The Battle of Chosin
The Battle of Chosin is a 2016 American documentary film about the Battle of Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War. The film was distributed on the PBS network, it premiered on November 1, 2016 as part of the American Experience series
Freedom Summer (film)
Freedom Summer is a 2014 American documentary film, written and directed by Stanley Nelson Jr. The film had its world premiere at 2014 Sundance Film Festival on January 17, 2014, it won the Best Documentary award at 2014 Pan African Film Festival. The film had its U. S. television premiere at PBS on June 24, 2014. The film narrates the events of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer, when more than 700 student activists took segregated Mississippi by storm because of underscored by the systematic exclusion of African Americans from the political process. Robert Parris Moses of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee developed a campaign to bring a thousand volunteers to canvassed for voter registration, creating freedom schools and establishing the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Freedom Summer received positive reviews from critics. Rob Nelson of Variety, said in his review that "A well-shaped and powerful reminder of a time in recent American history when white supremacy was decisively and courageously undercut."
Duane Byrge in his review for The Hollywood Reporter praised the film by saying that "veteran filmmaker Stanley Nelson has crafted a searing portrait of those violent, racist times. Intelligently composed and powerfully driven, Freedom Summer is a stirring historical document, it would seem an essential addition for any university library." Dawn Baumgartner Vaughan of Herald Sun, about the film said that ""Freedom Summer," for those who were born after 1964, brings home a time when wanting to vote meant threats of death on one extreme end, losing your job on the other. It's a reminder why any new restrictions on voting, in particular those that impact African-American voters, are worth close scrutiny." Civil rights movement in popular culture Freedom Summer on IMDb Freedom Summer at Rotten Tomatoes
The Tallahatchie River is a river in Mississippi which flows 230 miles from Tippah County, through Tallahatchie County, to Leflore County, where it joins the Yalobusha River to form the Yazoo River. The river is navigable for about 100 miles. Tallahatchie is a Choctaw name meaning "rock of waters." The sources of the Tallahatchie River have outcrops of iron sandstone. As part of the Flood Control Act of 1936, the federal government built an earth-filled flood control dam on the Tallahatchie near the town of Sardis, creating Sardis Lake. Coldwater River Old Yocona River Yocona River Canal Little Tallahatchie River Old Little Tallahatchie River Panola Quitman Floodway McIvor Drainage Canal Tippah River Cassidy Bayou Black Bayou Ascalmore Creek Tillatoba Creek The river is mentioned in "Tallahatchie River Blues," recorded by Mattie Delaney in 1930; this blues song laments the devastation caused in the local African-American community by a flood on the shallow river. The river is 50 ft deep with sharp rocks.
The river has historical significance due to the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, an African-American youth visiting from Chicago, brutally murdered by white men in Money, Mississippi for being impolite to a white woman. He was beaten and sunk in the river with a cotton gin fan tied around his neck by barbed wire; this event is mentioned in the song, "Freedom Highway" by The Staple Singers, in the lines, "Found dead people in the forests, Tallahatchie River and lakes... whole world is wondering, what's wrong with the United States?"The eponymous wooden bridge over the river was popularized in Bobbie Gentry's 1967 hit song "Ode to Billie Joe," which has the refrain, "Billie Joe McAllister jumped off the Tallahatchie bridge." A film was titled Ode to Billy Joe. The wooden bridge collapsed in 1972 after being set alight by vandals, it crossed the Tallahatchie River at Money, about ten miles north of Mississippi. The bridge has since been replaced. List of rivers of Mississippi "Tallahatchie, a river of Mississippi".
The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Command and Control (film)
Command and Control is a 2016 American documentary film directed by Robert Kenner and based on the 2013 non-fiction book of the same name by Eric Schlosser. It was released in the United States at the Tribeca Film Festival and in the United Kingdom at the Sheffield Doc/Fest on June 11, 2016, it is based on the 1980 Damascus Titan missile explosion in Damascus, Arkansas between September 18–19, 1980. The film aired on the PBS network series American Experience on January 10, 2017, it received a score of 78% on Metacritic and won the award for Best Documentary Screenplay from the Writers Guild of America. Parts of the film were filmed at the Titan Missile Museum in Arizona. Command and Control on IMDb
Adam Clayton Powell (film)
Adam Clayton Powell is a 1989 American documentary film directed by Richard Kilberg about American politician Adam Clayton Powell Jr. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, it was aired as part of the PBS series The American Experience. Adam Clayton Powell on IMDb Adam Clayton Powell at Docurama
Daughter from Danang
Daughter from Đà Nẵng is a 2002 documentary film about an Amerasian, Heidi Bub, born on December 10, 1968, in Danang in southern Vietnam, one of the children brought to the United States from Vietnam in 1975 during "Operation Babylift" at the end of the Vietnam War. Heidi Neville Bub was born on December 1968 in Danang as Mai Thi Hiep, her mother, Mai Thi Kim had three children and was estranged from her husband Do Huu Vinh, who had left her to fight with the Viet Cong. She was working at an American military base where she met an American serviceman; when the North Vietnamese army came closer to Danang, Mai Thi Kim feared for Heidi's safety due to rumors of retaliation against mixed-race children. At the age of six, Heidi was sent to the United States and placed in an orphanage run by the Holt Adoption Agency. Heidi was soon adopted by Ann Neville, a single and religious American woman who renamed her Heidi, they spent a year in South Carolina before permanently settling in Pulaski, Tennessee.
Neville told Heidi that her parents had died in the war, not to tell anyone she'd been born out of wedlock. She was instructed to tell people she had been born in the US and not Vietnam, that she was white and not biracial; as Heidi got older, Neville did not have friends. She considered. After Heidi's freshman year of college, she returned home to find all of her belongings packed up outside. Neville told that she no longer had a daughter, it is revealed at the start of the documentary that Heidi has remained estranged from her adoptive mother. Heidi is now married and has two young daughters of her own, but the rejection from her adoptive mother is still painful, she hopes. Heidi contacts the Holt Adoption Agency, learns that her biological mother, Mai Thi Kim, sent them a letter in 1991 asking about Heidi's whereabouts; the agency had forwarded this information to Ann Neville. Now that she knows her biological mother was trying to find her, Heidi decides to return to Vietnam, assisted by journalist Tran Tuong Nhu.
Upon meeting, Mai Thi and Heidi hug and cry tears of joy, but this reunion soon gives way to culture shock. Heidi has no prior knowledge of Vietnamese customs, language or culture. Mai Thi expects to spend every moment with Heidi sleeping beside her at night, her other family members want to touch or hug her. This rattles Heidi, she is uncomfortable among the crowded conditions in the markets. The unrelenting invasion of her personal space makes Heidi feel overwhelmed, she discovers that her family lives in abject poverty, they have been taking care of Mai Thi for years. Heidi's half-brother is the head of the family, informs her that it is now her turn to care for their mother. Mai Thi tells Heidi. Heidi is rattled by this unexpected request, replies that taking Mai Thi to America is not feasible, her half-brother tells Heidi that if she cannot take Mai Thi with her she is expected to send them money regularly. Heidi walks out of their home in tears. Given their cultural differences, her family does not understand why the requests upset her, one relative remarks that Heidi cries too much.
Heidi's guide explains to her that it is common for Vietnamese nationals in America to provide money for their families remaining in Vietnam. Heidi maintains that she knows her Vietnamese family, feels she is being exploited, she decides to return to America ahead of schedule, feeling more emotional conflict than before. Months after Heidi's visit, she says she gets letters from her family in Vietnam, but they are all requests for money, she has not replied to their letters. As of mid-2012, Heidi has had no further contact with her Vietnamese family; the film won the Grand Jury Prize for Documentary at the Sundance Film Festival and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. 2002 Sundance Film Festival, Grand Jury Prize Best Documentary San Francisco International Film Festival, Golden Gate Award Grand Prize, Best Bay Area Documentary Ojai Film Festival, Best Documentary Feature Durango Film Festival, Filmmakers Award 2002 Texas Film Festival, Best Documentary and Audience Choice Award New Jersey International Film Festival, Best Documentary Nashville International Film Festival, Honorable Mention - Best Documentary Cleveland International Film Festival, Runner Up - Best Film Chautard, Andre, "Vietnam heartbreak", Los Angeles Times, November 15, 2002 Official site Transcript of the film - PBS Daughter from Đà Nẵng from PBS's American Experience Daughter from Đà Nẵng on IMDb Daughter from Đà Nẵng at AllMovie
Montgomery bus boycott
The Montgomery bus boycott was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. It was a seminal event in the civil rights movement; the campaign lasted from December 5, 1955 — the Monday after Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person — to December 20, 1956, when the federal ruling Browder v. Gayle took effect, led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws that segregated buses were unconstitutional. Many important figures in the civil rights movement took part in the boycott, including Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and Ralph Abernathy. Prior to the bus boycott, Jim Crow laws mandated the racial segregation of the Montgomery Bus Line; as a result of this segregation African Americans were not hired as drivers, were forced to ride in the back of the bus, were ordered to surrender their seats to white people though black passengers made up 75% of the bus system's riders.
African-American passengers were attacked by bus drivers and shortchanged and left stranded after paying their fares. A number of reasons have been given for why bus drivers acted in this manner, including racism, frustrations over labor disputes and labor conditions, increased animosity towards blacks in reaction to the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, with many of the drivers joining the White Citizens Councils as a result of the decision; the boycott took place within a larger statewide and national movement for civil rights, including court cases such as Morgan v. Virginia, the earlier Baton Rouge bus boycott, the arrest of Claudette Colvin for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus; the NAACP had accepted and litigated other cases, including that of Irene Morgan in 1946, which resulted in a victory in the U. S. Supreme Court on the grounds that segregated interstate bus lines violated the Commerce Clause; that victory, overturned state segregation laws only insofar as they applied to travel in interstate commerce, such as interstate bus travel, Southern bus companies circumvented the Morgan ruling by instituting their own Jim Crow regulations.
Further incidents continued to take place in Montgomery, including the arrest for disorderly conduct in May 1951 of Lillie Mae Bradford, who refused to leave the white passengers' section until the bus driver corrected an incorrect charge on her transfer ticket. On February 25, 1953, the Baton Rouge, Louisiana city-parish council passed Ordinance 222, after the city saw protesting from African-Americans when the council raised the city's bus fares; the ordinance abolished race-based reserved seating requirements and allowed the admission of African-Americans in the front sections of city buses if there were no white passengers present, but still required African-Americans to enter from the rear, rather than the front of the buses. However, the ordinance was unenforced by the city bus drivers; the drivers went on strike after city authorities refused to arrest Rev. T. J. Jemison for sitting in a front row. Four days after the strike began, Louisiana Attorney General and former Baton Rouge mayor Fred S. LeBlanc declared the ordinance unconstitutional under Louisiana state law.
This led Rev. Jemison to organize what historians believe to be the first bus boycott of the civil rights movement; the boycott ended after eight days when an agreement was reached to only retain the first two front and back rows as racially reserved seating areas. Black activists had begun to build a case to challenge state bus segregation laws around the arrest of a 15-year-old girl, Claudette Colvin, a student at Booker T. Washington High School in Montgomery. On March 2, 1955, Colvin was handcuffed and forcibly removed from a public bus when she refused to give up her seat to a white man. At the time, Colvin was an active member in the NAACP Youth Council. Colvin's legal case formed the core of Browder v. Gayle, which ended the Montgomery bus boycott when the Supreme Court ruled on it in December 1956. In August 1955, scarce months before Parks' refusal to give up a seat on the bus that led to the Montgomery bus boycott, a 14-year-old boy from Chicago named Emmett Till was murdered by two white men, John W. Milam and Roy Bryant.
The picture of his brutally beaten body in the open-casket funeral that his mother requested was publicized by the weekly newspaper Jet, which circulated to much of the black community in the Deep South. His killers' acquittal generated massive outrage, both domestically and internationally, they subsequently admitted they had indeed murdered the boy in an interview on January 24, published in Look magazine. In November 1955, just three weeks before Parks' defiance of Jim Crow laws in Montgomery, the Interstate Commerce Commission, in response to a complaint filed by Women's Army Corps private Sarah Keys, closed the legal loophole left by the Morgan ruling in a landmark case known as Keys v. Carolina Coach Co.. The ICC prohibited individual carriers from imposing their own segregation rules on interstate travelers, declaring that to do so was a violation of the anti-discrimination provision of the Interstate Commerce Act, but neither the Supreme Court's Morgan ruling nor the ICC's Keys ruling addressed the matter of Jim Crow travel within the individual states.
Under the system of segregation used on Montgomery buses, the ten front seats were reserved for whites at all times. The ten back seats were supposed to be reserved for blacks at all times; the middle section of the bus consisted of sixteen unreserved seats for whites and blacks on a segregated basis. Whites filled the middle seats from the front to back, blacks filled