Abhisit Vejjajiva is a Thai politician, the 27th prime minister of Thailand from 2008 to 2011. He is a former university lecturer at Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, Thammasat University, Oxford University and was the leader of the Democrat Party from 2005 until he resigned following the party's weak performance in the 2019 election; as leader of the second largest party in the House of Representatives, he was leader of the opposition – a position he held from December 2008 until his party's en masse resignation from the House on 8 December 2013. That same month, he was formally charged with murder resulting from a crackdown on demonstrators in 2010 that killed 90 people. Born in England, the United Kingdom, Abhisit attended Eton College and earned bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Oxford, he was elected to the Parliament of Thailand at the age of 27, promoted to Democrat Party leader in 2005, after his predecessor resigned following the party's defeat in the 2005 general election.
Abhisit was appointed prime minister of Thailand on 17 December 2008, after the Constitutional Court of Thailand removed Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat from office. At age 44, he was the country's youngest prime minister in more than 60 years. Abhisit became premier at a time of rising domestic political tensions; as prime minister, he promoted a "People's Agenda," which focused on policies affecting the living conditions of Thailand's rural and working class citizens. He administered two economic stimulus packages: a US$40 billion, three-year infrastructure improvement plan, a more than US$3 billion program of cash subsidies and handouts. By 2010, the stock market and the value of the baht had rebounded to their highest levels since the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Human Rights Watch called Vejjajiva "the most prolific censor in recent Thai history" and Freedom House downgraded Thailand's rating of media freedom to "not free." Abhisit advocated for stronger anti-corruption measures, although several members of his Cabinet resigned due to corruption scandals and parts of his economic stimulus packages were criticised for instances of alleged corruption.
Abhisit's government faced major protests in April 2009 and April–May 2010. The military's crackdowns on protesters left many dead. Abhisit launched a reconciliation plan to investigate the crackdown, but the work of the investigation commission was hampered by military and government agencies; the Thai Army clashed with Cambodian troops numerous times from 2009 to 2010 in the bloodiest fighting in over two decades. The South Thailand insurgency escalated during Abhisit's government, reports of torture and human rights violations increased. Having resigned the party leadership after the defeat the Democrats suffered in the parliamentary elections of 2011, Abhisit was re-elected as leader at a party assembly. In 2018, the Democrats held a contest for party leader in preparation for the upcoming election. Abhisit was re-elected party leader, beating former PDRC leader, Warong Dechgitvigrom, by 10,000 votes. However, after a poor showing in the 2019 election, Abhisit resigned as party leader. Mark Abhisit Vejjajiva was born in Wallsend, United Kingdom.
He studied in England from the age of 11. Abhisit earned a bachelor's degree in philosophy and economics, first class honours, a master's degree in economics from St John's College, Oxford. While studying in England, he went to Thailand several times, including a gap year trip in 1983 with classmate and future London Mayor Boris Johnson to the resort city of Chiang Mai and the island of Phuket. After moving to Thailand, he received a bachelor's degree in law from Thailand's Ramkhamhaeng University, taught at Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy and Thammasat University Faculty of Economics, he is fluent in both his mother tongue and the English language, has dual Thai and British citizenship. His dual citizenship became a topic for the Thai parliamentary debates in early 2011, he is of a seventh generation overseas Hakka. Abhisit is married to Pimpen Sakuntabhai, his classmate at the Chulalongkorn University Demonstration elementary school, a former dentist and is now a lecturer at the Department of Mathematics at Chulalongkorn University.
They have two children: Pannasit Vejjajiva. Pannasit has suffered from autism since birth. After his majority, the Central Juvenile and Family Court adjudged him quasi-incompetent and placed him under the guardianship of Abhisit, his father, as from 3 September 2012. Abhisit has two sisters: child psychiatrist Alisa Wacharasindhu and author Ngarmpun Vejjajiva. One of Abhisit's first cousins, Suranand Vejjajiva was a cabinet minister under Thaksin's Thai Rak Thai party and served as the Prime Minister's Secretary General under Yingluck Shinawatra. Suranand's father, Nissai Vejjajiva served as the ambassador to various countries between the 1960s to 1980s and is the older brother of Abhisit's father, Athasit. Abhisit's ethnic Chinese ancestors were arrived in Thailand from Vietnam; the family name Vejjajiva was granted by King Rama VI to Abhisit's grandfather Dr. Long, together with Long's father Nai Jinsang, grandfather Nai Peng and great-grandfather Nai Go while Dr Long was serving as an Army Medical Department sub-lieutenant The Vejjajiva family came to prominence when Dr. Long styled Phra Bamrad Naradura, rose to public health minister, founded the Bamrad Naradura hospital in Nonthaburi.
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The Newseum is an interactive museum that promotes free expression and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, while tracing the evolution of communication. The seven-level, 250,000-square-foot museum is located in Washington, D. C. and features fifteen theaters and fifteen galleries. Its Berlin Wall Gallery includes the largest display of sections of the wall outside Germany; the Today's Front Pages Gallery presents daily front pages from more than 80 international newspapers. Other galleries present topics including the First Amendment, world press freedom, news history, the September 11 attacks, the history of the Internet, TV, radio, it opened at its first location in Rosslyn, Virginia, on April 18, 1997, on April 11, 2008, it opened in its current location. The Newseum is a popular destination, attracting more than 815,000 visitors a year, its television studios host news broadcasts; the adult admission fee in 2017 was $26.38. Despite such high admission fees, it has seen years of financial losses.
In February 2018, these losses led to an exploration of selling its building or moving to another location. In January 2019, the Freedom Forum announced that The Johns Hopkins University would purchase the building for $372.5 million in order to use the space for several graduate programs. Freedom Forum is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 by Al Neuharth, based on the previous Gannett Foundation. Freedom Forum opened the Newseum in Arlington, Virginia, in 1997. Prior to opening in Virginia, it maintained exhibition galleries in Nashville and Manhattan, the latter in the lobby of the former IBM Building at 580 Madison Avenue. In 2000, Freedom Forum decided to move the museum across the Potomac River to downtown Washington, D. C; the original site was closed on March 3, 2002, to allow its staff to concentrate on building the new, larger museum. The new museum, built at a cost of $450 million, opened its doors to the public on April 11, 2008. Tim Russert, a Newseum trustee, said, "The Newseum made a pretty good impression in Arlington, but at your new location on Pennsylvania Avenue, you will make an indelible mark."
The Newseum on Pennsylvania Avenue shares a block adjacent to the Canadian Embassy. After obtaining a landmark location at Pennsylvania Avenue and Sixth Street NW, the former site of National Hotel, the Newseum board selected noted exhibit designer Ralph Appelbaum, who had designed the original site in Arlington and architect James Stewart Polshek, who designed the Rose Center for Earth and Space with Todd Schliemann at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, to work on the new project; this design team had the following goals: To design a building that would be an architectural icon recognized and remembered by visitors from around the world. Highlights of the building design unveiled October 2002 include a façade featuring a "window on the world", 57 ft × 78 ft, which looks out on Pennsylvania Avenue and the National Mall while letting the public see inside to the visitors and displays, it features the 45 words of the First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, etched into a four story tall stone panel facing Pennsylvania Avenue.
One feature carried over from the prior Arlington site was the Journalists Memorial, a glass sculpture that lists the names of 2,291 journalists from around the world killed in the line of duty. It is rededicated annually; the museum website is updated daily with images and PDF versions of newspaper front pages from around the world. Images are replaced daily, but an archive of front pages from notable events since 2001 is available. Hard copies of selected front pages, including one from every U. S. state and Washington, D. C. are displayed outside the front entrance. Jerry Frieheim, a 1956 graduate of the University of Missouri School of Journalism, was the first executive director of the Newseum and claims to have coined the name; the 643,000-square-foot Newseum includes a 90-foot high atrium, seven levels of displays, 15 theaters, a dozen major galleries, many more smaller exhibits, two broadcast studios, an expanded interactive newsroom. The structural engineer for this project was Leslie E. Robertson Associates.
The building features an 500-seat theater. The building is known for the largest and tallest hydraulic passenger elevators in the world, with a capacity of 18,000 pounds capable of carrying up to 72 passengers when loaded, a travel distance of 100 feet that covers 7 floors. A curving glass memorial to slain journalists is located above the ground floor. Showcase environments throughout the museum are climate controlled by four microclimate control devices; these units provide a flow of humidified air to the cases through a system of distribution pipes. ABC's This Week began broadcasting from a new studio in the Newseum on April 20, 2008, with George Stephanopoulos as host. ABC moved This Week back to its Washington, D. C. bureau in June 2013 citing the network's infrequent use of the Newseum studio compared to the cost of operating and maintaining a studio there. The studio was home to Al Jazeera America's Washington, D. C. bureau whic
The baht is the official currency of Thailand. It is subdivided into 100 satang; the issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand. According to SWIFT, as of February 2017, the Thai baht is ranked as the 10th most used world payment currency. According to a report in the South China Morning Post, the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation produces at least some Thai banknotes and coins; the Thai baht, like the pound, originated from a traditional unit of mass. Its currency value was expressed as that of silver of corresponding weight, was in use as early as the Sukhothai period in the form of bullet coins known in Thai as phot duang; these were pieces of solid silver cast to various weights corresponding to a traditional system of units related by simple fractions and multiples, one of, the baht. These are listed in the following table: That system was in use up until 1897, when the decimal system devised by Prince Jayanta Mongkol, in which one baht = 100 satang, was introduced by his half-brother King Chulalongkorn.
However, coins denominated in the old units were issued until 1910, the amount of 25 satang is still referred to as a salueng, as is the 25-satang coin. Until 27 November 1902, the baht was fixed on a purely silver basis, with 15 grams of silver to the baht; this caused the value of the currency to vary relative to currencies on a gold standard. In 1857, the values of certain foreign silver coins were fixed by law, with the one baht = 0.6 Straits dollar and five baht = seven Indian rupees. Before 1880 the exchange rate was fixed at eight baht per pound sterling, falling to 10 to the pound during the 1880s. In 1902, the government began to increase the value of the baht by following all increases in the value of silver against gold but not reducing it when the silver price fell. Beginning at 21.75 baht = one pound sterling, the currency rose in value until, in 1908, a fixed peg to the British pound sterling was established of 13 baht = one pound. This was revised to 12 baht in 1919 and after a period of instability, to 11 baht in 1923.
During World War II, the baht was fixed at a value of one Japanese yen. From 1956 until 1973, the baht was pegged to the U. S. dollar at an exchange rate of 20.8 baht = one dollar and at 20 baht = 1 dollar until 1978. A strengthening US economy caused Thailand to re-peg its currency at 25 to the dollar from 1984 until 2 July 1997, when the country was affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis; the baht was floated and halved in value, reaching its lowest rate of 56 to the dollar in January 1998. It has since risen to about 30 per dollar; the baht was known to foreigners by the term tical, used in English language text on banknotes until 1925. Rama III was the first king to consider the use of a flat coin, he did so not for the convenience of traders, but because he was disturbed that the creatures living in the cowrie shells were killed. When he learned of the use of flat copper coins in Singapore in 1835, he contacted a Scottish trader, who had two types of experimental coins struck in England.
The king rejected both designs. The name of the country put on these first coins was Muang Thai, not Siam. Cowrie shells from the Mekong River had been used as currency for small amounts since the Sukhothai period. Before 1860, Thailand did not produce coins using modern methods. Instead, a so-called "bullet" coinage was used, consisting of bars of metal, thicker in the middle, bent round to form a complete circle on which identifying marks were stamped. Denominations issued included 1⁄128, 1⁄64, 1⁄32, 1⁄16, 1⁄8, 1⁄2, 1, 1 1⁄2, 2, 2 1⁄2, 4, 4 1⁄2, 8, 10, 20, 40, 80 baht in silver and 1⁄32, 1⁄16, 1⁄8, 1⁄2, 1, 1 1⁄2, 2, 4 baht in gold. One gold baht was worth 16 silver baht. Between 1858 and 1860, foreign trade coins were stamped by the government for use in Thailand. In 1860, modern style coins were introduced; these were silver 1 sik, 1 fuang, 1 and 2 salung, 1, 2, 4 baht, with the baht weighing 15.244 grams and the others weight related. Tin 1 solot and 1 att followed in 1862, with gold 2 1⁄2, 4, 8 baht introduced in 1863 and copper 2 and 4 att in 1865.
Copper replaced tin in the 1 solot and 1 att in 1874, with copper 4 att introduced in 1876. The last gold coins were struck in 1895. In 1897, the first coins denominated in satang were introduced, cupronickel 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 20 satang. However, 1 solot, 1 and 2 att coins were struck until 1905 and 1 fuang coins were struck until 1910. In 1908, holed 1, 5, 10 satang coins were introduced, with the 1 satang in bronze and the 5 and 10 satang in nickel; the 1 and 2 salung were replaced by 25 and 50 satang coins in 1915. In 1937, bronze 1⁄2 satang were issued. In 1941, a series of silver coins was introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 20 satang, due to a shortage of nickel caused by World War II; the next year, tin coins were introduced for 1, 5, 10 satang, followed by 20 satang in 1945 and 25 and 50 satang in 1946. In 1950, aluminium-bronze 5, 10, 25, 50 satang were introduced whilst, in 1957, bronze 5 and 10 satang were issued, along with 1 baht coins struck in an unusual alloy of copper, nickel and zinc.
Several Thai coins were issued for many years without changing the date. These include the tin 1942 1 satang and the 1950 5 and 10 satang, struck until 1973, the tin 1946 25 satang struck until 1964, the tin 50 satang struck until 1957, the aluminium bronze 1957 5, 10, 25, 50 satang struck until the 1970s. Cupronickel 1 baht coins were introduced in 1962 and struck without date change until 1982. In 1972, cupronickel 5 baht coins were introduced, switching to cupronickel-cl
The Bangkok Post is a broadsheet English-language daily newspaper published in Bangkok, Thailand. The first issue was sold on 1 August 1946, it cost 1 baht, a considerable amount at the time when a baht was a paper note. It is Thailand's second oldest newspaper. Bangkok Post's daily circulation is 110,000, 80 percent distributed in Bangkok and the remainder nationwide. From July 2016 until mid–May 2018, the editor of the Post was Umesh Pandey. On 14 May Umesh was "forced to step down" as editor after refusing to soften coverage critical of the ruling military junta, he said the board of directors had asked him to "tone down" the newspaper's reporting and editorials on the actions of the military government its suppression of free speech and election postponements. In a written statement by Umesh issued on 14 May, he said, "When asked to tone down I did not budge and was blunt in letting those who make decisions know that I would rather lose my position than bow my head..." The Post issued a statement on 16 May to assure its readers of its continued commitment to "editorial independence".
A senior Post official said that, "This is not an issue of government interference or press freedom per se... This is an internal organisational matter." Umesh was not fired, but transferred to another high-ranking post as assistant to a deputy COO at no loss of pay. Some sources within the company attributed Umesh's ouster as editor to his poor management style and ethical breaches; some staffers who worked with Umesh cited his creation of a hostile workplace environment and unprofessional behavior. Five current and former staffers blamed him for driving away many newsroom employees, creating a toxic environment and breaching ethics. Meanwhile, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha denied that the government pressured the Post to reassign Umesh, dismissing the action as "...an issue within a private company..." The Bangkok Post was founded by Alexander MacDonald, a former OSS officer, his Thai associate, Prasit Lulitanond. Thailand at the time was the only Southeast Asian country to have a Soviet Embassy.
The U. S. embassy felt it needed an independent, but pro-American newspaper to counter Soviet views. Some claim the financing came directly from the US State Department or even the OSS itself, although there is no proof of this. Under MacDonald's stewardship, the Bangkok Post was reasonably independent and employed many young newsmen, including Peter Arnett and T. D. Allman, who became known internationally. Alex MacDonald left Thailand after a military coup in the early 1950s, the newspaper was led by Roy, Lord Thomson; the paper has since changed hands. Major shareholders in Post Publishing include the Chirathivat family, the South China Morning Post of Hong Kong and GMM Grammy Pcl, Thailand's biggest media and entertainment company. Post Publishing PLC, publisher of the Bangkok Post, Post Today, M2F newspapers, returned a modest profit of 450,000 baht in 2016 compared to a 42.1 million baht loss in 2015. The Bangkok Post employs 179 journalists, including reporters, editors, copyeditors and designers.
Twenty-nine foreign nationals work as print and digital news editors. Sunday editor Paul Ruffini is an Australian national. All Post staff reporters are Thai nationals. Foreign staff write for the newspaper's news, op-ed, sports and features sections. In a country where media censorship is common, the Bangkok Post portrays itself as being comparatively free. There are instances where the newspaper has been accused of self-censorship to avoid controversy or conflict with powerful individuals, including adherence to the country's strict lèse-majesté law, which prohibits open criticism of members of the Thai Royal Family, yet another example was the newspaper's failure during the Vietnam War to report on bombing forays made from US Air Force bases in Thailand over military targets in North Vietnam and Cambodia, none of which received coverage in the local press. Throughout the early 2000s, the Bangkok Post took positions that were, at times favorable to the government. Since the Thai election of 2011, the paper has taken a anti-Thaksin position aligned with the Yellow Shirts and the Democrat Party.
The Bangkok Post was at one time well known among expatriates for Bernard Trink's weekly Nite Owl column, which covered the nightlife of Bangkok. Trink's column was published from 1966 until 2004; the newspaper has a letters page where expatriate and Thai regulars exchange opinions on local and international concerns. According to the Post, more than half of its total readership are Thai nationals. During the tenure of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, the Post toed the government line—at one point bowing to government pressure by firing a reporter who had exposed cracks in the runway of the prestige project Suvarnabhumi Airport along with the news editor, while the Nation campaigned for Thaksin to resign. Main body: Local and world news and analysis pages, sports news. Business: Local and world business and financial news and stock-market tables. Life: A features section including human-interest stories, motoring, entertainment news, a society page, advice columns, puzzles, local television listings and film advertisements.
"Elite Life": Published the last Friday of every month. Luxury lifestyle features. Learning: An online English-language education section
Asia News Network
The Asia News Network is a coalition of 22 leading news organisations from South and Northeast Asia. The network covers a region of over 2 billion people across 20 countries. Through the network, members pool resources and expertise to offer in-depth coverage of regional and international issues by presenting local viewpoints on complex topics; the current managing editor is Cod Satrusayang. The latest member to join Asia News Network was the Phnom Penh Post which became a member in July 2017. India - The Statesman Bangladesh - The Daily Star China - China Daily Indonesia - The Jakarta Post Japan - The Yomiuri Shimbun / The Japan News Malaysia - Sin Chew Daily / The Star Nepal - The Kathmandu Post Philippines - Philippine Daily Inquirer Singapore - The Straits Times South Korea - The Korea Herald Sri Lanka - The Island Thailand - The Nation Vietnam - Vietnam News Bhutan - Kuensel Brunei - Borneo Bulletin Cambodia - Rasmei Kampuchea and Phnom Penh Post Laos - Vientiane Times Mongolia - GoGo Mongolia Myanmar - Eleven Media Group Taiwan - The China Post Eastern Briefing is a daily newsletter put out by ANN which pulls the most interesting stories from member newspapers on the most relevant topics of the day.
European Dailies Alliance Leading European Newspaper Alliance Grupo de Diarios América Latin American Newspaper Association Asia News Network
Thaksin Shinawatra is a Thai businessman and visiting professor. He is now living in exile, he served in the Thai Police from 1973 to 1987, was the Prime Minister of Thailand from 2001 to 2006. Thaksin founded the mobile phone operator Advanced Info Service and the IT and telecommunications conglomerate Shin Corporation in 1987 making him one of the richest people in Thailand, he founded the Thai Rak Thai Party in 1998 and, after a landslide electoral victory, became prime minister in 2001. He was the first democratically elected prime minister of Thailand to serve a full term and was re-elected in 2005 by an overwhelming majority. Thaksin declared a "war on drugs". Thaksin's government launched programs to reduce poverty, expand infrastructure, promote small and medium-sized enterprises, extend universal healthcare coverage. Thaksin took a strong-arm approach against the separatist insurgency in the Muslim southern provinces. After selling shares of his corporation for more than a billion tax-free dollars to foreign investors, considerable criticism resulted.
A citizens' movement against Thaksin, called People's Alliance for Democracy or "Yellow Shirts", launched mass protests, accusing him of corruption, abuse of power, autocratic tendencies. Thaksin called snap elections that were boycotted by the opposition and invalidated by the Constitutional Court. Thaksin was overthrown in a military coup on 19 September 2006, his party was outlawed and he was barred from political activity. Thaksin has since lived in self-imposed exile except for a brief visit to Thailand in 2008, he was sentenced in absentia to two years in jail for abuse of power. From abroad he has continued to influence Thai politics, through the People's Power Party that ruled in 2008, its successor organisation Pheu Thai Party, as well as the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or "Red Shirt" movement, his younger sister Yingluck Shinawatra was the prime minister of Thailand from 2011 to 2014. Thaksin's great-grandfather, Seng Saekhu, was an immigrant from Meizhou, China, who arrived in Siam in the 1860s and settled in Chiang Mai in 1908.
His eldest son, Chiang Saekhu, was born in Chanthaburi in 1890 and married a Thai woman named Saeng Samana. Chiang's eldest son, adopted the Thai surname Shinawatra in 1938 because of the country's anti-Chinese movement, the rest of the family adopted it. Seng Saekhu had made his fortune through tax farming. Chiang Saekhu/Shinawatra founded Shinawatra Silks and moved into finance and property development. Thaksin's father, was born in Chiang Mai in 1919 and married Yindi Ramingwong. Yindi's father, Charoen Ramingwong, was a Hakka immigrant who married Princess Chanthip na Chiangmai, a minor member of the Lanna royalty. In 1968, Loet Shinawatra entered politics and became an MP for Chiang Mai and deputy leader of the now-defunct Liberal Party. Loet Shinawatra quit politics in 1976, he opened a coffee shop, grew oranges and flowers in Chiang Mai's San Kamphaeng District, opened two cinemas, a gas station, a car and motorcycle dealership. By the time Thaksin was born, the Shinawatra family was one of the richest and most influential families in Chiang Mai.
Thaksin was born in Chiang Mai Province. He is a Theravada Buddhist, he lived in the village of San Kamphaeng until he was 15 moved to Chiang Mai to study at Montfort College. At 16, he helped run one of his father's cinemas. Thaksin married Potjaman Damapong in July 1976, they have one son and two daughters and Peathongtarn. They divorced in 2008. Thaksin's youngest sister, Yingluck Shinawatra, is said to have entered politics in 2011 at her brother's request as leader of the pro-Thaksin Pheu Thai Party, she was elected prime minister on 3 July 2011. Thaksin earned a doctorate in criminology at Sam Houston State University. Thaksin lectured at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities of Mahidol University in 1979. Thaksin was a member of the 10th class of the Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School, was admitted to the Thai Police Cadet Academy. Graduating in 1973, he joined the Royal Thai Police, he received a master's degree in criminal justice from Eastern Kentucky University in the United States in 1975, three years was awarded a doctorate in criminal justice at Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, Texas.
Returning to Thailand, he reached the position of Deputy Superintendent of the Policy and Planning Sub-division, General Staff Division, Metropolitan Police Bureau, before resigning his commission in 1987 as a Police Lieutenant Colonel and leaving the police. His former wife, Potjaman Damapong, is the sister of Police General Priewpan Damapong and now uses her mother's maiden name, he is a former university lecturer at Royal Police Cadet Academy in 1975–1976. Thaksin's police lieutenant colonel rank was revoked in September 2015. Thaksin and his wife began several businesses while he was still in the police, including a silk shop, a cinema, an apartment building. All left him over 50 million baht in debt. In 1982, he established ICSI. Using his police contacts, he leased computers to government agencies with modest success; however ventures in security systems and public bus radio services all failed. In April 1986, he founded Advanced Info Service. In 1987 Thaksin resigned from the police, he marketed a romance drama called Baan Sai Thon
Smartphones are a class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing devices. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software and multimedia functionality, alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software, such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer and accelerometer, support wireless communications protocols such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, satellite navigation. Early smartphones were marketed towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their battery life, bulky form, the immaturity of wireless data services. In the 2000s, BlackBerry, Nokia's Symbian platform, Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models featuring QWERTY keyboards or resistive touchscreen input, emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet.
Since the unveiling of the iPhone in 2007, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store, use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants, as well as mobile payment services. Improved hardware and faster wireless communication have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013; the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Frank Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator.
In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, appointment scheduler, world time clock, notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news; the term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator. Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC; these operating systems would evolve into early mobile operating systems. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware; the results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access.
The trend at the time, that manufacturers competed on in both mobile phones and PDAs was to make devices smaller and slimmer. The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity. In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it, it had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, to create and receive text messages and faxes. It was 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows. In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks.
The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below. The PDA provided e-mail; when closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone. In June 1999 Qualcomm released the "pdQ Smartphone", a CDMA digital PCS smartphone with an integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity. Subsequent landmark devices included: The Ericsson R380 by Ericsson Mobile Communications; the first device marketed as a "smartphone", it was the first Symbian-based phone, with PDA functionality and limited Web browsing on a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus. Users could not install their own software on the device, however; the Kyocera 6035, a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware. It supported limited Web browsing with the PDA software treating the phone hardware as an attached modem. Handspring's Treo 180, the first smartphone that integrated the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built in to the OS.
The 180 model had a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version had a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead. In 1999, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode, a new