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The National Archives (United Kingdom)

The National Archives is a non-ministerial government department. Its parent department is the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, it is the official archive for England and Wales. There are separate national archives for Northern Ireland. TNA was four separate organisations: the Public Record Office, the Historical Manuscripts Commission, the Office of Public Sector Information and Her Majesty's Stationery Office; the Public Record Office still exists as a legal entity, as the enabling legislation has not been modified, documents held by the institution thus continue to be cited by many scholars as part of the PRO. Since 2008, TNA has hosted the former UK Statute Law Database, now known as legislation.gov.uk. It is institutional policy to include the definite article, with an initial capital letter, in its name but this practice is not always followed in the non-specialist media; the National Archives is based in Kew in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London.

The building was opened in 1977 as an additional home for the public records, which were held in a building on Chancery Lane. The site was a World War I hospital, used by several government departments, it is near to Kew Gardens Underground station. Until its closure in March 2008, the Family Records Centre in Islington was run jointly by The National Archives and the General Register Office; the National Archives has an additional office in Norwich, for former OPSI staff. There is an additional record storage facility in the worked-out parts of Winsford Rock Salt Mine, Cheshire. For earlier history, see Public Record Office; the National Archives was created in 2003 by combining the Public Record Office and the Historical Manuscripts Commission and is a non-ministerial department reporting to the Minister of State for digital policy. On 31 October 2006, The National Archives merged with the Office of Public Sector Information, which itself contained Her Majesty's Stationery Office, a part of the Cabinet Office.

The name remained The National Archives. 1991–2005: Sarah Tyacke 2005–2010: Natalie Ceeney 2010–2013: Oliver Morley 2013–2014: Clem Brohier 2014–present: Jeff James TNA claims it is "at the heart of information policy—setting standards and supporting innovation in information and records management across the UK, providing a practical framework of best practice for opening up and encouraging the re-use of public sector information. This work helps inform today's decisions and ensure that they become tomorrow's permanent record." It has a number of key roles in information policy: Policy – advising government on information practice and policy, on issues from record creation through to its reuse Selection – selecting which documents to store Preservation – ensuring the documents remain in as good a condition as possible Access – providing the public with the opportunity to view the documents Advice – advising the public and other archives and archivists around the world on how to care for documents Intellectual property management – TNA manages crown copyright for the UK Regulation – ensuring that other public sector organisations adhere to both the public records act and the PSI reuse regulations.

The National Archives has long had a role of oversight and leadership for the entire archives sector and archives profession in the UK, including local government and non-governmental archives. Under the Public Records Act 1958 it is responsible for overseeing the appropriate custody of certain non-governmental public records in England and Wales. Under the 2003 Historical Manuscripts Commission Warrant it has responsibility for investigating and reporting on non-governmental records and archives of all kinds throughout the United Kingdom. In October 2011, when the Museums and Archives Council was wound up, TNA took over its responsibilities in respect of archives in England, including providing information and advice to ministers on archives policy; the National Archives now sees this part of its role as being "to enhance the'archival health of the nation'". The National Archives is the UK government's official archive, "containing 1000 years of history from Domesday Book to the present", with records from parchment and paper scrolls through to digital files and archived websites.

The material held at Kew includes the following: Documents from the central courts of law from the twelfth century onwards, including the Court of King's Bench, the Court of Common Pleas, the Court of Chancery, the Court of Exchequer, the Supreme Court of Judicature, the Central Criminal Court and many other courts Medieval, early modern and modern records of central government A large and disparate collection of maps and architectural drawings Records for family historians including wills, naturalisation certificates and criminal records Service and operational records of the armed forces War Office, Admiralty etc. Foreign Office and Colonial Office correspondence and files Cabinet papers and Home Office records Statistics of the Board of Trade The surviving records of the English railway companies, transferred from the British Railways Record OfficeThere is a museum, which displays key documents such as Domesday Book and has exhibitions on various topics using material from the collectio

Hubert Beckers

Hubert Beckers was a German philosopher known chiefly as an expositor of the philosophy of Schelling. He was born at Munich, studied at the university there. In 1832 he was appointed professor of philosophy at the Lyceum at Dillingen, in 1847 professor of philosophy at the University of Munich. In 1853 he became a member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Ueber das Wesen des Gefühles – On the essence of feeling. Cantica Spiritualia. Denkrede auf Schelling – Commemorative address of Schelling. Ueber die Bedeutung der Schellingschen Metaphysik – On the significance of Schelling's metaphysics. Ueber die Wahre und Bleibende Bedeutung der Naturphilosophie Schelling's – On the true and lasting significance of Schelling's natural philosophy. Aphorismen über Tod und Unsterblichkeit – Aphorisms about death and immortality. Gilman, D. C.. "Beckers, Hubert". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Beckers, Hubert". Encyclopedia Americana

Piano Sonata No. 3 (Brahms)

The Piano Sonata No. 3 in F minor, Op. 5 of Johannes Brahms was written in 1853 and published the following year. The sonata is unusually large, consisting of five movements, as opposed to the traditional three or four; when he wrote this piano sonata, the genre was seen by many to be past its heyday. Brahms, enamored of Beethoven and the classical style, composed Piano Sonata No. 3 with a masterful combination of free Romantic spirit and strict classical architecture. As a further testament to Brahms' affinity for Beethoven, the Piano Sonata is infused with the recognizable motive from Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 during the first and fourth movements. Composed in Düsseldorf, it marks the end of his cycle of three sonatas, was presented to Robert Schumann in November of that year. Brahms was 20 years old at its composition; the piece is dedicated to Countess Ida von Hohenthal of Leipzig. A performance of the work lasts between 30 and 40 minutes, depending on whether repeats are observed; the sonata is in five movements: The first movement begins with fortissimo chords that span the entire range of the piano register.

A movement in sonata form, it is composed of two musical subjects. The first of these is in F minor, followed by a brief episode that features the "fate motif" from Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in the same key as the symphony, C minor. After a return of the initial F minor subject, the second subject area begins in the key of the relative major but ends in D♭ major. Brahms uses these keys in the same way in the second movement of this sonata as well; the exposition is repeated and leads to a complex development section in which the "fate motif" is incorporated. After the beginning of the recapitulation, the piece moves directly to the second subject, by-passing the C minor episode, in the parallel key of F major, finishes with an extended coda; the second movement begins with a quotation above the music of a poem by Otto Inkermann under the pseudonym C. O. Sternau. Symbolizing the two beating hearts in this Andante are its two principal themes, one in A♭ major and the other in D♭ major, which alternate throughout the movement.

Like the second subject of the first movement's exposition, this movement exemplifies progressive tonality as it ends in D♭ major rather than the key in which it began, A♭ major. The third movement, a scherzo and trio, begins in F minor with a musical quotation of the beginning of the finale of Felix Mendelssohn's Piano Trio No. 2, Op. 66. In contrast to the tumult of the scherzo, the trio in D♭ major is calm and lyrical, the accompanying bass too refers to Beethoven's "fate motif". Once the trio brings back the movement's opening material at its close, the scherzo is repeated in whole; the fourth movement is marked as an intermezzo and is given the title "Rückblick" "Remembrance". It begins in the key of B ♭ minor. Like the opening and third movements, the "fate motif" figures prominently throughout the intermezzo; the fifth and final movement is a rondo in the home key of F minor. It explores several ideas that become intertwined in the triumphant close. Notably, the first diversion from the rondo theme begins with a musical cryptogram, a personal musical motto of his lifelong friend Joseph Joachim, the F–A–E theme, which stands for Frei aber einsam.

The second episode, in D♭ major, uses four pitches, F, E♭, D♭, A♭, as the basis for a great deal of the musical material that follows. Like Brahms's Piano Sonata No. 2, this sonata's finale ends in the parallel major. Piano Sonata No. 1 Piano Sonata No. 2 F-A-E Sonata Piano Sonata No. 3: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Misato Yokoyama plays Piano Sonata No. 3 in F minor, Op. 5 by Brahms on Classical Connect