The Olympic Mountains are a mountain range on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington in the United States. The western slopes are the wettest place in the 48 contiguous states, most of the mountains are protected within the bounds of the Olympic National Park. The mountains are spread out across four counties, Grays Harbor, physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which is in turn a part of the larger Pacific Mountain System. The Olympics have the form of a cluster of steep-sided peaks surrounded by heavily forested foothills and they are surrounded by water on three sides, separated from the Pacific by the 20 to 35 km wide coastal plain. The general form of the range is more or less circular, or somewhat horseshoe-shaped, rivers radiate outwards to all sides. Of this 95% is part of the Olympic Wilderness, State parks and wildlife areas occur in the lower elevations. Precipitation varies greatly throughout the range, from the wet western slopes to the eastern ridges.
140 to 170 inches of rain falls on the Hoh Rainforest annually, areas to the northeast of the mountains are located in a rain shadow and receive as little as 16 in of precipitation. Annual precipitation increases to about 30 in on the edges of the shadow around Port Townsend, the San Juan Islands. 80% of precipitation falls during the winter, on the coastal plain, the winter temperature stays between −2 to 7 °C. During the summer it warms up to stay between 10 and 24 °C, as a consequence of the high precipitation is the large number of snowfields and glaciers, reaching down to 1,500 m above sea level. There are about 184 glaciers crowning the Olympics peaks, the most prominent glaciers are those on Mount Olympus covering approximately 10 square miles. Beyond the Olympic complex are the glaciers of Mount Carrie, the Bailey Range, Mount Christie, the Olympics are made up of obducted clastic wedge material and oceanic crust. They are primarily Eocene sandstones and basaltic oceanic crust, unlike the Cascades, the Olympic Mountains are not volcanic, and contain no granite.
Millions of years ago and fissures opened under the Pacific Ocean and lava flowed forth, creating underwater mountains. Some of the sea floor, was scraped off and jammed against the mainland, all this occurred under water, the Olympics began to rise above the sea only 10–20 million years ago. The Olympics were shaped in the Pleistocene era by both alpine and continental glaciers advancing and retreating multiple times, the valleys of the Hoh and Quinault rivers are typical U-shaped valleys carved by advancing alpine glaciers. Piles of talus and rockfall were created by retreating alpine glaciers, in the high mountains, the major rivers have their headwaters in alpine glacially carved cirques
Magnuson Park is a 350 acres park on Sand Point at Pontiac Bay, Lake Washington, in the Sand Point neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. The park is the second largest in Seattle, after 534 acres Discovery Park in Magnolia and it is located on the spot of the former Naval Station Puget Sound. Sand Point is the peninsula with Pontiac and Wolf bays that juts into Lake Washington in northeast Seattle, Sand Point is a peninsula that juts into Lake Washington between Wolf Bay and Pontiac Bay. It is occupied by Magnuson Park, parts of View Ridge, formerly the easternmost point was Naval Air Station-Sand Point, the former military base is now mostly public park with a portion occupied by the NOAA western regional center and by city housing. The area has been inhabited since the end of the last glacial period, prairie or tall grassland areas were maintained along what is now Sand Point Way NE, among numerous locations in what is now Seattle. The Xacuabš had the village of TLEHLS on the shores of what is now called Wolf Bay in Windermere, on Lake Washington south of SqWsEb, bEbqwabEks was near what is now Windermere.
One or three longhouses have been documented. These people may have associated with the hloo-weelh-AHBSH of Union Bay. The first park at Sand Point was established in 1900 as Carkeek Park, after World War I, a movement was begun to build Naval Air Station Seattle at Sand Point, and King County began acquiring surrounding parcels. In 1922 the U. S. Navy began construction on the site, which it was leasing from the county, the name Carkeek Park was subsequently given to a new park on the west side of the city, north of Ballard on Puget Sound. This deed amounted to a gift of $500,000 from the county to the Navy, in 1926 dollars. The facility became known Naval Air Station Sand Point, Naval Air Station Seattle was deactivated in 1970 and the airfield was shut down, the reduced base was renamed Naval Support Activity Seattle. Negotiations began as to who would receive the surplus property, in 1975 a large portion of the Navys land was given to the City of Seattle and to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
The citys land was developed as a park and named Sand Point Park. In 1977, it was renamed Magnuson Park in honor of longtime U. S, senator Warren Magnuson, a former naval officer from Seattle. Both names for the park are commonly used, the airfield runways were demolished in the late 1970s and new construction on the north end for NOAA was completed in 1982. Vehicle access includes boat ramps and large parking lots for cars, trucks. The park has a history of unofficial clothing-optional use since the mid-1970s, the Sports Meadow, a 12 acres natural grass athletic field area, was developed in the early 1980s near the center of the former main runway
Fort Lawton was a United States Army post located in the Magnolia neighborhood of Seattle, Washington overlooking Puget Sound. In 1973 a large majority of the property,534 acres of Fort Lawton, was given to the city of Seattle, both the Fort and the nearby residential neighborhood of Lawton Wood are named after Maj. Gen. Henry Ware Lawton. While Fort Lawton was a quiet outpost prior to World War II, it became the second largest port of embarkation of soldiers, the fort was included in the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure list. Fort Lawton officially closed on September 14,2011, in 1896, the Secretary of War selected what would be Fort Lawton for construction of an artillery battery intended to defend Seattle and the south Puget Sound from naval attack. Local citizens and governments donated 703 acres land to the United States Army for the installation the next year. Fort Lawton was named after Maj. Gen. Henry Ware Lawton, a veteran of the American Civil War, the Indian Wars, and Spanish–American War campaigns, who was killed in action in the Philippines.
The fort opened on February 9,1900 on a 1,100 acres site, in 1910, a design overhaul, to include housing for officers and enlisted men, was prepared by landscape architect John C. In 1938 during the Great Depression, the Army offered to sell Fort Lawton back to the city of Seattle for one dollar, but the city declined, citing maintenance concerns. During World War II, at least 20,000 troops at a time were stationed at Fort Lawton and it was the second-largest port of embarkation for US forces and material to the Pacific Theater during the war. The post was used as a prisoner-of-war camp, with more than 1,000 Germans imprisoned there. Approximately 5,000 Italians were passed through en route to Hawaii for imprisonment, on August 15,1944 an Italian POW, Guglielmo Olivotto, was found murdered at Fort Lawton after a night of rioting between Italian POWs and American soldiers. Twenty-eight African-American soldiers were court-martialed, convicted of the crime and they and their families challenged the convictions, after an investigation, the convictions were set aside in 2007.
On Memorial Day 1951, a grove of trees and monument honoring the war dead was dedicated near the post chapel, the Korean War brought a flurry of activity as troops headed to or returned from Korea were processed through Fort Lawton. In February 1953, the Fort Lawton Processing Center transferred half of its functions, returnees continued to process through Fort Lawton. The Army surplussed 534 acres in 1971, the property was transferred back to the city in 1972, and dedicated as Discovery Park in 1973. In 2005, the fort was included in the Base Realignment, Fort Lawtons family housing has been used by the U. S. Navy for Navy and Coast Guard personnel for almost 40 years. It is currently being vacated, with the officer and NCO housing scheduled to be sold to the public when the market improves. The Capehart Housing in the center of the park was vacated by December 2009 and demolished during the summer of 2010, a closing ceremony took place on February 25,2012
Edmond S. Meany
Edmond S. Meany was a professor of botany and history at the University of Washington. He was an alumnus of the university, having graduated as the valedictorian of his class in 1885, Meany earned a Master of Science from the University of Washington in 1899, and a Master of Letters from the University of Wisconsin in 1901. He was elected as a Washington state legislator for the 1891 and 1893 sessions, Meany was an active supporter of the local Boy Scouts of America organization, the Seattle Area Council. From 1906 until his death, he served as managing editor of the Washington Historical Quarterly, from 1908 until his death, he served as president of the Mountaineers, a hiking and climbing club. In 1926 he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws from the College of Puget Sound, Meany Ski Hut at the East side of Stampede Pass, owned by The Seattle Mountaineers. Governors of Washington and State, Washington State Librarys Classics in Washington History collection. History of the State of Washington, Edmond S.
Mount Rainier, A Record of Exploration. Washington State Librarys Classics in Washington History collection, History of the University of Washington. Seattle Washington, University of Washington Press, George A. Seattles Historian and Promoter, The Life of Edmond Stephen Meany. At the University of Washington Libraries Special Collections, at the University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Includes images of Edmond S. Meany, Works by Edmond S. Meany at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Edmond S. Meany at Internet Archive
Asahel Curtis was a Pacific Northwest photographer. Asahel Curtis was born in 1874 in Ohio to Johnson Asahel Curtis, a reverend, Asahels father was Johnson Asahel Curtis who was a clergyman, and an American Civil War veteran. He was born in Ohio and his father was born in Canada, Asahels mother was Ellen Sheriff who was born in New York City, and both her parents were born in England. Asahel had the following siblings, Raphael Curtis aka Ray Curtis, Eva Curtis, in 1880 the family was living in Cordova, Le Sueur County and Johnson Curtis was working as a retail grocer. When Edward and Asahel were just teenagers, a camera was the only suggestion of what their future professions would be when they moved to Washington Territory. In 1885 at the age of seventeen Edward took his interest in photography and became a photographer in St. Paul. When the Curtis family moved to Washington in 1888, Edward, as their careers grew, their choice of subjects became increasingly different. Edward spent 33 years documenting the life of the Native American Indians.
Asahel photographed Washingtons natural resources and their industries, as well as the early cities of Washington state, historic events. Asahels brother, Edward Sheriff Curtis, supported the family by opening a studio in Seattle. In 1897, the brothers agreed that Asahel should go to the Yukon, Asahel remained there for two years, alternately taking pictures and working a small and largely unproductive claim. Asahel launched his career with that two-year trip to Alaska. Charles Ainsworth, his partner, was among the many gold-seeking miners Asahel photographed between 1897 and 1899. After working together for a few years and Asahel parted ways forever after a disagreement over the rights to Asahels Yukon photos. From on, the brothers traveled separate paths, Edward concentrated on securing funding for the North American Indian project through lectures and photograph showings. Edward became recognized for his twenty-volume series of photographs of Native Americans. Asahel enjoyed a career as a photographer, although he did not receive the acclaim that Edward did.
He married Florence Carney in 1902, in 1911, Asahel established his own studio in Seattle and employed a team of developers and colorists, including his sister Eva
Stevens Pass Ski Area
The Stevens Pass Ski Area is a ski area located at the crest of Stevens Pass in the Cascade Range of Washington, United States. The base elevation is at 4,061 feet with the peak at 5,845 feet, the Mill Valley backside of the resort drops to a minimum elevation of 3,821 feet. Total skiable terrain includes 37 major runs covering 1,125 acres, Stevens Pass offers a variety of alpine ski runs ranging from beginner to advanced. Because there is no lodging at the base, Stevens is a day resort drawing heavily on skiers from the Seattle area, night skiing is offered until 10pm most days during mid-season. The area is divided into front and back sides, daisy is a beginners triple lift that offers access to beginner terrain directly in the middle of the ski area. Hogsback is a high-speed quad providing access to runs and some more advanced tree runs. Skyline is a quad that offers the longest intermediate runs on the front side of the mountain. Brooks is a double lift that primarily provides access to the terrain park.
There are 3 higher chairlifts on the front side, Seventh Heaven is a double that accesses double-black diamond runs near the top of Cowboy Mountain and is accessed by the Skyline lift. The backside provides a natural environment with lots of sparsely treed runs. The backside features two lifts that load from the immediate area, Jupiter Express - a high-speed quad that unloads next to the top of Tye Mill. Southern Cross - a fixed triple that is the same physical lift as Double Diamond on the frontside, the Stevens Pass Nordic Center provides access to 28 km of groomed cross-country ski trails of varying difficulty. The ski resort was started by Don Adams and Bruce Kehr, the original lodge was constructed in 1937 by the CCC, a government funded work force. In 1940 this lodge burned down, out of a group of 16 experienced skiers, three men, Chris Rudolph, age 30, Johnny Brenan,41, and Jim Jack, age 46, were killed in an avalanche at Stevens Pass on February 19,2012. The avalanche occurred in an unmaintained back-country area known as Tunnel Creek, in June 2007, a Master Plan was submitted to the Forest Service describing proposed future expansions and upgrades over the next ten years.
Improve the mountain experience at Stevens Pass by diversifying its terrain offering, including a variety of trail width and aspect, as well as gladed terrain of varying difficulty. Increase the Comfortable Carrying Capacity of both the ski trails and the ski lifts to better match actual demand, making use of the majority of terrain that is now underdeveloped. Balance the ski terrain skill max to match the market, within the limitations imposed by the Stevens Pass terrain, provide additional in-bounds and hike to adventure skiing opportunities
University of Washington
The University of Washington, commonly referred to as simply Washington, UW, or informally U-Dub, is a public flagship research university in Seattle, United States. Founded in 1861, Washington is one of the oldest universities on the West Coast, the university has three campuses, the oldest and largest in the University District of Seattle and two others in Tacoma and Bothell. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked among the top 15 universities in the world by a variety of international publications. In athletics, the university competes in the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference and its athletic teams are called the Huskies. Seattle was one of several settlements in the mid to late 19th century vying for primacy in the new Washington Territory, in 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in Washington. Several prominent Seattle-area residents, chief among them Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley and they convinced early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature Arthur A.
Denny of the importance of Seattle winning the school. When no site emerged, the legislature, encouraged by Denny, in 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as the campus for a new university. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, and fellow pioneers Edward Lander and Charlie and this tract was bounded by 4th and 6th Avenues on the west and east and Union and Seneca Streets on the north and south. UW opened on November 4,1861, as the Territorial University of Washington, the following year, the legislature passed articles incorporating the University and establishing a Board of Regents. The school struggled initially, closing three times, in 1863 for lack of students, and again in 1867 and 1876 due to shortage of funds. However, Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt became the first graduate of UW in 1876 when she graduated from UW with a degree in science. By the time Washington entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially, enrollment increased from 30 students to nearly 300, and the relative isolation of the campus had given way to encroaching development.
A special legislative committee headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany was created to find a new campus able to serve the growing student population. The committee selected a site on Union Bay northeast of downtown, the university relocated from downtown to the new campus in 1895, moving into the newly built Denny Hall. The regents tried and failed to sell the old campus, the University still owns what is now called the Metropolitan Tract. In the heart of the city, it is among the most valuable pieces of estate in Seattle. The original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908 and its former site houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel. The sole surviving remnants of UWs first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar and they were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany—one of the Universitys first graduates and the former head of the history department
The Mazamas is a mountaineering organization based in Portland, United States, founded in 1894. The name Mazamas means mountain goat, from Nahuatl mazatl, Mount Mazama, the collapsed volcano that formed Crater Lake, is located in Oregon and was named after the organization on August 21,1896 when they christened it as such while on their annual outing. They named the Mazama Glacier on Mount Adams and the Mazama Glacier on Mount Baker after themselves in 1895 and 1907 respectively and it was founded 19 July 1894 on the summit of Mount Hood. Charter members had responded to an advertisement in the Morning Oregonian of 12 June 1894 announcing a meeting at the summit, in all,105 men and women were founders. Soon after, members made pioneering climbs throughout Oregon and Washington, the Mazamas has been an important part of the climbing community in the Pacific Northwest of the United States since its founding. The Mazamas is similar in its aims and activities to The Mountaineers of Seattle, the Mazamas offers more than 900 hikes and 350 climbs annually for more than 13,000 participants. A variety of classes and activities are offered for every skill, the group promotes mountaineering through education, hiking, fellowship and the protection of mountain environments
Mount Olympus (Washington)
Mount Olympus is the tallest and most prominent mountain in the Olympic Mountains of western Washington state. Located on the Olympic Peninsula, it is the feature of Olympic National Park. Mount Olympus is the highest summit of the Olympic Mountains, peaks such as Mount Constance, with notable local relief, Mount Olympus ascends over 2,100 m from the 293 m elevation confluence of the Hoh River with Glacier Creek in only 8.8 km. Mount Olympus has 2,386 m of prominence, ranking 5th in the state of Washington, due to heavy winter snowfalls, Mount Olympus supports large glaciers, despite its modest elevation and relatively low latitude. These glaciers include Blue, Humes, Hubert, Black Glacier, and White, the largest is Blue with a volume of 0.14 cubic miles and area of 2.05 square miles. The local Native American name for the peak is Sunh-a-do, and upon sighting in 1774 by the Spanish explorer Juan Pérez and this is said to be the first time a European named a geographic feature in what is now Washington state.
In 1788, on July 4, the British explorer John Meares gave the mountain its present name, on March 2,1909, Mount Olympus National Monument was proclaimed by President Theodore Roosevelt. On June 28,1938, it was designated a park by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1976 the Olympic National Park became an International Biosphere Reserve, in 1981 it was designated a World Heritage Site. In 1988 Congress designated 95% of the park as the Olympic Wilderness, List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of Ultras of the United States List of highest points in Washington by county Mount Olympus. The Mountaineers,1920 Outing to Mt. Olympus - University of Washington Library The Mountaineers Photography - University of Washington Library
National Library of Australia
In 2012–2013, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia, from its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a truly national collection. The present library building was opened in 1968, the building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden. The foyer is decorated in marble, with windows by Leonard French. In 2012–2013 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, the Librarys collections of Australiana have developed into the nations single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are actively sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas, approximately 92. 1% of the Librarys collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue.
The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, and maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson, the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Librarys considerable collections of general overseas and rare materials, as well as world-class Asian. The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings, the Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection. The Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers, williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Librarys catalogue. The National Library holds a collection of pictures and manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space, the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific.
The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have received as part of formed book collections. Examples are the papers of Alfred Deakin, Sir John Latham, Sir Keith Murdoch, Sir Hans Heysen, Sir John Monash, Vance Palmer and Nettie Palmer, A. D. Hope, Manning Clark, David Williamson, W. M. The Library has acquired the records of many national non-governmental organisations and they include the records of the Federal Secretariats of the Liberal party, the A. L. P, the Democrats, the R. S. L. Finally, the Library holds about 37,000 reels of microfilm of manuscripts and archival records, mostly acquired overseas and predominantly of Australian, the National Librarys Pictures collection focuses on Australian people and events, from European exploration of the South Pacific to contemporary events. Art works and photographs are acquired primarily for their informational value, media represented in the collection include photographs, watercolours, lithographs, engravings and sculpture/busts
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa