Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la
An Phoblacht was a weekly, monthly, newspaper published by Sinn Féin in Ireland. From early 2018 An Phoblacht will move to a magazine format. Editorially the paper took a left-wing, Irish republican position and was supportive of the Northern Ireland peace process. Along with covering Irish political and trade union issues the newspaper featured interviews with celebrities, artists and international activists; the paper sold an average of up to 15,000 copies every week. During the 1981 Irish hunger strike its sales soared to over 70,000 per week, it was the first Irish paper to provide an edition online and has in excess of 100,000 website hits per week. The original An Phoblacht was founded as the official organ of the Dungannon Clubs in Belfast in 1906 and its first edition was printed on 13 December 1906 under the English-language version of the title The Republic. In the first edition, Bulmer Hobson, one of the founders of the Dungannon Clubs, set out their aims: "Ireland today claims her place among the free peoples of the Earth.
She has never surrendered that claim, nor will she surrender it, today forces are working in Ireland that will not be still until her claim is acknowledged and her voice heard in the councils of the nations." A year the paper merged with a Dublin title called The Peasant. However, the title An Phoblacht was again used from 1925 with Patrick Little as editor and continued until 1937 with a tumultuous history of internal splits and constant state oppression. From 1925 into 1926 Seán Lemass wrote a number of articles advocating the engagement into politics prior to the establishment of Fianna Fáil. Peadar O'Donnell took over as editor in April 1926 following a split in the republican movement. Frank Ryan edited the paper for some time other contributors were Maurice Twomey, Seán MacBride, Frank Gallagher, Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington and Fr Michael O'Flanagan, were just some of the prominent contributors during this time; the title appeared again in 1966 as the paper of a small IRA splinter group based in Cork.
Its modern version was again refounded following the Sinn Féin split by Jimmy Steele in January 1970, An Phoblacht supporting the group led by Ruaírí O'Bradaigh that became the Provisional IRA when the split with the Official Irish Republican Army occurred. In 1970, An Phoblacht was at first circulated only in the South with another republican paper established in Northern Ireland in 1970, Republican News, under the editorship of veteran republican Jimmy Steele, it supported the campaign of the Provisional Irish Republican Army and published a weekly column titled "War News", which outlined IRA actions and conflict with the British Army, provided in depth analysis of the policies being formulated by the Republican Movement. An Phoblacht began with a circulation of 20,000 per month. Located at 2a Lower Kevin Street in Dublin’s south inner city, it moved to the northside of the capital, to Kevin Barry House, 44 Parnell Square, in August 1972, and in that October it became a fortnightly publication under the editorship of Éamonn MacThomáis, a writer and historian who instituted changes in layout and general improvements so that it became a weekly publication.
After 1976, the Minister for Post and Telecommunications, Conor Cruise O'Brien, a Labour Party minister in the Fine Gael/Labour coalition, strengthened Jack Lynch’s original 1971 Section 31 censorship directive banning members of the IRA or its political wing Sinn Féin from the airwaves. However this ban did not extend to the print media. Section 31 produced a climate where many career journalists engaged in self-censorship to avoid official opprobrium. An Phoblacht became more important in disseminating the republican message and highlighting what it saw as the naked state oppression by the Unionist Party and the Royal Ulster Constabulary in Northern Ireland. However, it was the southern Irish government which harassed An Phoblacht most stridently, with regular Garda Special Branch investigations into the publication's links to the IRA. Mac Thomáis was arrested and charged with IRA membership and sentenced to 15 months’ imprisonment having been found guilty of the offence; the paper continued under the stewardship of Dublin journalist Deasún Breathnach until Mac Thomáis resumed duties on his release in July 1974.
Within two months, Mac Thomáis was again sentenced to another 15 months. Another editor, Coleman Moynihan, who had succeeded Seán Ó Brádaigh in 1972, suffered a similar fate; the paper continued on with the succeeding editors being Gerry Danaher, Gerry O’Hare, Deasún Breathnach. The Republican Movement felt that a single paper for the whole of Ireland was required to provide a clear and coherent line from the leadership and to counter what they regarded as any partitionist thinking which might flow from the British division of Ireland. Accordingly, on 27 January 1979, the first 12-page issue of the merged publications, under the banner of An Phoblacht/Republican News, appeared under the editorship of Danny Morrison. In the final editorial of Republican News on 20 January 1979, the essential thinking behind the merger was outlined: "To improve on both our reporting and analysis of the war in the North and of popular economic and social struggles in the South... the absolute necessity of one single united paper providing a clear line of republican leadership... the need to overcome any partitionist thinking which results from the British-enforced division of this
Unionism in Ireland
Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. Since the partition of Ireland, unionism in Ireland has focused on maintaining and preserving the place of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom. In this context, a distinction may be made between the unionism in the province of Ulster and unionism elsewhere in Ireland. Today in Northern Ireland, unionist ideology is expressed in a number of ways: voting for political candidates who espouse unionism, participation in unionist culture, preferences for particular newspapers or sports teams. Irish nationalism is opposed to the ideology of unionism. Most unionists come from Protestant backgrounds. Exceptions to these generalisations exist: there are Protestant nationalists and there are Catholic unionists; the political relationship between England and Ireland dates from the 12th century with the establishment of the Lordship of Ireland. After four centuries of the Lordship, the declaration of the independence of the Church of England from papal supremacy and the rejection of the authority of the Holy See required the creation of a new basis to legitimise the continued rule of the English monarch in Ireland.
In 1542, the Crown of Ireland Act was passed by both the Irish Parliaments. The Act established a sovereign Kingdom of Ireland with Henry VIII as King of Ireland. Both parliaments passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which a new state was created - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, twenty-six counties of Ireland gained autonomy from the U. K. as the Irish Free State. The Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth of Nations; the remaining six counties of the island of Ireland constituted the territory of Northern Ireland. In 1927, the realm, consisting of combined territories of Northern Ireland and Great Britain, was renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Today, unionism is exclusively an issue for Northern Ireland, it is concerned with relationship between Northern Ireland and Great Britain. Irish unionism is centred on an identification with Protestantism in the sense of Britishness, although not to the exclusion of a sense of Irishness or of an affinity to Northern Ireland specifically.
Unionism emerged as a unified force in opposition to William Ewart Gladstone's Home Rule Bill of 1886. Irish nationalists believed in separation from Great Britain, whether through repeal of the 1800 Act of Union, "home rule", or complete independence. Unionists believed in maintaining and deepening the relationship between the various nations of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, they expressed pride in symbols of Britishness. A key symbol for unionists is the Union Flag. Unionist areas of Northern Ireland display this and other symbols to show the loyalty and sense of identity of the community. Unionism is known for its allegiance to the person of the British monarch and today. Most unionists in Ireland have been Protestants and most nationalists have been Catholics, this remains the case. However, a significant number of Protestants have adhered to the nationalist cause, with Catholics and unionism; these phenomena continue to exist in Northern Ireland. Both unionism and nationalism have had anti-sectarian elements.
While nationalism has had a number of Protestant leaders, unionism was invariably always led by Protestant leaders and politicians. Prior to a decades-long ban, Catholics had been allowed to be members of the UUP as as the 1920s, including Denis Henry, a member of the UUP from its foundation in 1905 and a UUP MP for South Londonderry. Catholics were once more permitted to join the UUP in the 1960s but their continued dearth among the leadership, meant the UUP were still vulnerable to accusations of sectarianism. Only one Catholic, G. B. Newe, served in the Government of Northern Ireland. In his Nobel Peace Prize acceptance lecture in 1998, UUP leader David Trimble suggested that Northern Ireland had been a "cold house" for Catholics in the past. People espousing unionist beliefs are sometimes referred to as loyalists; the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but the latter is more associated with hardline forms of unionism. In some cases it has been associated with individual or groups who support or engage in political violence.
Most unionists do not describe themselves as loyalists. In Irish, the terms aontachtóir and dílseoir are used. A similar distinction exists in relation to Irish nationalists. Mainstream nationalists, such as the supporters of the Social Democratic and Labour Party and the main parties in the Republic of Ireland, are referred to by that term; the more militant strand of nationalism, which includes groups such as Sinn Féin and 32 County Sovereignty Movement, is known as republicanism. In the Republic of Ireland, the republican tradition has moved into the mainstream. Today the republican party, Fianna Fáil, has little in common with militant republicans other than certain ideological and historical perspectives. In Irish, the terms poblachtánach and náisiúnach are used. Unionism has tra
Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format; the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages; the word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as "Tabloid" pills in the late 1880s. The connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items. A 1902 item in London's Westminster Gazette noted, "The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals." Thus "tabloid journalism" in 1901 meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified absorbed format.
The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories. Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, vary in their target market, political alignment, editorial style, circulation. Thus, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two main types of tabloid newspaper: red top and compact; the distinction is of editorial style. Red top tabloids are so named due to their tendency, in British and Commonwealth usage, to have their mastheads printed in red ink. Red top tabloids, named after their distinguishing red mastheads, employ a form of writing known as tabloid journalism. Celebrity gossip columns which appear in red top tabloids and focus on their sexual practices, misuse of narcotics, the private aspects of their lives border on, sometimes cross the line of defamation. Red tops tend to be written with a straightforward vocabulary and grammar; the writing style of red top tabloids is accused of sensationalism.
In the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation. Examples of British red top newspapers include the Daily Star and the Daily Mirror. In contrast to red-top tabloids, compacts use an editorial style more associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids used the broadsheet paper size, but changed to accommodate reading in tight spaces, such as on a crowded commuter bus or train; the term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the earlier newspapers to make the change, although it now once again calls itself a tabloid. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, salacious editorial style of the red top newspaper; the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s. In 2003, The Independent made the change for the same reasons followed by The Scotsman and The Times. On the other hand, The Morning Star had always used the tabloid size, but stands in contrast to both the red top papers and the former broadsheets.
Compact tabloids, just like broadsheet- and Berliner-format newspapers, span the political spectrum from progressive to conservative and from capitalist to socialist. In Morocco, Maroc Soir, launched in November 2005, is published in tabloid format. In South Africa, the Bloemfontein-based daily newspaper Volksblad became the first serious broadsheet newspaper to switch to tabloid, but only on Saturdays. Despite the format proving to be popular with its readers, the newspaper remains broadsheet on weekdays; this is true of Pietermaritzburg's daily, The Witness in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The Daily Sun, published by Naspers, has since become South Africa's biggest-selling daily newspaper and is aimed at the black working class, it sells over 500,000 copies per day, reaching 3,000,000 readers. Besides offering a sometimes satirical view of the seriousness of mainstream news, the Daily Sun covers fringe theories and paranormal claims such as tokoloshes, ancestral visions and all things supernatural.
It is published as the Sunday Sun. In Bangladesh, The Daily Manabzamin became the first and is now the largest circulated Bengali language tabloid in the world, in 1998. Published from Bangladesh, by renowned news presenter Mahbuba Chowdhury, the Daily Manab Zamin is ranked in the Top 500 newspaper websites, in the Top 10 Bengali news site categories in the world, is the only newspaper in Bangladesh which houses credentials with FIFA, UEFA, The Football Association, Warner Bros. A
Johnston Press plc, was a multimedia company founded in Falkirk, Scotland in 1767. Its flagship titles included UK-national newspaper the i, The Scotsman, the Yorkshire Post, the Falkirk Herald, Belfast's The News Letter; the company was operating around 200 newspapers and associated websites around the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man when it went into administration in 2018. The Falkirk Herald was the company's first acquisition in 1846. Johnston Press's assets were transferred to JPIMedia in 2018. Johnston Press announced it would place itself in administration on 16 November 2018 after it was unable to find a suitable buyer of the business to refinance £220m of debt, it was de-listed from the London Stock Exchange on 19 November 2018. Johnston Press and its assets were brought under the control of JPIMedia on 17 November 2018 after a pre-packaged deal was agreed with creditors; the Johnston family business was involved in printing from 1797 in Falkirk. It bought control of its first newspaper, the Falkirk Herald, in 1846.
The company would remain headquartered in Falkirk for the next 150 years. The family publishing company was renamed F Johnston & Co Ltd in 1882, a title it would retain until it was floated on the London Stock Exchange as Johnston Press in 1988; the company's first major acquisition came in 1970, when it took control of the Fife-based publishers Strachan & Livingston. In 1978 it bought Wilfred Edmunds Ltd in Chesterfield, publisher of the Derbyshire Times and The Yorkshire Weekly Newspaper Group in Wakefield; the Company bought The West Sussex County Times in 1988, The Halifax Evening Courier in 1994 and the newspaper interests of EMAP plc in 1996. Further expansion followed with Portsmouth & Sunderland Newspapers in 1999 and Regional Independent Media Holdings in 2002; the Company expanded into the Irish market in 2005 by purchasing Local Press Ltd, a company owned by 3i, the newspaper assets of Scottish Radio Holdings, known as Score Press with forty-five titles in Scotland and Ireland, the Leinster Leader Group.
Johnston Press acquired The Scotsman Publications in 2006, taking ownership of two of Scotland's major national broadsheet titles, The Scotsman and Scotland on Sunday, as well as two local papers, the Edinburgh Evening News and the Edinburgh Herald & Post. In 2014, Iconic Newspapers acquired Johnston Press' titles in the Republic of Ireland. In March of that year, Johnston Press launched a digital advertising agency called 1XL, in partnership with a number of other media companies including Local World and Newsquest. In February 2016 the company announced; the deal to buy i was completed on 10 April 2016, giving Johnston Press a daily print circulation of over 600,000 newspapers and an audience online and in print of 32m people. In July 2016 Johnston Press sold off its three titles on the Isle of Man — the Isle of Man Examiner, the Isle of Man Courier and the Manx Independent — to Tindle Newspapers in a deal worth £4.25m. In January 2017 Johnston sold off a further 13 titles covering the East Midlands and East Anglia to Iliffe Media for £17m.
The same month, the company won a contract from Associated Newspapers to print the Monday-to-Saturday issues of the Daily Mail newspaper at Johnston's Portsmouth Web facility in Hampshire, following the closure of ANL's printing site at Didcot. In October 2018, with debts of around £200m and a market capitalisation of £3m, the company announced that it had put itself up for sale. On 16 November 2018 the group announced it was filing for administration, intending to sell the assets to its lenders. Johnson Press in a statement added there was no longer any value in its shares, in a major blow to Christen Ager-Hanssen, the chief executive of Custos Group, the largest shareholder at 25 percent; the company agreed a pre-packaged administration whereby Johnston Press's businesses and assets would be sold to a group of companies controlled by its creditors. Those included the largest creditor with about £ 70m of bonds. On 17 November 2018, a spokesperson for Johnston Press announced that all its titles had been transferred to the control of JPIMedia, a special purpose vehicle, owned by the creditors.
Under the terms of the pre-packaged deal, ownership passed to a consortium of four lenders – CarVal, Benefit Street Partners and Goldentree Asset Management – who reduced its debts to £85 million and injected £35 million investment. This however was subject to criticism by Johnston Press's largest shareholder, described as a "blatant pre-planned corporate theft by bondholders", was raised in Parliament; the following is a partial list of British newspapers owned by the company: JPIMedia publishes a total of 22 titles in Northern Ireland through two holding companies, JPIMedia NI and Derry Journal Newspapers. The geographic readership of some titles extends across the Irish border into the Republic of Ireland, such as the Derry Journal which covers County Donegal. Former JPIMedia titles published in the Republic of Ireland now belong to Iconic Newspapers; the company owns the following websites, in addition to newspaper sites as above, regionalised versions of these: www.digitalkitbag.com www.jobstoday.co.uk Official website JpiMedia: https://www.jpimedia.co.uk
Huguenots are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants. The term has its origin in early 16th century France, it was used in reference to those of the Reformed Church of France from the time of the Protestant Reformation. Huguenots were French Protestants. By contrast, the Protestant populations of eastern France, in Alsace and Montbéliard were ethnic German Lutherans. In his Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Hans Hillerbrand said that, on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, the Huguenot community included as much as 10% of the French population. By 1600 it had declined to 7–8%, was reduced further after the return of severe persecution in 1685 under Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau; the Huguenots were believed to be concentrated among the population in the southern and western parts of the Kingdom of France. As Huguenots gained influence and more displayed their faith, Catholic hostility grew. A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion, fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598.
The Huguenots were led by Jeanne d'Albret, her son, the future Henry IV, the princes of Condé. The wars ended with the Edict of Nantes, which granted the Huguenots substantial religious and military autonomy. Huguenot rebellions in the 1620s resulted in the abolition of their political and military privileges, they retained the religious provisions of the Edict of Nantes until the rule of Louis XIV, who increased persecution of Protestantism until he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau. This ended legal recognition of Protestantism in France and the Huguenots were forced either to convert to Catholicism or flee as refugees. Louis XIV claimed that the French Huguenot population was reduced from about 800,000-900,000 adherents to just 1,000-1,500, he exaggerated the decline, but the dragonnades were devastating for the French Protestant community. The remaining Huguenots faced continued persecution under Louis XV. By the time of his death in 1774, Calvinism had been nearly eliminated from France. Persecution of Protestants ended with the Edict of Versailles, signed by Louis XVI in 1787.
Two years with the Revolutionary Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Protestants gained equal rights as citizens. The bulk of Huguenot émigrés relocated to Protestant states such as the Dutch Republic and Wales, Protestant-controlled Ireland, the Channel Islands, Denmark, Switzerland, the Electorate of Brandenburg and Electorate of the Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Prussia; some fled as refugees to the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa, the Dutch East Indies, the Caribbean colonies, several of the Dutch and English colonies in North America. A few families went to Catholic Quebec. After centuries, most Huguenots have assimilated into the various societies and cultures where they settled. Remnant communities of Camisards in the Cévennes, most Reformed members of the United Protestant Church of France, French members of the German Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, the Huguenot diaspora in England and Australia, all still retain their beliefs and Huguenot designation.
A term used in derision, Huguenot has unclear origins. Various hypotheses have been promoted; the term may have been a combined reference to the Swiss politician Besançon Hugues and the religiously conflicted nature of Swiss republicanism in his time. It used a derogatory pun on the name Hugues by way of the Dutch word Huisgenoten, referring to the connotations of a somewhat related word in German Eidgenosse. Geneva was the centre of the Calvinist movement. In Geneva, though Catholic, was a leader of the "Confederate Party", so called because it favoured independence from the Duke of Savoy, it sought an alliance between the city-state of the Swiss Confederation. The label Huguenot was purportedly first applied in France to those conspirators who were involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to wrest power in France from the influential and zealously Catholic House of Guise; this action would have fostered relations with the Swiss. O. I. A. Roche promoted this idea among historians, he wrote in his book, The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots, that "Huguenot" is: "a combination of a Dutch and a German word.
In the Dutch-speaking North of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or'oath fellows,' that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. Gallicised into'Huguenot' used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honour and courage." Some disagree with such triple non-French linguistic origins. Janet Gray argues that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated there in French; the "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name was derived by association with Hugues Capet, king of France, who reigned long before the Reformation. He was regarded by the Gallicians as a noble man who lives. Janet Gray and other supporters of the hypothesis suggest that the name huguenote would be equivalent to little Hugos, or those who want Hugo. In t
Killead is a small village and civil parish in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is accessed from the A26 Tully Road, it had a population of 81 people in the 2011 Census. James Molyneaux, Baron Molyneaux of Killead, was born on August 1920 in the village, he was a Northern Irish Unionist politician and was leader of the Ulster Unionist Party from 1979 to 1995. Reverend Arthur Bell Nicholls, the Reverend Patrick Brontë's curate, husband of Charlotte Brontë, was born in Killead on 6 January 1819. James Gordon was born in the parish of Killead on October 31, 1739, attended local schools and emigrated to the United States in 1758, settling in Schenectady, New York, he served in Congress from 1791-1795 and in the State senate from 1797-1804. Rev James Alexander Hamilton Irwin ministered at the Presbyterian Church at Killead from 1903 to 1926, he was a vocal supporter of Home Rule for Ireland and became a supporter of Irish independence. Charles McCorrie VC 1830-1857 Was born in the Parish of Killead and was awarded the Victoria Cross during the Crimean War in 1853 for throwing a live Russian shell over the Parapet.
He died in Malta 9 April 1857. James Kirker, emigrated to USA where he was a pirate and fur-trapper List of civil parishes of County Antrim Nicholls and Brontes James Gordon Politics.ie