a day when the land shall sink, the dark ocean floor shall ascend amidst universal pandemonium.
With the drug that has given him "transient surcease" running out, he declares himself ready to do himself in. The story ends with the narrator rushing to the window as he hears "a noise at the door, as of some immense slippery body lumbering against it." After reading Lovecraft's juvenilia in 1917, W. Paul Cook, editor of the amateur press journal The Vagrant, encouraged him to resume writing fiction; that summer, Lovecraft wrote two stories: "The Tomb" and "Dagon". The story was inspired in part by a dream. "I dreamed that whole hideous crawl, can yet feel the ooze sucking me down!" he wrote. Critic William Fulwiler indicates that Lovecraft may have been influenced by Irvin S. Cobb's "Fishhead", a story about a strange fish-like human. Fulwiler has suggested that Lovecraft took the story's theme of "an ancient prehuman race that will someday rise to conquer humanity" from Edgar Rice Burroughs' At the Earth's Core; the story mentions the Piltdown Man, which had not been exposed by the scientific community as a fraud and hoax at the time of writing.
As to the name of the story, Lovecraft seems to be referring to the ancient Sumerian god named Dagon, the fertility god of grains and fish, because in the story, the main character makes inquiries "....regarding the ancient Philistine legend of Dagon, the Fish-God." The Sumerian deity is sometimes depicted as being part fish, or wearing a fish. Since Lovecraft was fond of references to actual archaeological discoveries in his writings from time
H. P. Lovecraft
Howard Phillips Lovecraft was an American writer who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction. He was unknown during his lifetime and published only in pulp magazines before he died in poverty, but he is now regarded as one of the most significant 20th-century authors of horror and weird fiction. Lovecraft was born in Rhode Island, where he spent most of his life. Among his most celebrated tales are The Rats in the Walls, The Call of Cthulhu, At the Mountains of Madness, The Shadow over Innsmouth, The Shadow Out of Time, all canonical to the Cthulhu Mythos. Lovecraft was never able to support himself from earnings as an author and editor, he saw commercial success elude him in his latter period, he subsisted in progressively strained circumstances in his last years. Lovecraft was born in his family home on August 1890, in Providence, Rhode Island, he was the only child of Sarah Susan Phillips Lovecraft. Though his employment is hard to discern, Lovecraft's future wife, Sonia Greene, stated that Winfield was employed by Gorham Manufacturing Company as a traveling salesman.
Susie's family was of substantial means at the time of their marriage, her father, Whipple Van Buren Phillips, being involved in many significant business ventures. In April 1893, after a psychotic episode in a Chicago hotel, Winfield was committed to Butler Hospital in Providence. Though it is not clear who reported Winfield's prior behavior to the hospital, medical records indicate that he had been "doing and saying strange things at times" for a year before his commitment. Winfield spent five years in Butler before dying in 1898, his death certificate listed the cause of death as general paresis, a term synonymous with late-stage syphilis. Susie never exhibited symptoms of the disease, leading to questions regarding the intimacy of their relationship. In 1969, Sonia Greene ventured that Susie was a "touch-me-not" wife and that Winfield, being a traveling salesmen, "took his sexual pleasures wherever he could find them." How Greene came to this opinion is unknown, as she never met Lovecraft's parents, though Lovecraft himself termed his mother a "touch-me-not" in a 1937 letter noting that, after his early childhood, she avoided all physical contact with him.
This is contrary to Susie's treatment of a young Lovecraft soon after his father's breakdown. According to the accounts of family friends, Susie doted over the young Lovecraft to a fault, pampering him and never letting him out of her sight. Throughout his life, Lovecraft maintained that his father fell into a paralytic state, due to insomnia and being overworked, remained that way until his death, it is unknown if Lovecraft was kept ignorant of his father's illness or if his remarks were intentionally misleading. After his father's hospitalization, Lovecraft resided in the family home with his mother, his maternal aunts Lillian and Annie, his maternal grandparents Whipple and Robie. Lovecraft recollected that after his father's illness his mother was "permanently stricken with grief." Whipple became a father figure to Lovecraft in this time, Lovecraft noting that his grandfather became the "centre of my entire universe." Whipple, who traveled on business, maintained correspondence by letter with the young Lovecraft who, by the age of three, was proficient at reading and writing.
When home Whipple would share weird tales of his own invention and show Lovecraft objects of art he had acquired in his European travels. Lovecraft credits Whipple with being instrumental in overcoming his fear of the dark when Whipple forced Lovecraft, at five years old, to walk through several darkened rooms in the family home, it was in this period that Lovecraft was introduced to some of his earliest literary influences such as The Rime of the Ancient Mariner illustrated by Doré, One Thousand and One Nights, a gift from his mother, Thomas Bulfinch's Age of Fable and Ovid's Metamorphoses. While there is no indication that Lovecraft was close to his grandmother Robie, her death in 1896 had a profound effect. By his own account, it sent his family into "a gloom from which it never recovered." His mother and aunts' wearing of black mourning dresses "terrified" him, it is at this time that Lovecraft five and half years old, started having nightmares that would inform his writing. He began to have recurring nightmares of beings he termed "night-gaunts".
Thirty years night gaunts would appear in Lovecraft's writing. Lovecraft's earliest known literary works began at age seven with poems restyling the Odyssey and other mythological stories. Lovecraft has said that as a child he was enamored with the Roman pantheon of gods, accepting them as genuine expressions of divinity and foregoing his Christian upbringing, he recalls, at five years old, being told Santa Claus did not exist and retorting by asking why "God is not a myth." At the age of eight he took a keen interest in the sciences astronomy and chemistry. He examined the anatomy books available to him in the family library, learning the specifics of human reproduction that had yet to be explained to him, found that it "virtually killed my interest in the subject." In 1902, according to Lovecraft's own correspondence, astronomy became a guiding influence on his world view. He began producing the periodical Rhode Island Journal of Astronomy, of which 69
Irish Americans are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. About 33 million Americans — 10.5% of the total population — reported Irish ancestry in the 2013 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau; this compares with a population of 6.7 million on the island of Ireland. Three million people separately identified as Scotch-Irish, whose ancestors were Ulster Scots and Anglo-Irish Protestant Dissenters who emigrated from Ireland to the United States. However, whether the Scotch-Irish should be considered Irish is disputed. Half of the Irish immigrants in the colonial era came from the Irish province of Ulster while the other half came from the other three provinces of Ireland. While scholarly estimates vary, the most common approximation is that 250,000 migrated to the United States from 1717 to 1775. By 1790 400,000 people of Irish birth or ancestry lived in the United States.
These early immigrants were overwhelmingly members of the Protestant minority in Ireland who descended from Scottish and English colonists and colonial administrators who had settled the Plantations of Ireland, the largest of, the Plantation of Ulster. In Ireland, they are referred to as the Ulster Scots and the Anglo-Irish and while they intermarried to some degree, they never intermarried with the native Irish Catholic population, in turn, the Irish Catholics never converted to Protestant churches during the Reformation. Of the 250,000 immigrants from Ireland to the United States between 1717 and 1775 10,000 were Catholics. By 1800, the number of Irish Catholics who had immigrated had increased in absolute terms to 20,000, but had declined in proportional terms, as one-sixth of the white population in the United States by that time was composed of those of Scotch-Irish descent. Like most Catholics in the United States at the time, these Irish Catholics settled in Maryland and Pennsylvania.
In 1700, the estimated population of Maryland was 29,600, about one-tenth of, Catholic. By 1756, the number of Catholics in Maryland had increased to 7,000, which increased further to 20,000 by 1765. In Pennsylvania, there were 3,000 Catholics in 1756 and 6,000 by 1765. By the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, there were 24,000 to 25,000 Catholics in the United States out of a total population of 3 million. However, most of the Catholic population in the United States during the colonial period came from England and France, not Ireland. Most descendants of the Protestant Irish today identify their ancestry as "American" or "Irish"; the terms "Scotch-Irish" and "Scots-Irish" were utilized in the 19th century to differentiate between Protestant Irish and the later-arriving Catholic Irish. The Scots Irish were tenant farmers, settled in Ireland by the British government during the 17th-century Plantation of Ulster; the Scots-Irish settled in the colonial "back country" of the Appalachian Mountain region, became the prominent ethnic strain in the culture that developed there.
The descendants of Scots-Irish settlers had a great influence on the culture of the Southern United States in particular and the culture of the United States in general through such contributions as American folk music and western music, stock car racing, which became popular throughout the country in the late 20th century. Irish immigrants of this period participated in significant numbers in the American Revolution, leading one British major general to testify at the House of Commons that "half the rebel Continental Army were from Ireland." Historiographer Michael J. O'Brien examined many of the muster rolls from the Revolutionary War and found quintessential native Irish surnames and possible Anglicized Irish surnames, he estimated that some 38% of those in the revolutionary army were Irish. Irish Americans signed the foundational documents of the United States—the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution—and, beginning with Andrew Jackson, served as President; the early Ulster immigrants and their descendants at first referred to themselves as "Irish," without the qualifier "Scotch."
It was not until more than a century following the surge in Irish immigration after the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s, that some descendants of the Protestant Irish began to refer to themselves as "Scots-Irish" to distinguish them from the predominantly Catholic, destitute, wave of immigrants from Ireland in that era. However, most descendants of the Scots-Irish continued to consider themselves "Irish" or "American" rather than Scots-Irish; the two groups had little initial interaction in America, as the 18th-century Ulster immigrants were predominantly Protestant and had become settled in upland regions of the American interior, while the huge wave of 19th-century Catholic immigrant families settled in the Northeast and Midwest port cities such as Boston, New York, Buffalo, or Chicago. Ho