Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
The Authority (comics)
The Authority is a superhero comic book series published by DC Comics under the Wildstorm imprint. It was created by Warren Ellis and Bryan Hitch, follows the adventures of the Authority, a superhero team composed of Ellis-created characters from Stormwatch; the founding members of the Authority were: Jenny Sparks, "The Spirit of the Twentieth Century". Apollo, "The Sun God". Midnighter a.k.a. Lucas Trent, "Night's Bringer of War"; the Doctor a.k.a. Jeroen Thornedike, "The Shaman"; the second Engineer a.k.a. Angela Spica, "The Maker". Jack Hawksmoor, "The God of Cities". Swift a.k.a. Shen Li-Min, "The Winged Huntress". Following the Outer Dark storyarc, Jenny Sparks was replaced with: Jenny Quantum, "The Spirit of the 21st Century". After the Revolution maxi-series, new members of the Authority included: The Doctor a.k.a. Habib ben Hassan, "The Shaman". Beginning with #18 of volume four the team roster underwent a major change. Jack Hawksmoor and Engineer remained on the team, where they were joined by new members: Synergy a.k.a.
Christine Trelane. Deathblow a.k.a. Michael Cray. Flint a.k.a. Victoria Ngengi. Freefall a.k.a. Roxanne Spaulding. Grifter a.k.a. Cole Cash; the High a.k.a. John Cumberland. Sarah Rainmaker; the Authority's base of operations is the Carrier, a sentient, interdimensional "shiftship" existing everywhere on Earth at the same time and capable of moving through every imaginable plane of existence. In 1999, Warren Ellis and Bryan Hitch created the Authority, a team of superheroes who got the job done by any means necessary; the original line-up consisted of Jenny Sparks, a British woman who could generate and turn into electricity. On the creation of the series, Ellis noted "One of the reasons I turned their STORMWATCH into THE AUTHORITY is that I found out that, despite the fact that no-one was buying STORMWATCH, they kept it going because they liked reading it in the office and wanted to keep me employed, and I felt so bloody awful about that, at the same time had been so struck by Bryan Hitch’s STORMWATCH issues, that the train of thought that led to THE AUTHORITY began."
The Ellis/Hitch run of The Authority lasted 12 issues, divided into three four-issue storyarcs: The Circle and Outer Dark. They showed dangerous enemies such as an international terrorist seen in Stormwatch. Replacing Ellis and Hitch after issue # 12 were artist Frank Quitely. During the Millar/Quitely run, the Authority was now under Jack Hawksmoor's leadership following Jenny Sparks' death at the end of the 20th Century, they faced multiple foes such as a mad scientist and his army of superhumans who wanted to influence the 21st Century through Jenny Sparks' successor Jenny Quantum, a previous Doctor who manipulated the Earth itself, a duplicate team of superheroes modeled on the Authority, created and backed by the G7 group of nations. During the run, Jenny Quantum was adopted by Apollo and Midnighter after they were married and the Doctor worked through his heroin addiction after faltering in battle. A number of panels and covers during the Millar/Quitely run, published in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, were censored by DC Comics.
The team's unilateral military interventionism was compared to the U. S. invasion of Iraq. The series was subsequently restarted, was written by Robbie Morrison with art by Dwayne Turner; this incarnation of the series lasted for 15 issues. Prior to issue 10, the series was part of the "Coup d'état" crossover that included The Authority, Stormwatch: Team Achilles and Wildcats v3.0. The crossover revolved around the Authority taking over the United States of America; the series was again restarted in October 2004 as The Authority: Revolution, a twelve issue mini-series written by Ed Brubaker and drawn by Dustin Nguyen and Richard Friend that focused on the troubles the Authority faced as the rulers of America. In February 2006, it was announced that Grant Morrison would write The Authority Volume 3, with art by Gene Ha; the series was intended to be published bimonthly, beginning in October 2006. Morrison "cited Warren Ellis’s original run as an approach he wants to return to, saying his new approach will allow the team to be effectual again".
Morrison and Ha's first issue was released in December 2006. It followed a family man named Ken in his search for a downed submarine that encountered something massive and unexpected in the depths of the ocean that caus
Judge Grice was a fictional character in the Judge Dredd comic strip in 2000 AD. Created in 1990 by John Wagner and Steve Dillon, Grice had his own spin-off series, Purgatory by Mark Millar and Carlos Ezquerra. A minor supporting character and one of Dredd's colleagues, he became a notable villain, at first with good intentions, but he descended into psychosis and became evil. In the Judge Dredd story "Inferno" he seized control of Mega-City One and proclaimed himself chief judge. Grice was a distinguished and charismatic street judge in Mega-City One, holding the rank of Senior Judge. During Necropolis in 2112, he had been one of the judges brainwashed into serving the Dark Judges. In a meeting of senior judges after the crisis, he and his colleagues were left unimpressed with the mental state of the returning Chief Judge McGruder and he mocked her in front of everyone, he went on to advocate a tightening of judicial control in the face of public outrage at the Justice Department's failures during Necropolis.
However, Judge Dredd persuaded McGruder to permit the citizens to vote in a referendum about whether the Judges should continue to rule the city, or whether democratic government should be restored. Grice was left outraged and argued against it: when he pointed out Dredd was "outvoted", Dredd snapped back "you don't believe in voting, Grice" and forced his view on the rest of the judges; this controversial scheme was unpopular with many judges, Grice assumed that the result was a foregone conclusion: that the people would vote to remove the Judges from power. Believing that this would result in total chaos, Grice formed a conspiracy with half a dozen other judges to prevent the referendum from happening, they planned to assassinate Dredd, reasoning that since Dredd was the only judge who believed that the Judges could win the vote without him all support for the referendum would disappear and McGruder would cancel the project. Dredd survived the attempts on his life killing two of the conspirators and rounding up the others.
In a rare lapse of regard for the law, Dredd assaulted Grice after taking him into his custody, since he believed that the people would vote to keep the Judges in office because of their reputation for integrity, but that once the people heard about Grice's crime that myth would be dispelled and the Judges would lose the vote. Grice was defeated, a humiliation he would never forget, he was summarily sentenced to twenty years of hard labour on the penal colony on Titan. His captivity on Titan was recounted in Purgatory. Conditions on Titan were harsh, prisoners were tortured and brutalized by the guards. Grice became bitter and violent, exercised to increase his strength. After enduring two years of his sentence, Grice escaped from his cell and led a mass breakout, killing the governor and many guards, stealing a dozen or so spaceships, he stole a biological weapon, the "Meat Virus,", discovered on Titan and, being examined by biological weapon scientists. Hundreds of violent prisoners escaped with him.
Purgatory ended at this point, but the storyline was taken up where it left off in Judge Dredd: "Inferno" by Grant Morrison and Carlos Ezquerra. Grice attacked Mega-City One, first by crashing his stolen ships into major buildings and by unleashing the deadly Meat Virus on the population, his rebels would have been exterminated by the Judges, but they were weakened by the symptoms of the virus, were forced to retreat to the Cursed Earth outside the city while the rebels wreaked havoc and killed indiscriminately. Chief Judge McGruder was captured and tortured to death, Dredd himself nearly perished in an unsuccessful rescue attempt. Grice assumed the office of chief judge, began passing insane laws which he capriciously changed from day to day. One of his own followers began to question his sanity, turned on him. Anticipating this, Grice had the traitor killed, but his loyal comrades were not safe from Grice's wrath: he publicly executed one of his most dedicated men with a chainsaw, one of the judges from his original conspiracy to prevent the referendum two years earlier.
However, Grice's men were outnumbered by the Judges, once the Judges had regrouped from their initial setbacks Dredd led them back on the offensive. Storming the city, they made quick work of the escaped prisoners. Grice had a mental breakdown and began destroying the interior of the Grand Hall of Justice with a flamethrower and shooting his own men. Dredd confronted him personally. On this second occasion Grice got the better of him, but Dredd ran him over with his lawmaster bike, until he was crushed. Judge Dredd: Nightmares by John Wagner and Steve Dillon Reprinted in Judge Dredd: The Complete Case Files 15 Judge Dredd: The Devil You Know by John Wagner and Jeff Anderson Reprinted in Judge Dredd: The Complete Case Files 16 Purgatory by Mark Millar and Calros Ezquerra Reprinted in free supplement to the Judge Dredd Megazine no. 322 and in Judge Dredd: The Mega Collection no. 39 Judge Dredd: Inferno by Grant Morrison and Carlos Ezquerra Reprinted in Judge Dredd: The Complete Case Files 19 and in Judge Dredd: The Mega Collection no. 39 Janus, Psi Division: A New Star by Grant Morrison and Paul Johnson Reprinted in free supplement to the Judge Dredd Megazine no. 347
Crucifixion of Jesus
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most between AD 30 and 33. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels, referred to in the New Testament epistles, attested to by other ancient sources, is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although there is no consensus among historians on the exact details. According to the canonical gospels, Jesus was arrested and tried by the Sanhedrin, sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, crucified by the Romans. Jesus was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with myrrh or gall to drink after saying I am thirsty, he was hung between two convicted thieves and, according to the Gospel of Mark, died some six hours later. During this time, the soldiers affixed a sign to the top of the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was written in three languages, they divided his garments among themselves and cast lots for his seamless robe, according to the Gospel of John.
According to the Gospel of John after Jesus' death, one soldier pierced his side with a spear to be certain that he had died blood and water gushed from the wound. The Bible describes seven statements that Jesus made while he was on the cross, as well as several supernatural events that occurred. Collectively referred to as the Passion, Jesus' suffering and redemptive death by crucifixion are the central aspects of Christian theology concerning the doctrines of salvation and atonement; the baptism of Jesus and his crucifixion are considered to be two certain facts about Jesus. James Dunn states that these "two facts in the life of Jesus command universal assent" and "rank so high on the'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus. Bart Ehrman states that the crucifixion of Jesus on the orders of Pontius Pilate is the most certain element about him. John Dominic Crossan states that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be.
Eddy and Boyd state that it is now "firmly established" that there is non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus. Craig Blomberg states that most scholars in the third quest for the historical Jesus consider the crucifixion indisputable. Christopher M. Tuckett states that, although the exact reasons for the death of Jesus are hard to determine, one of the indisputable facts about him is that he was crucified. While scholars agree on the historicity of the crucifixion, they differ on the reason and context for it. For example, both E. P. Sanders and Paula Fredriksen support the historicity of the crucifixion but contend that Jesus did not foretell his own crucifixion and that his prediction of the crucifixion is a "church creation". Geza Vermes views the crucifixion as a historical event but provides his own explanation and background for it. John P. Meier views the crucifixion of Jesus as historical fact and states that, based on the criterion of embarrassment, Christians would not have invented the painful death of their leader.
Meier states that a number of other criteria, e.g. the criterion of multiple attestation and the criterion of coherence help establish the crucifixion of Jesus as a historical event. Although all ancient sources relating to crucifixion are literary, the 1968 archeological discovery just northeast of Jerusalem of the body of a crucified man dated to the 1st century provided good confirmatory evidence that crucifixions occurred during the Roman period according to the manner in which the crucifixion of Jesus is described in the gospels; the crucified man was identified as Yehohanan ben Hagkol and died about 70 AD, around the time of the Jewish revolt against Rome. The analyses at the Hadassah Medical School estimated. Another relevant archaeological find, which dates to the 1st century AD, is an unidentified heel bone with a spike discovered in a Jerusalem gravesite, now held by the Israel Antiquities Authority and displayed in the Israel Museum; the earliest detailed accounts of the death of Jesus are contained in the four canonical gospels.
There are other, more implicit references in the New Testament epistles. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus predicts his death in three separate places. All four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, initial trial at the Sanhedrin and final trial at Pilate's court, where Jesus is flogged, condemned to death, is led to the place of crucifixion carrying his cross before Roman soldiers induce Simon of Cyrene to carry it, Jesus is crucified and resurrected from the dead, his death is described as other books of the New Testament. In each Gospel these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that Gospel's narrative. Scholars note that the reader receives an hour-by-hour account of what is happening. After arriving at Golgotha, Jesus was offered wine mixed with gall to drink. Matthew's and Mark's Gospels record, he was crucified and hung between two convicted thieves. According to some translations of the original Greek, the thieves may have been bandits or Jewish rebels.
According to Mark's Gospel, he endured the torment of crucifixion for some six hours from the third hour, at 9 am, until his death at the ninth hour, corresponding to about 3 pm. The soldiers affixed a sign above his head stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was in three languages, divided his garments and cast l
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman. They are central to the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors, it provides the basis for the doctrines of the fall of man and original sin that are important beliefs in Christianity, although not held in Judaism or Islam. In the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, chapters one through five, there are two creation narratives with two distinct perspectives. In the first and Eve are not named. Instead, God created humankind in God's image and instructed them to multiply and to be stewards over everything else that God had made. In the second narrative, God fashions places him in the Garden of Eden. Adam is told that he can eat of all the trees in the garden, except for a tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Subsequently, Eve is created from one of Adam's ribs to be Adam's companion, they are unembarrassed about their nakedness.
However, a serpent deceives Eve into eating fruit from the forbidden tree, she gives some of the fruit to Adam. These acts give them additional knowledge, but it gives them the ability to conjure negative and destructive concepts such as shame and evil. God curses the serpent and the ground. God prophetically tells the woman and the man what will be the consequences of their sin of disobeying God, he banishes them from the Garden of Eden. The story underwent extensive elaboration in Abrahamic traditions, it has been extensively analyzed by modern biblical scholars. Interpretations and beliefs regarding Adam and Eve and the story revolving around them vary across religions and sects; the story of Adam and Eve is depicted in art, it has had an important influence in literature and poetry. The story of the fall of Adam is considered to be an allegory. There is physical evidence that Eve never existed. Adam and Eve are figures from the primeval history, the Bible's mythic history of the first years of the world's existence.
The History tells how God creates the world and all its beings and places the first man and woman in his Garden of Eden, how the first couple are expelled from God's presence, of the first murder which follows, God's decision to destroy the world and save only the righteous Noah and his sons. Although the new world is as sinful as the old, God has resolved never again to destroy the world by flood, the History ends with Terah, the father of Abraham, from whom will descend God's chosen people, the Israelites. Adam and Eve are first woman. Adam's name appears first in Genesis 1 with a collective sense, as "mankind". In these chapters God fashions "the man" from earth, breathes life into his nostrils, makes him a caretaker over creation. God next creates for the man a "helper corresponding to him", from his side or rib, she is called ishsha, "woman", the text says, she is formed from ish, "man". The man receives her with joy, the reader is told that from this moment a man will leave his parents to "cling" to a woman, the two becoming one flesh.
The first man and woman are in God's Garden of Eden, where all creation is vegetarian and there is no violence. They are permitted to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; the woman is tempted by a talking serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, gives some to the man, who eats also.. God curses all three, the man to a lifetime of hard labour followed by death, the woman to the pain of childbirth and to subordination to her husband, the serpent to go on his belly and suffer the enmity of both man and woman. God clothes the nakedness of the man and woman, who have become god-like in knowing good and evil banishes them from the garden lest they eat the fruit of a second tree, the tree of life, live forever; the story continues in Genesis 3 with the "expulsion from Eden" narrative. A form analysis of Genesis 3 reveals that this portion of the story can be characterized as a parable or "wisdom tale" in the wisdom tradition; the poetic addresses of the chapter belong to a speculative type of wisdom that questions the paradoxes and harsh realities of life.
This characterization is determined by the narrative's format and the plot. The form of Genesis 3 is shaped by its vocabulary, making use of various puns and double entendres; the expulsion from Eden narrative begins with a dialogue between the woman and a serpent, identified in Genesis 3:1 as an animal, more crafty than any other animal made by God, although Genesis does not identify the serpent with Satan. The woman is willing to talk to the serpent and respond to the creature's cynicism by repeating God's prohibition against eating fruit from the tree of knowledge; the woman is lured into dialogue on the serpent's terms. The serpent assures the woman that God will not let her die if she ate the fruit, furthermore, that if she ate the fruit, her "eyes would be opened" and she would "be like God, knowing good and evil"; the woman sees
Satan known as the Devil, is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin or falsehood. In Christianity and Islam, he is seen as either a fallen angel or a jinn, who used to possess great piety and beauty, but rebelled against God, who allows him temporary power over the fallen world and a host of demons. In Judaism, Satan is regarded as a metaphor for the yetzer hara, or "evil inclination", or as an agent subservient to God. A figure known as "the satan" first appears in the Tanakh as a heavenly prosecutor, a member of the sons of God subordinate to Yahweh, who prosecutes the nation of Judah in the heavenly court and tests the loyalty of Yahweh's followers by forcing them to suffer. During the intertestamental period due to influence from the Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu, the satan developed into a malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to God. In the apocryphal Book of Jubilees, Yahweh grants the satan authority over a group of fallen angels, or their offspring, to tempt humans to sin and punish them.
In the Synoptic Gospels, Satan tempts Jesus in the desert and is identified as the cause of illness and temptation. In the Book of Revelation, Satan appears as a Great Red Dragon, defeated by Michael the Archangel and cast down from Heaven, he is bound for one thousand years, but is set free before being defeated and cast into the Lake of Fire. In Christianity, Satan is known as the Devil and, although the Book of Genesis does not mention him, he is identified as the serpent in the Garden of Eden. In the Middle Ages, Satan played a minimal role in Christian theology and was used as a comic relief figure in mystery plays. During the early modern period, Satan's significance increased as beliefs such as demonic possession and witchcraft became more prevalent. During the Age of Enlightenment, belief in the existence of Satan became harshly criticized. Nonetheless, belief in Satan has persisted in the Americas. In the Quran, Shaitan known as Iblis, is an entity made of fire, cast out of Heaven because he refused to bow before the newly-created Adam and incites humans to sin by infecting their minds with waswās.
Although Satan is viewed as evil, some groups have different beliefs. In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a deity, either worshipped or revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is a symbol of virtuous characteristics and liberty. Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible, since the ninth century, he has been shown in Christian art with horns, cloven hooves, unusually hairy legs, a tail naked and holding a pitchfork; these are an amalgam of traits derived from various pagan deities, including Pan and Bes. Satan appears in Christian literature, most notably in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, variants of the Faust legend, John Milton's Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, the poems of William Blake, he continues to appear in film and music. The original Hebrew term sâtan is a generic noun meaning "accuser" or "adversary", used throughout the Hebrew Bible to refer to ordinary human adversaries, as well as a specific supernatural entity; the word is derived from a verb meaning "to obstruct, oppose".
When it is used without the definite article, the word can refer to any accuser, but when it is used with the definite article, it refers to the heavenly accuser: the satan. Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew Bible: Job ch. 1–2 and Zechariah 3:1–2. Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version: 1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" or "And there standeth up an adversary against Israel" Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" or "let an accuser stand at his right hand." The word "satan" does not occur in the Book of Genesis, which mentions only a talking serpent and does not identify the serpent with any supernatural entity. The first occurrence of the word "satan" in the Hebrew Bible in reference to a supernatural figure comes from Numbers 22:22, which describes the Angel of Yahweh confronting Balaam on his donkey: "Balaam's departure aroused the wrath of Elohim, the Angel of Yahweh stood in the road as a satan against him."
In 2 Samuel 24, Yahweh sends the "Angel of Yahweh" to inflict a plague against Israel for three days, killing 70,000 people as punishment for David having taken a census without his approval. 1 Chronicles 21:1 repeats this story, but replaces the "Angel of Yahweh" with an entity referred to as "a satan". Some passages refer to the satan, without using the word itself. 1 Samuel 2:12 describes the sons of Eli as "sons of Belial". In 1 Samuel 16:14-23 Yahweh sends a "troubling spirit" to torment King Saul as a mechanism to ingratiate David with the king. In 1 Kings 22:19-25, the prophet Micaiah describes to King Ahab a vision of Yahweh sitting on his throne surrounded by the Host of Heaven. Yahweh asks the Host. A "spirit", whose name is not specified, but, analogous to the satan, volunteers to be "a Lying Spirit in the mouth of all his Prophets"; the satan appears in the Book of Job, a poetic dialogue set within a prose framework, which may have been written around the time of the Babylonian captivity.
In the text, Job is a righteous man favored by Yahweh. Job 1:6-8 describes the "sons of God" (bənê hāʼĕ
Judge Joseph Dredd is a fictional character created by writer John Wagner and artist Carlos Ezquerra. He first appeared in the second issue of 2000 AD, a British weekly anthology comic, he is the magazine's longest-running character. He appears in a number of movie and video game adaptations. Judge Dredd is a law enforcement and judicial officer in the dystopian future city of Mega-City One, which covers most of the east coast of North America, he is a "street judge", empowered to summarily arrest, convict and execute criminals. In Great Britain, the character of Dredd and his name are sometimes invoked in discussions of police states and the rule of law. In 2011, IGN ranked Judge Dredd 35th among the top 100 comic book heroes of all time. Judge Dredd made his live action debut in 1995 in Judge Dredd, portrayed by Sylvester Stallone, he was portrayed by Karl Urban in the 2012 adaptation Dredd. When comics editor Pat Mills was developing 2000 AD in 1976, he brought in his former writing partner, John Wagner, to develop characters.
Wagner had written a Dirty Harry-style "tough cop" story, "One-Eyed Jack", for Valiant, suggested a character who took that concept to its logical extreme. Mills had developed a horror strip called Judge Dread but abandoned the idea as unsuitable for the new comic; the task of visualising the character was given to Carlos Ezquerra, a Spanish artist who had worked for Mills before on Battle Picture Weekly. Wagner gave Ezquerra an advertisement for the film Death Race 2000, showing the character Frankenstein clad in black leather on a motorbike, as a suggestion of Dredd's appearance. Ezquerra added body-armour and chains, which Wagner objected to. Wagner's initial script was drawn up by Ezquerra; the hardware and cityscapes Ezquerra had drawn were far more futuristic than the near-future setting intended. The original launch story written by Wagner and drawn by Ezquerra was vetoed by the board of directors for being too violent. A new script was needed for the first episode. Mills based the characterisation of Judge Dredd on Brother James, one of his teachers at St Joseph's College, Ipswich.
Brother James was considered to be an excellent teacher but an excessively strict disciplinarian to the extent he was considered abusive. In his blog Mills detailed the moments of rage for which Brother James had a reputation and his own experience witnessing them; the De La Salle monks at the school were a major influence in the 2000 AD design of the'judge and executioner' attitude of the judges. The name Joseph refers to the school. By this stage, Wagner had quit, disillusioned that a proposed buy-out of the new comic by another company, which would have given him and Mills a greater financial stake in the comic, had fallen through. Mills was reluctant to lose Judge Dredd and farmed the strip out to a variety of freelance writers, hoping to develop it further, their scripts were given to a variety of artists as Mills tried to find a strip which would provide a good introduction to the character. This Judge Dredd would not be ready for the first issue of 2000 AD, launched in February 1977; the story chosen to introduce the character was submitted by freelance writer Peter Harris, was extensively re-written by Mills, who added a new ending suggested by Kelvin Gosnell.
It was drawn by newcomer Mike McMahon. The strip debuted in "prog" no. 2. Around this time Ezquerra returned to work for Battle. There are conflicting sources about why. Ezquerra says it was because he was angry that another artist had drawn the first published Judge Dredd strip. Mills says he chose McMahon because Ezquerra had left, having been offered a better deal by the editor of Battle. Wagner soon returned to the character, starting in prog 9, his storyline, "The Robot Wars", was drawn by a rotating team of artists, marked the point where Dredd became the most popular character in the comic, a position he has relinquished. Judge Dredd has appeared in every issue since, most of the stories written by Wagner. In 1983 Judge Dredd made his American debut with his own series from publisher Eagle Comics, titled Judge Dredd, it consisted of stories reprinted from the British comic. Since 1990 Dredd has had his own title in Britain, the Judge Dredd Megazine. With Wagner concentrating his energies on that, the Dredd strip in 2000 AD was left to younger writers, including Garth Ennis, Mark Millar, Grant Morrison and John Smith.
Their stories were less popular with fans, sales fell. Wagner returned to writing the character full-time in 1994. Judge Dredd has been published in a long-running comic strip in the Daily Star, in Metro from January to April 2004; these were created by the same teams writing and drawing the main strip, the Daily Star strips have been collected into a number of volumes. In 2012 Dredd was one of ten British comic characters commemorated in a series of stamps issued by the Royal Mail. Joseph Dredd is the most famous of the Street Judges that patrol Mega-City One, empowered to convict and sometimes execute offenders. Dredd is armed with a "Lawgiver", a pistol programmed to recognise only his palm-print, capable of firing six types of ammunition, a daystick, a boot knife and stun or gas grenades, his helmet obscures his face, except for his mouth and jaw