American Alpine Journal
The American Alpine Journal is an annual magazine published by the American Alpine Club. Its mission is "to document and communicate mountain exploration." The headquarters is in Colorado. Subtitled as a compilation of "The World's Most Significant Climbs," the magazine contains feature stories about notable new routes and ascents, written by the climbers, as well as a large "Climbs and Expeditions" section containing short notes by climbers about new and noteworthy achievements; some general articles about mountaineering, mountain medicine, the mountain environment, or other topics are sometimes included. Each issue includes book reviews, memorials of deceased members, club activities; the journal was established in 1929. In 1957 and 1958, the editor was Francis P. Farquhar. From 1960 to 1995, the editor was H. Adams Carter, who brought the journal to international pre-eminence. From 1996 to 2001, the editor was Christian Beckwith. Since 2002, the editor has been John Harlin III; the overall format of the journal has changed little since at least the 1970s, but current plans include more complete worldwide coverage and electronic/online access.
Other journals of record for climbing include the Alpine Journal published by the UK Alpine Club, the Canadian Alpine Journal published by the Alpine Club of Canada, the Himalayan Journal, Iwa To Yuki, a Japanese magazine. All of these magazines are used by climbers planning expeditions those who wish to verify that a proposed route would be a new one. Entries in these journals concerning major Himalayan peaks are indexed in the Himalayan Index. In March 2007, the American Alpine Journal inaugurated free, searchable online access for its issues dating back to 1966. All earlier issues will be added. A complete index is available for free download. A complete set of the journal on DVD may be available for purchase. National Geographic Adventure Outside Official website Searchable online access Himalayan Index
Glossary of climbing terms
This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. These terms can vary between different English-speaking countries, so phrases described here may be specific to, for example, the US and UK. Abalakov thread A type of abseiling point used in winter and ice climbing. Known as V-thread. Ablation zone The area of a glacier where yearly melting exceeds the annual snow fall. Abseil The process by which a climber can descend a fixed rope. Known as Rappel. ACR An anchor method similar to a cordelette but, dynamically equalizing, it employs a rappel ring. Add-On A climbing game, played indoors, were climbers take turns creating a route adding two moves at a time. Climbers play until they reach a certain amount of falls. Adze A thin blade mounted perpendicular to the handle on an ice axe that can be used for chopping footholds. Aid climbing A style of climbing in which standing on or pulling oneself up via devices attached to fixed or placed protection is used to make upward progress.
Alpine climbing Generally climbing in the mountains. Includes a mixture of ice climbing and dry-tooling. Alpine style means carrying all gear in a backpack for multi day climbs. Alpine knee To use your knee as a way to gain ground on a climb. Alpine start To make an efficient start on a long climb by packing all your gear the previous evening and starting early in the morning well before sunrise. Altitude sickness A medical condition, observed at high altitudes. Known as Acute mountain sickness, or AMS. Typical symptoms include nausea. Symptoms dissipate by reducing altitude. American death triangle An anchor, created by connecting a closed loop of cord or webbing between two points of protection, suspending the rope from a carabiner clipped to only one strand of said anchor; this creates a triangular shape in the webbing or cord, which places massively multiplied inward forces on the protection, making it a dangerous, ineffective anchor. Anchor An arrangement of one or more pieces of gear set up to support the weight of a belay or top rope.
Approach The path or route to the start of a technical climb. Although this is a walk or, at most, a scramble it is as hazardous as the climb itself. Arête A small ridge-like feature or a sharp outward facing corner on a steep rock face Arête, a narrow ridge of rock formed by glacial erosion A method of indoor climbing, in which one is able to use such a corner as a hold. See dihedral. Arm bar locking it into place. Arqué Used to describe crimping. In this position the first set of knuckles are hyperextended and the second have a sharp angle of about 90 degrees; this combines muscular effort with soft tissue tensions. When used this position has been known to over-stress the tendons in fingers and lead to injuries. Ascend To climb a rope using aid device. Ascender A device for ascending on a rope. Aspect The direction in which a slope faces. ATC A proprietary belay device manufactured by Black Diamond. Has become common term for any tubular belay devices. ATC stood for'Air Traffic Controller'. Automatic belay A fast method for setting up a two-point anchor in sport climbing, using the climbing rope to attach to the anchor points.
Austrian floss When a climber falls in a manner where the rope that they are attached to runs through their legs. "B"-grade A grading system for bouldering problems, invented by John Gill. Now superseded by the "V" grading system. Bachar ladder A piece of training equipment used to improve core strength. Back-clipping A hazardous mistake that can be made while lead climbing; the rope is clipped into a quickdraw such that the leader's end runs underneath the quickdraw as opposed to over top of it. If the leader falls, the rope may fold directly over the gate causing it to open and release the rope from the carabiner. Back-step Stepping on a hold in such a way that the outside edge of your shoe touches the rock, while your hips are turned to the side in such a way that the outside of your hip faces into the rock. Bail To retreat from a climb. Ball Nut A type of aid protection consisting of a movable ball. Barn-door If all points of contact climber has with the wall are on a straight axis, or close to it, his body might swing uncontrollably downward around this axis, like a door on a hinge.
Bashie A copperhead intended for pounding into a crackBelay To protect a roped climber from falling by passing the rope through, or around, any type of friction enhancing belay device. Before belay devices were invented, the rope was passed around the belayer's hips to create friction. Belay device A mechanical device used to create friction. Many types of belay devices exist, including ATC, Reverso, Sticht plate and tuber; some belay devices may be used as descenders. A Munter hitch can sometimes be used instead of a belay device. Belay Loop The strongest point on the harness; this is the loop. You should not tie anything around the belay loop such as sling; the belay loop will wear more quickly. Belay off Called by belayer to confirm belay has been removed from climbing rope. Response to Off belay request. Belay on Called by belayer to confirm belay has been applied to climbing rope. Response to On belay request. Belay slave Someone that volunteers for, or is tricked into, repeated belaying duties without partaking in any of the actual c
Jim Bridwell was an American rock climber and mountaineer, active since 1965 in Yosemite Valley, but in Patagonia and Alaska. He is noted for pushing the standards of both free climbing and big-wall climbing, alpine climbing, he wrote numerous articles on climbing for leading sport publications. Bridwell is credited with over 100 First Ascents in Yosemite Valley, in addition to conducting the first one-day ascent of The Nose of El Capitan on May 26, 1975 with John Long and Billy Westbay, he founded Yosemite National Park's Search and Rescue Team, spearheaded many rescues that became textbook for search-and-rescue operations. He was a leading force in the changing techniques of climbing and an innovator/inventor of used and copied climbing gear, including copperheads and bird beaks. Jim resided in Palm Desert, California, USA, until his death on February 16, 2018 from complications of hepatitis C, which he had acquired while receiving a tattoo in Borneo during the 1980s. 1965 Entrance Exam, Arch Rock, California, USA with Chuck Pratt, Chris Fredericks and Larry Marshik 1966 Braille Book, Higher Cathedral Rock, California, USA with Chris Fredericks, Joe Faint and Brian Berry.
1967 East Face, Higher Cathedral Rock, California, USA with Chris Fredericks 1967 South Central, Washington Column, California, USA with Joe Faint 1969 Triple Direct, El Capitan, California, USA with Kim Schmitz 1971 Aquarian Wall, El Capitan, California, USA with Kim Schmitz 1971 New Dimensions, Arch Rock, California, USA with Mark Klemens 1971 Nabisco Wall, The Cookie, California, USA 1970 Vain Hope, Ribbon Falls, California, USA with Royal Robbins and Kim Schmitz 1973 Central Pillar of Frenzy, Middle Cathedral Rock, California, USA with Roger Breedlove and Ed Barry 1974 Freestone, Geek Towers, Yosemite Falls, California, USA 1975 Wailing Wall, Tuolumne Meadows, California, USA with Dale Bard and Rick Accomozo 1975 Pacific Ocean Wall, El Capitan, California, USA with Bill Westbay, Jay Fiske and Fred East 1976 Gold Ribbon, Ribbon Falls, California, USA with Mike Graham 1977 Bushido, Half Dome, California, USA with Dale Bard 1978 Sea of Dreams, El Capitan, California, USA with Dale Bard and Dave Diegelman 1978 Zenith, Half Dome, California, USA with Kim Schmitz 1979 Southeast Ridge of Cerro Torre, Argentina with Steven Brewer 1979 Northwest Face, "The Ship Prow" Kichatna Spire, Alaska Range, USA with Andy Embick 1981 Zenyatta Mondatta, El Capitan, California, USA with Peter Mayfield and Charlie Row 1981 Dance of the Woo Li Masters, East Face of The Moose's Tooth, Ruth Gorge, Alaska, USA with Mugs Stump 1982 South Face, "Sapphire Bullets of Pure Love" Pumori, Nepal with Jan Reynolds and Ned Gillette 1987 The Big Chill, Half Dome, California, USA with Peter Mayfield, Sean Plunkett and Steve Bosque 1989 Shadows, Half Dome, California, USA with Charles Row, Cito Kirkpatrick, William Westbay 1991 North Face The Eiger, Bernese Alps, Switzerland 1997 Wyoming Sheep Ranch, El Capitan, California, USA with Giovanni Groaz 1998 Heavy Metal and Tinker Toys, El Capitan, California, USA with Boulos Ayad and Tyson Hausoeffer 1998 Plastic Surgery Disaster, El Capitan, California, USA with Mark Bowling and Giovanni Groaz 1999 The Useless Emotion, The Bear's Tooth, Ruth Glacier, Alaska, USA with Terry Christensen, Glenn Dunmire, Brian Jonas and Brian McCray May 3–21, 1999 1999 Odyssey, Grand Capucin, Mont Blanc, with Giovanni Groaz 1999 Dark Star, El Capitan, California, USA with Giovanni Groaz 2001 The Beast Pillar, The Moose's Tooth, Buckskin Glacier, Alaska, USA with Spencer Pfinsten 2001 Welcome to Afghanistan, El Capitan, California, USA with Giovanni Groaz 2002 Pointless Connection, Yosemite Pointless, California, USA with Giovanni Groaz 2004 Old Guides Variation, El Capitan, California, USA with Jackson Marsten and Giovanni Groaz Bridwell, Jim.
"Brave New World". Mountain. United Kingdom: Ken Wilson. Bridwell, Jim. Climbing Big Walls. Merrillville, IN USA: ICS Books. ISBN 0-934802-59-9. Bridwell, Jim. Largo's Apprenticeship in The Best of Rock & Ice: An Anthology. Seattle WA, USA: The Mountaineers Books. Pp. 102–105. ISBN 0-89886-665-0. Bridwell, Jim. Climbing Adventures: A Climber's Passion. ICS Books. ISBN 978-0934802222. Bridwell, Jim. "The Bear's Tooth: Teaching the new dogs old tricks". American Alpine Journal. New York, NY USA: American Alpine Club. 42: 37–45. ISBN 978-0-930410-87-2. Bridwell, Jim. "Bird's Eye View". Alpinist. Jackson Wyoming, USA: Alpinist Magazine. 18. Retrieved 2008-02-09. Bridwell, Jim. "Giovanni Groaz". The Bird. Translated by Michele Radici. Milan, Italy: Versante Sud s. n. c. p. 303. ISBN 978-88-87890-76-1. Roper, Steve. Climber's Guide to Yosemite Valley. San Francisco, California, USA.: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 978-0-87156-048-3. Reid, Don. Yosemite Climbs: Big Walls. Evergreen, Colorado, USA.: Chockstone Press Press. ISBN 0-934641-54-4.
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Denali National Park and Preserve
Denali National Park and Preserve is an American national park and preserve located in Interior Alaska, centered on Denali, the highest mountain in North America. The park and contiguous preserve encompass 6,045,153 acres, larger than the state of New Hampshire. On December 2, 1980, 2,146,580-acre Denali Wilderness was established within the park. Denali's landscape is a mix of forest at the lowest elevations, including deciduous taiga, with tundra at middle elevations, glaciers and bare rock at the highest elevations; the longest glacier is the Kahiltna Glacier. Wintertime activities include dog sledding, cross-country skiing, snowmobiling; the park received 594,660 recreational visitors in 2018. Human habitation in the Denali Region extends to more than 11,000 years before the present, with documented sites just outside park boundaries dated to more than 8,000 years before present; however few archaeological sites have been documented within the park boundaries, owing to the region's high elevation, with harsh winter conditions and scarce resources compared to lower elevations in the area.
The oldest site within park boundaries is the Teklanika River site, dated to about 7130 BC. More than 84 archaeological sites have been documented within the park; the sites are characterized as hunting camps rather than settlements, provide little cultural context. The presence of Athabaskan peoples in the region is dated to 1,500 - 1,000 years before present on linguistic and archaeological evidence, while researchers have proposed that Athabaskans may have inhabited the area for thousands of years before then; the principal groups in the park area in the last 500 years include the Koyukon and Dena'ina people. Other prehistoric finds include Mesozoic fossils from the Denali Region. Studies of fossil plants from the same formation indicate the area was wet, with marshes and ponds throughout the region. In 1906, conservationist Charles Alexander Sheldon conceived the idea of preserving the Denali region as a national park, he presented the plan to his co-members of the Crockett Club. They decided that the political climate at the time was unfavorable for congressional action, that the best hope of success rested on the approval and support from the Alaskans themselves.
Sheldon wrote, "The first step was to secure the approval and cooperation of the delegate who represented Alaska in Congress."In October 1915, Sheldon took up the matter with Dr. E. W. Nelson of the Biological Survey at Washington, D. C. and with George Bird Grinnell, with a purpose to introduce a suitable bill in the coming session of Congress. The matter was taken to the Game Committee of the Boone and Crockett Club and, after a full discussion, it received the committee's full endorsement. On December 3, 1915, the plan was presented to Alaska's delegate, James Wickersham, who after some deliberation gave his approval; the plan went to the Executive Committee of the Boone and Crockett Club and, on December 15, 1915, it was unanimously accepted. The plan was thereupon endorsed by the Club and presented to Stephen Mather, Assistant Secretary of the Interior in Washington, D. C. who approved it. The bill was introduced in April, 1916, by Delegate Wickersham in the House and by Senator Key Pittman of Nevada in the Senate.
Much lobbying took place over the following year, on February 19, 1917, the bill passed. On February 26, 1917, 11 years from its conception, the bill was signed in legislation by the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, thereby creating Mount McKinley National Park. A portion of Denali, excluding the summit, was included the original park boundary. On Thanksgiving Day in 1921, the Mount McKinley Park Hotel opened. In July 1923, President Warren Harding stopped at the hotel, on a tour of the length of the Alaska Railroad, during which he drove a golden spike signaling its completion at Nenana; the hotel was the first thing. The flat-roofed, two-story log building featured exposed balconies, glass windows, electric lights. Inside were two dozen guest rooms, a shop, lunch counter and storeroom. By the 1930s, there were reports of lice, dirty linen, drafty rooms, marginal food, which led to the hotel's closing. In 1947, the park boundaries expanded to include the area of the railroad. After being abandoned for many years, the hotel was destroyed in 1950 by a fire.
There was no road access to the park entrance until 1957. Now with a highway connection to Anchorage and Fairbanks, park attendance expanded: there were 5,000 visitors in 1956 and 25,000 visitors by 1958; the park was designated an international biosphere reserve in 1976. A separate Denali National Monument was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter on December 1, 1978; the name of Mount McKinley National Park was subject to local criticism from the beginning of the park. The word Denali means "the high one" in the native Athabaskan language and refers to the mountain itself; the mountain was named after newly elected US president William McKinley in 1897 by local prospector William A. Dickey; the United States government formally adopted the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the bill creating Mount McKinley National Park into effect in 1917. In 1980, Mount McKinley National Park was combined with Denali National Monument, the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act named the combined unit the Denali National Park and Preserve.
At that time the Alaska state Board of Geographic Names changed
Herschel Clifford Parker
Herschel Clifford Parker was a United States physicist and mountaineer. He graduated from the Columbia School of Mines in 1890, receiving a degree of Ph. B. and was connected with the faculty there in 1891-1911, filling the chair of physics for some time before his resignation. He wrote Systematic Treatise on Electrical Measurements, made many contributions to scientific periodicals, he was a member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the American Physical Society, the New York Academy of Sciences, the Appalachian Mountain Club. He was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and president of the Vedanta Society of New York. Prospecting and studying mineralogy and general physics, he made explorations and first ascents in the Canadian Alps in 1897, 1899 and 1903, he participated in first ascents of the mountains Goodsir and Dawson in British Columbia, of Hungabee, Deltaform and Lefroy in Alberta. He made explorations of the Denali region in Alaska in 1906, 1910 and 1912.
He nearly succeeded in reaching the summit of the highest peak of Denali in 1912. In his 1912 attempt on Denali, he was accompanied by Belmore Browne. On an earlier attempt, he was accompanied by Frederick Cook. Parker Pass in Denali National Park is named after him
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com