Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization, is a term used broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. The term applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. For example, Western culture includes countries in the Americas and Australasia, whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are European; the development of western culture has been influenced by Christianity. Western culture is characterized by a host of artistic, philosophic and legal themes and traditions; these include Judeo-Christian traditions. Christianity, including the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century as did Judaism.
Before the Cold War era, the traditional English viewpoint identified Western civilization with the Western Christian countries and culture. A cornerstone of Western thought, beginning in ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, is the idea of rationalism in various spheres of life religion, developed by Hellenistic philosophy and humanism; the Catholic Church was for centuries at the center of the development of the values, science and institutions which constitute Western civilization. Empiricism gave rise to the scientific method, the scientific revolution, the Age of Enlightenment. Influenced by earlier Ancient Near Eastern civilizations, Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of many elements of Western culture, including the development of a democratic system of government and major advances in philosophy and mathematics; the expansion of Greek culture into the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean led to a synthesis between Greek and Near-Eastern cultures, major advances in literature and science, provided the culture for the expansion of early Christianity and the Greek New Testament.
This period overlapped with and was followed by Rome, which made key contributions in law, government and political organization. After the fall of the Roman Empire, many of the classical Greek texts were translated into Arabic and preserved in the medieval Islamic world, from where the Greek classics along with Arabic advances were transmitted to Western Europe and translated into Latin during the Renaissance of the 12th century and 13th century. Western culture continued to develop with the Christianisation of Europe during the Middle Ages and the reform and modernization triggered by the Renaissance, as Greek scholars fleeing the fall of the Byzantine Empire brought classical traditions and philosophy to Western Europe. Medieval Christianity is credited with creating the modern university, the modern hospital system, scientific economics, natural law and numerous other innovations across all intellectual fields. Christianity played a role in ending practices common among pagan societies, such as human sacrifice, slavery and polygamy.
The globalization by successive European colonial empires spread European ways of life and European educational methods around the world between the 16th and 20th centuries. European culture developed with a complex range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism and mysticism and Christian and secular humanism. Rational thinking developed through a long age of change and formation, with the experiments of the Enlightenment and breakthroughs in the sciences. Tendencies that have come to define modern Western societies include the concept of political pluralism, prominent subcultures or countercultures and increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration; the West as a geographical area is undefined. More a country's ideology is what will be used to categorize it as a Western society. There is some disagreement about what nations should or should not be included in the category and at what times. Many parts of the Eastern Roman Empire are considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past.
However, in the past it was the Eastern Roman Empire that had many features now seen as "Western," preserving Roman law, first codified by Justinian in the east, as well as the traditions of scholarship around Plato and Euclid that were introduced to Italy during the Renaissance by Greek scholars fleeing the fall of Constantinople. Thus, the culture identified with West itself interchanges with time and place. Geographically, the "West" of today would include Europe together with extra-European territories belonging to the English-speaking world, the Hispanidad, the Lusosphere. Since the context is biased and context-dependent, there is no agreed definition what the "West" is, it is difficult to determine which individuals fit into which category and the East–West contrast is sometimes criticized as relativistic and arbitrary. Globalism has spread Western ideas so that all modern cultures are, to some extent, influenced by aspects of Western culture. Stereotyped views of "the West" have been labeled Occidentalism, paralleling Orienta
An empire is a sovereign state functioning as an aggregate of nations or people that are ruled over by an emperor or another kind of monarch. The territory and population of an empire is of greater extent than the one of a kingdom. An empire can be made of contiguous territories, such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Russian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire. Aside from the more formal usage, the word empire can refer colloquially to a large-scale business enterprise, a political organisation controlled by a single individual, or a group; the word empire is associated with such other words as imperialism and globalization. Empire is used to describe a displeasure to overpowering situations. An imperial political structure can be established and maintained in two ways: as a territorial empire of direct conquest and control with force or as a coercive, hegemonic empire of indirect conquest and control with power; the former method provides greater tribute and direct political control, yet limits further expansion because it absorbs military forces to fixed garrisons.
The latter method provides less tribute and indirect control, but avails military forces for further expansion. Territorial empires tend to be contiguous areas; the term, on occasion, has been applied to maritime empires or thalassocracies with looser structures and more scattered territories. An empire is a multi-ethnic or multinational state with political and/or military dominion of populations who are culturally and ethnically distinct from the imperial ethnic group and its culture; this is in contrast to a federation, an extensive state voluntarily composed of autonomous states and peoples. An empire is a large polity. Definitions of what physically and politically constitute an empire vary, it might be a state affecting a particular political structure. Empires are formed from diverse ethnic, national and religious components.'Empire' and'colonialism' are used to refer to relationships between powerful state or society versus a less powerful one. Tom Nairn and Paul James define empires as polities that "extend relations of power across territorial spaces over which they have no prior or given legal sovereignty, where, in one or more of the domains of economics and culture, they gain some measure of extensive hegemony over those spaces for the purpose of extracting or accruing value".
Rein Taagepera has defined an empire as "any large sovereign political entity whose components are not sovereign". Sometimes, an empire is a semantic construction, such as when a ruler assumes the title of "emperor"; that ruler's nation logically becomes an "empire", despite having no additional territory or hegemony. Examples of this form of empire are the Central African Empire, or the Korean Empire proclaimed in 1897 when Korea, far from gaining new territory, was on the verge of being annexed by the Empire of Japan, the last to use the name officially. Among the last of the empires in the 20th century were the Central African Empire, Vietnam, the German Empire, Korea; the terrestrial empire's maritime analogue is the thalassocracy, an empire composed of islands and coasts which are accessible to its terrestrial homeland, such as the Athenian-dominated Delian League. Furthermore, empires can expand by both sea. Stephen Howe notes that empires by land can be characterized by expansion over terrain, "extending directly outwards from the original frontier" while an empire by sea can be characterized by colonial expansion and empire building "by an powerful navy".
Empires originated as different types of states, although they began as powerful monarchies. Ideas about empires have changed over time. Empires are built out of separate units with some kind of diversity – ethnic, cultural, religious – and imply at least some inequality between the rulers and the ruled. Without this inequality, the system would be seen as a commonwealth. Throughout history, the major powers of the world seek to conquer other parts of the world. Most of the powers were centralized for example the Roman Empire. During the Age of Discovery, the idea of taking over other nations was brought back in a more modernized way. Imperialism is the idea of a major power controlling another nation or land with the intentions to use the native people and resources to help the mother country in any way possible. Many empires were the result of military conquest, incorporating the vanquished states into a political union, but imperial hegemony can be established in other ways; the Athenian Empire, the Roman Empire, the British Empire developed at least in part under elective auspices.
The Empire of Brazil declared itself an empire after separating from the Portuguese Empire in 1822. France has twice transitioned from being called the French Republic to being called the French Empire while it retained an overseas empire. Weaker states may seek annexation into the empire. An example is the bequest of Pergamon to the Roman Empire by Attalus III; the Unification of Germany as the empire accreted to the Prussian metropole was less a military conquest of the German states than their political divorce from the Austrian Empire, which ruled loosely over the Holy Roman Empire. Having convinced the other states of its military prowess, having excluded the Austrians, Prussia dictated the terms of imperial membership. Politically, it was typica
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Geopolitics is the study of the effects of Earth's geography on politics and international relations. While geopolitics refers to countries and relations between them, it may focus on two other kinds of states: de facto independent states with limited international recognition and. At the level of international relations, geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand and predict international political behavior through geographical variables; these include area studies, topography, natural resources, applied science of the region being evaluated. Geopolitics focuses on political power linked to geographic space. In particular, territorial waters and land territory in correlation with diplomatic history. Topics of geopolitics include relations between the interests of international political actors and interests focused within an area, a space, or a geographical element. "Critical geopolitics" deconstructs classical geopolitical theories, by showing their political/ideological functions for great powers.
According to Christopher Gogwilt and other researchers, the term is being used to describe a broad spectrum of concepts, in a general sense used as "a synonym for international political relations", but more "to imply the global structure of such relations", which builds on "early-twentieth-century term for a pseudoscience of political geography" and other pseudoscientific theories of historical and geographic determinism. Oil and international competition over oil and gas resources was one of the main foci of the geopolitics literature from World War and onward. From about 2010, a new branch of the literature emerged, focusing on international power relations related to renewable energy. Alfred Thayer Mahan, a frequent commentator on world naval strategic and diplomatic affairs, believed that national greatness was inextricably associated with the sea—and with its commercial use in peace and its control in war. Mahan's theoretical framework came from Antoine-Henri Jomini, emphasized that strategic locations, as well as quantifiable levels of fighting power in a fleet, were conducive to control over the sea.
He proposed six conditions required for a nation to have sea power: Advantageous geographical position. Mahan distinguished a key region of the world in the Eurasian context, the Central Zone of Asia lying between 30° and 40° north and stretching from Asia Minor to Japan. In this zone independent countries still survived – Turkey, Afghanistan and Japan. Mahan regarded those countries, located between Britain and Russia, as if between "Scylla and Charybdis". Of the two monsters – Britain and Russia – it was the latter that Mahan considered more threatening to the fate of Central Asia. Mahan was impressed by Russia's transcontinental size and strategically favorable position for southward expansion. Therefore, he found it necessary for the Anglo-Saxon "sea power". Homer Lea in The Day of the Saxon described that the entire Anglo-Saxon race faced a threat from German and Japanese expansionism: The "fatal" relationship of Russia and Germany "has now assumed through the urgency of natural forces a coalition directed against the survival of Saxon supremacy."
It is "a dreadful Dreibund". Lea believed that while Japan moved against Far East and Russia against India, the Germans would strike at England, the center of the British Empire, he thought. Two famous Security Advisers from the Cold War period, Henry Kissinger and Zbigniew Brzezinski, argued to continue the United States geopolitical focus on Eurasia and on Russia, despite the dissolution of the USSR and the end of the Cold War. Both continued their influence on geopolitics after the end of the Cold War, writing books on the subject in the 1990s—Diplomacy and The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives; the Anglo-American classical geopolitical theories were revived. Kissinger argued against the approach that with the dissolution of the USSR hostile intentions had disappeared and traditional foreign policy considerations no longer applied. "They would argue … that Russia, regardless of who govern it, sits astride the territory Halford Mackinder called the geopolitical heartland, is the heir to one of the most potent imperial traditions."
Therefore the United States must "maintain the global balance of power vis-à-vis the country with a long history of expansionism."After Russia, the second geopolitical threat remained Germany and, as Mackinder had feared ninety years ago, its partnership with Russia. During the Cold War, Kissinger argues, both sides of the Atlantic recognized that, "unless America is organically involved in Europe, it would be obliged to involve itself under circumstances far less favorable to both sides of the Atlantic; that is more true today. Germany has become so strong that existing European institutions cannot by themselves strike a balance between Germany and its European partners. Nor can Europe with Germany, manage by itself Russia." Thus Kissinger belied it is
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may study and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this field there are many sub-fields, ranging from the broad philosophical theories to the focused study of minutiae within specific markets, macroeconomic analysis, microeconomic analysis or financial statement analysis, involving analytical methods and tools such as econometrics, economics computational models, financial economics, mathematical finance and mathematical economics; the professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as "the main change in economics since around 1900." Economists debate the path. It is a debate between a scholastic orientation, focused on mathematical techniques, a public discourse orientation, more focused on communicating to lay people pertinent economic principles as they relate to public policy. Surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter.
Most major universities have an economics faculty, school or department, where academic degrees are awarded in economics. Getting a PhD in economics takes six years, on average, with a median of 5.3 years. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, established by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968, is a prize awarded to economists each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics; the prize winners are announced in October every year. They receive their awards on the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. Economists work in many fields including academia, government and in the private sector, where they may "...study data and statistics in order to spot trends in economic activity, economic confidence levels, consumer attitudes. They assess this information using advanced methods in statistical analysis, computer programming they make recommendations about ways to improve the efficiency of a system or take advantage of trends as they begin."In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, there is not a required educational requirement or license for economists.
In academia, to be called an economist requires a Ph. D. degree in Economics. In the US government, on the other hand, a person can be hired as an economist provided that they have a degree that included or was supplemented by 21 semester hours in economics and three hours in statistics, accounting, or calculus. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having an academic degree in this subject is considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are employed in banking, accountancy, marketing, business administration and non- or not-for profit organizations. Politicians consult economists before enacting economic policy. Many statesmen have academic degrees in economics. Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario and labour market conditions at the time for a given country. Apart from the specific understanding of the subject, employers value the skills of numeracy and analysis, the ability to communicate and the capacity to grasp broad issues which the graduates acquire at the university or college.
Whilst only a few economics graduates may be expected to become professional economists, many find it a base for entry into a career in finance – including accounting, insurance and banking, or management. A number of economics graduates from around the world have been successful in obtaining employment in a variety of major national and international firms in the financial and commercial sectors, in manufacturing, retailing and IT, as well as in the public sector – for example, in the health and education sectors, or in government and politics. Small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas. In Brazil, unlike most countries in the world where the profession is not regulated, the profession of Economist is regulated by Law. 1411 of August 13, 1951. The professional designation of economist, according to the said law, is exclusive to the bachelors in economics graduates in Brazil. According to the United States Department of Labor, there were about 15,000 non-academic economists in the United States in 2008, with a median salary of $83,000 the top ten percent earning more than $147,040 annually.
Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new Ph. D.s every year. Incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes; as of January 2013, PayScale.com showed Ph. D. economists' salary ranges as follows: all Ph. D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000. D. corporate economists, $71,000 to $207,000. The largest single professional grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service, who work in 30 government departments and agencies. Analysis of destination surveys for economics graduates from a number of selected top schools of economics in the United Kingdom, shows nearly 80 percent in employment six months after graduation – with a wide range of roles and employers, including regional and international organisations, across many sectors; this figure compares favourably with the national picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment. Some current we
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. In 2009, official US troops were withdrawn, but American soldiers continued to remain on the ground fighting in Iraq, hired by defence contractors and private military companies; the U. S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U. S. President George W. Bush following the unrelated September 11 terrorist attacks. In October 2002, President Bush obtained congressional approval from a Democrat-led Senate and Republican-led House authorizing war-making powers.
The Iraq war began on 19 March 2003, when the U. S. joined by the U. K. and several coalition allies, launched a "awe" bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were overwhelmed as U. S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U. S. and coalition forces. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by al-Qaeda in Iraq; the United States responded with a troop surge in 2007, a build up of 170,000 troops. The surge in troops gave greater security to Iraq’s government and military, was a success; the winding down of U. S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U. S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011. However, with no stay-behind agreement or advisers left in Iraq, a new power vacuum was created and led to the rise of ISIS.
Nine months after President Trump was elected, U. S.-backed forces captured Raqqa. The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, viewed by the U. S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction and that there was concern about an active WMD program, that the Iraqi government posed a threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Select U. S. officials accused Saddam of harbouring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. Hundreds of chemical weapons were found in Iraq, which were determined to be produced before the 1991 Gulf War, intelligence officials determined they were "so old they couldn't be used as designed." From 2004 to 2011, US troops and American-trained Iraqi troops encountered, on six reported occasions were wounded by, chemical weapons from years earlier in Saddam Hussein's rule. 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs were discovered.
The rationale of U. S. pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism both domestically and internationally. From 2009 to 2011, the UK conducted a broad inquiry into its decision to go to war chaired by Sir John Chilcot; the Chilcot Report, published in 2016, concluded military action may have been necessary but was not the last resort at the time and that the consequences of invasion were underestimated. In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014; the al-Maliki government enacted policies that were seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies; the Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths.
The majority of deaths occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007. Strong international opposition to the Saddam Hussein regime began after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990; the international community condemned the invasion, in 1991 a military coalition led by the United States launched the Gulf War to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Following the Gulf War, the US and its allies tried to keep Saddam in check with a policy of containment; this policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council. The inspections were carried out by the United Nations Special Commission. UNSCOM, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, worked to ensure that Iraq destroyed its chemical and nuclear weapons and facilities. In the decade following the Gulf War, the United Nations passed 16 Security Council resolutions calling for the complete elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. Member states communicated their frustration over the years that Iraq was impeding the work of the special commission and failing to take its disarmament obligations.
Iraqi officials harass
An ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons. The term is used to describe a system of ideas and ideals which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy. In political science it is used in a descriptive sense to refer to political belief systems. In social science there are many political ideologies; the term was coined by Antoine Destutt de Tracy, a French Enlightenment aristocrat and philosopher, who conceived it in 1796 as the "science of ideas" during the French Reign of Terror by trying to develop a rational system of ideas to oppose the irrational impulses of the mob. However, in contemporary philosophy it is narrower in scope than that original concept, or the ideas expressed in broad concepts such as worldview, The Imaginary and in ontology. In the sense defined by French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, ideology is "the imagined existence of things as it relates to the real conditions of existence".
The term "ideology" was born during the Reign of Terror of French Revolution, acquired several other meanings thereafter. The word, the system of ideas associated with it, was coined by Antoine Destutt de Tracy in 1796, while he was in prison pending trial during the Terror; the word was created by assembling the words idea, from Greek ἰδέα and -logy, from -λογία. He devised the term for a "science of ideas" he hoped would form a secure foundation for the moral and political sciences, he based the word on two things: 1) sensations people experience as they interact with the material world. He conceived "Ideology" as a liberal philosophy that would defend individual liberty, free markets, constitutional limits on state power, he argues that among these aspects ideology is the most generic term, because the science of ideas contains the study of their expression and deduction. The coup that overthrew Maximilien Robespierre allowed Tracy to pursue his work. Tracy reacted to the terroristic phase of the revolution by trying to work out a rational system of ideas to oppose the irrational mob impulses that had nearly destroyed him.
Napoleon Bonaparte came to view'Ideology' a term of abuse, which he hurled against his liberal foes in Tracy's Institut National. According to Karl Mannheim's historical reconstruction of the shifts in the meaning of ideology, the modern meaning of the word was born when Napoleon used it to describe his opponents as "the ideologues". Karl Marx used it in his writings. Tracy's major book, The Elements of Ideology, was soon translated into the major languages of Europe, in the next generation, when post-Napoleonic governments adopted a reactionary stance, influenced the Italian and Russian thinkers who had begun to describe themselves as "liberals" and who attempted to reignite revolutionary activity in the early 1820s. In the century after Tracy, the term ideology moved back and forth between positive and negative connotations; the term "ideology" has dropped some of its pejorative sting, has become a neutral term in the analysis of differing political opinions and views of social groups. While Karl Marx situated the term within class struggle and domination, others believed it was a necessary part of institutional functioning and social integration.
During considerable analysis of different ideological patterns, some have described the analysis as meta-ideology. Recent analysis tends to posit that ideology is a coherent system of ideas that rely on a few basic assumptions about reality that may or may not have any factual basis. Through this system, ideas become coherent repeated patterns through the subjective ongoing choices that people make; these ideas serve as the seed. Believers in ideology range from passive acceptance through fervent advocacy to true belief. According to most recent analysis, ideologies are neither right nor wrong. Definitions, such as by Manfred Steger and Paul James emphasize both the issue of patterning and contingent claims to truth: Ideologies are patterned clusters of normatively imbued ideas and concepts, including particular representations of power relations; these conceptual maps help people navigate the complexity of their political universe and carry claims to social truth. The works of George Walford and Harold Walsby, done under the heading of systematic ideology, are attempts to explore the relationships between ideology and social systems.
Charles Blattberg offers an account that distinguishes political ideologies from political philosophies. David W. Minar describes six different ways the word "ideology" has been used: As a collection of certain ideas with certain kinds of content norma