Pitchfork is an American online magazine launched in 1995 by Ryan Schreiber, based in Chicago and owned by Condé Nast. The site generally concentrates on new music, but Pitchfork journalists have reviewed reissues, in late 1995, Ryan Schreiber, a recent high school graduate, created the magazine in Minneapolis. Influenced by local fanzines and KUOM, who had no writing experience. At first being Turntable, the site was updated monthly with interviews and reviews, in May 1996, the site began publishing daily and was renamed Pitchfork, alluding to Tony Montanas tattoo in Scarface. In early 1999, Schreiber relocated Pitchfork to Chicago, Illinois, by then, the site had expanded to four full-length album reviews daily, as well as sporadic interviews and columns. It had begun garnering a following for its coverage of underground music and its writing style. In October, the added a daily music news section. Pitchfork has launched a variety of subsidiary websites, Pitchfork. tv, a website displaying videos related to many independent music acts, launched in April 2008.
It features bands that are found on Pitchfork. In July 2010, Pitchfork announced Altered Zones, a blog devoted to underground. On 21 May 2011, Pitchfork announced a partnership with Kill Screen, Altered Zones was closed on November 30. On December 26,2012, Pitchfork launched Nothing Major, a website that covered visual arts such as fine art, Nothing Major closed in October 2013. On October 13,2015, Condé Nast announced that it had acquired Pitchfork, following the sale, Schreiber remained as editor-in-chief. On March 13,2016, Pitchfork was redesigned, some publications have cited Pitchfork in having played a part in breaking artists such as Arcade Fire, Sufjan Stevens, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, The Go. Conversely, Pitchfork has seen as being a negative influence on some indie artists. A dismissive 0.0 review of former Dismemberment Plan frontman Travis Morrisons Travistan album led to a sales drop. On the other hand, an endorsement from Pitchfork – which dispenses its approval one-tenth of a point at a time, up to a maximum of 10 points – is very valuable, indeed.
Examples of Pitchforks impact include, Arcade Fire is among the bands most commonly cited to have benefited from a Pitchfork review
Danville is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,055 and it is bounded by Pittsylvania County and Caswell County, North Carolina. It hosts the Danville Braves baseball club of the Appalachian League, Danville is the principal city of the Danville, Virginia Micropolitan Statistical Area. Numerous Native American tribes had lived in part of the Piedmont region since prehistoric times. During the colonial period, the area was inhabited by Siouan language-speaking tribes, in 1728, English colonist William Byrd headed an expedition sent to determine the true boundary between Virginia and North Carolina. The river along which he camped was named the Dan, for Byrd, supposing himself to be in the land of plenty, the first European-American settlement developed in 1792 downstream from Byrds campsite, at a spot along the river shallow enough to allow fording. It was named Wynnes Falls, after the first settler, the village had a social reason for its origin, growing from the meetings of pioneering Revolutionary War veterans, who gathered annually to fish and talk over old times.
The village was renamed Danville by act of the Virginia Legislature on November 23,1793, a charter for the town was drawn up February 17,1830, but by the time of its issue, the population had exceeded the pre-arranged boundaries. This necessitated a new charter, which was issued in 1833, in that year, James Lanier was elected the first mayor, assisted by a council of twelve fit and able men. By the mid-19th century, William T. Sutherlin, a planter and entrepreneur, was the first to apply power to run a tobacco press. Several railroads reached Danville including the Richmond and Danville Railroad, the Atlantic and Danville Railway, enabling the export of Danvilles manufacturing, due to the falls on the river, the area was prime for industrial development based on water power. On July 22,1882, six of Danvilles citizens founded the Riverside Cotton Mills, in its day it was known nationally as Dan River Inc. the largest single-unit textile mill in the world. The mill is now closed, since the late 20th century, many of Dan Rivers buildings have been torn down and the bricks sold.
The White Mill, considered historically and architecturally significant, is being renovated in the early 21st century as an apartment complex, on September 9,1882, Danville mayor John H. Johnston shot and killed John E. Hatcher, his chief of police. Hatcher had demanded an apology for a statement Johnston had made regarding unaccounted fine money, Johnston was charged with murder, but he was acquitted at trial, as the Southern culture of honor was still strong. A dramatic train wreck occurred in Danville, on September 27,1903, Old 97, the Southern Railways crack express mail train, was running behind schedule. Its engineer gave her full throttle, but the speed of the train caused it to jump the tracks on a trestle crossing the valley of the Dan. The engine and five cars plunged into the ravine below, killing nine, the locomotive and its engineer, Joseph A. Broadey, were memorialized in song
George Stoneman, Jr. was a United States Army cavalry officer, trained at West Point, where his roommate was Stonewall Jackson. In the Civil War, he became Adjutant to George B, McClellan, who did not appreciate the use of centralized cavalry, and was therefore outperformed by the Confederates, who did. At Chancellorsville, under Joseph Hooker, Stoneman failed in an attempt to penetrate behind enemy lines. Hookers sharp criticism of Stoneman may have been aimed at deflecting the heavy blame being directed at himself for the loss of this major battle that most generals believed to be winnable. While commanding cavalry under William Tecumseh Sherman in Georgia, Stoneman was captured, in the last weeks of the war, he led raids into North Carolina and Virginia that inspired the song The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down. During the early years after the American Civil War, Stoneman commanded occupying troops at Memphis, Tennessee and he had turned over control of law enforcement to the civilian government by May 1866, when the [Memphis riots broke out and the major black neighborhoods were destroyed.
When the city asked for help, he suppressed the white rioting with use of federal troops and he was subsequently posted to Yuma, Arizona Territory, where he played a role in the Camp Grant massacre, which occurred in 1871. According to historian Abraham Ruddell Byrd, M. D and they attacked without warning and murdered 106 people, almost all women and children. Officials in Washington were outraged and demanded that the ringleaders be tried for murder, only the Anglo ‘ringleader’ – William Oury - was tried and he was acquitted by a jury in Tucson. One more of the sad story of centuries of oppression and near genocide by the Europeans. The real story is more complex, In 1868,9,70, and 71, the whole fledgling population of Tucson. The Apaches lived mostly by raiding, but some had been persuaded by a policy of placating them to stop raiding in exchange for food and supplies. One group, headed by Eskiminzin, had made a truce and was located close to the Army post at Camp Grant. The people looked to the Army for protection, and were outraged when local trackers traced some of the back to Camp Grant.
Essentially, the way they saw it, the Army was protecting –, – the Indians that were killing them. Florence was a journey away. The delegation looked at other and realized they were on their own. They went back to Tucson and decided that – rather than wait until they were all killed – they would take the fight to the enemy, so 8 Anglo’s, about 80 Mexicans and 100 Papago Indians gathered and went on their own warpath
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Jaime Royal Robbie Robertson, OC, is a Canadian musician, film composer, producer and author. Robertson is best known for his work as lead guitarist and primary songwriter for The Band and his work with The Band was instrumental in creating the Americana music genre. He is ranked 59th in Rolling Stone magazine’s list of the 100 greatest guitarists. As a songwriter, Robertson is credited for writing The Weight, The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down, Up on Cripple Creek, Broken Arrow, Somewhere Down the Crazy River, and many others. Robertson has been inducted into the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame, as a film soundtrack producer and composer, Robertson is best known for his numerous collaborations with director Martin Scorsese. His working relationship with Scorsese began with the influential rockumentary film The Last Waltz and he has worked on many other soundtracks for film and television. Robertson was born in Toronto, an only child and his mother, Rosemarie Dolly Myke Chrysler, was a Mohawk raised on the Six Nations Reserve southwest of Toronto, Ontario.
In her early life as an orphan, Chrysler lived with an aunt in Toronto. Robertsons biological father was Alexander David Klegerman, a Jewish professional gambler, Klegerman was killed in a hit-and-run accident as he was changing a tire on the Queen Elizabeth Way. Robertsons mother married James Patrick Robertson, a co-worker at the jewelry plating factory, Robertson earned his nickname from teachers and students at school, who started calling him Robbie in reference to his last name. As a child, Robertsons mother would travel with her son to the Six Nations Reserve to visit her family. These two experiences would impact Robertsons view of Americana, influencing The Band song Life is a Carnival and the movie Carny, Robertson began playing in bands in 1957 with his friend Pete Thumper Traynor, who would found Traynor Amplifiers. Traynor customized Robertsons guitar for The Robots, fitting it with antennae, after Robbie and The Robots, Robertson played with Little Caesar and the Consuls, and with the Traynor-led combo The Suedes, which featured Scott Cushnie on piano.
Robertson became a fan of the Arkansas-based rockabilly group Ronnie Hawkins, Hawkins took a liking to Robertson and would have him run errands for the Hawks. Hawkins hired pianist Scott Cushnie away from The Suedes, and took him on tour with Ronnie Hawkins, when The Hawks bass player left the group, Cushnie recommended that Hawkins hire Robertson to replace him on bass. Hawkins invited Robertson to come to Arkansas, and flew to the UK to perform on television there, Robertson spent his living allowance on records and practiced intensively each day. Upon returning, Hawkins was amazed at Robertsons progress and hired him to play bass, Cushnie left the band a few months after joining them, and Robertson soon switched over from bass to playing lead guitar for The Hawks. Robertson soon developed into a guitar virtuoso, Levon Helm was already a member of the Hawks and soon became close friends with Robertson
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
The Band (album)
The Band is the eponymous second studio album by the Band, released on September 22,1969. It is known as The Brown Album, the home, located at 8850 Evanview Drive, was once owned by Judy Garland, Wally Cox and, at the time the group worked there, Sammy Davis, Jr. According to Robbie Robertson, the location was chosen to give the songs a more Basement Tapes–like feel in what was termed a clubhouse concept, the album was originally released as an LP on September 22,1969. After a number of reissues on vinyl, cassette tape, and compact disc, it was remastered and rereleased, with tracks, in 2000. The album was reissued in 2009 by Audio Fidelity as a limited-edition gold CD. Remastered from a 1980s CD pressing, the album included a single b-side Get Up Jake as a bonus track. A1980 Capitol 16000 Series budget vinyl reissue of the album omitted When You Awake, the original LP back cover quotes the opening lines from Shelton Brookss 1917 composition Darktown Strutters Ball. The album includes many of the Bands best-known and critically acclaimed songs, including The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down, in 2003, the album was ranked number 45 on Rolling Stone magazines list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.
In 1998 Q magazine readers voted The Band the 76th greatest album of all time, time magazine included it in their unranked 2006 list of the 100 greatest albums. Robert Christgau, having been disappointed with the Bands debut, had expected to dislike the record and even planned a column for the Village Voice to castigate their follow-up. Upon hearing the record, however, he declared it better than Abbey Road and he ranked it as the fourth best album of the year in his ballot for Jazz & Pop magazines annual critics poll. The Band peaked at #9 on Billboards Pop Albums chart, in 2000, it recharted on Billboards Internet Albums chart, peaking at #10. The singles Rag Mama Rag and Up on Cripple Creek peaked on the Pop Singles chart at #57, the Rag Mama Rag single performed better in the UK, where it reached #16. The album was included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die
Rock of Ages (The Band album)
Rock of Ages, The Band in Concert is a live album by the Band, released in 1972. It was compiled from recordings made during their series of shows at the Academy of Music in New York City and it peaked at #6 on the Billboard 200 chart, and was certified a gold record by the RIAA. A more comprehensive release of recordings taken from the series of shows was released in 2013. The Band booked a residency at the Academy of Music for the last week of 1971, charts written by Toussaint in New Orleans were in luggage lost at the airport, and a new set was composed in a cabin near Robertsons house in Woodstock. Robertson selected eleven songs to receive horn charts, and all are included on the released album, the horns do not play on Get Up Jake, Stage Fright, This Wheels on Fire, The Weight, The Shape Im In, and The Genetic Method. Selections on the disc do not feature horn arrangements, although the horn section added spontaneous flourishes to Down in the Flood. Four nights from December 28 through 31 were recorded, and the balance of the recordings on the album were derived from the final two nights.
Their previous employer Bob Dylan made a visit on the New Years Eve show. Originally released in 1972 as an album, it was reissued in 1980 as two separate LPs, titled Rock of Ages, Vol.1 and Rock of Ages. The first edition for compact disc in 1987 ostensibly edited several tracks to fit the program onto a single disc, an unedited two-disc version followed in 1990. On May 8,2001, an expanded and remastered edition appeared, with the original album on one disc. Included on the disc were the four songs featuring Dylan and another Motown cover. A hybrid SACD reissue of the album was released on the Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab label in 2010. The song Chest Fever from this album is available as content for the video game Rock Band.1 surround mixes. All tracks written by Robbie Robertson except where noted, concert dates as indicated. D
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is a competent arranger, composer. The producer will liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording.
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects.
These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu
The Red Badge of Courage
The Red Badge of Courage is a war novel by American author Stephen Crane. Taking place during the American Civil War, the story is about a private of the Union Army, Henry Fleming. Overcome with shame, he longs for a wound, a red badge of courage, when his regiment once again faces the enemy, Henry acts as standard-bearer. Although Crane was born after the war, and had not at the time experienced battle first-hand and he began writing what would become his second novel in 1894, using various contemporary and written accounts as inspiration. Initially shortened and serialized in newspapers in December 1895, the novel was published in full in October 1895, a longer version of the work, based on Cranes original manuscript, was published in 1983. The novel is known for its style, which includes realistic battle sequences as well as the repeated use of color imagery. Separating itself from a traditional war narrative, Cranes story reflects the experience of its protagonist rather than the external world around him.
Also notable for its use of what Crane called a psychological portrayal of fear, several of the themes that the story explores are maturation, heroism and the indifference of nature. The Red Badge of Courage garnered widespread acclaim, what H. G. Wells called an orgy of praise, shortly after its publication, the novel and its author did have their initial detractors, including author and veteran Ambrose Bierce. Adapted several times for the screen, the became a bestseller. It has never been out of print and is now thought to be Cranes most important work, Stephen Crane published his first novel, Maggie, A Girl of the Streets, in March 1893 at the age of 22. Maggie was not a success, either financially or critically, most critics thought the unsentimental Bowery tale crude or vulgar, and Crane chose to publish the work privately after it was repeatedly rejected for publication. Crane found inspiration for his novel while spending hours lounging in a friends studio in the early summer of 1893.
There, he became fascinated with issues of Century Magazine that were devoted to famous battles. Frustrated with the written stories, Crane stated, I wonder that some of those fellows dont tell how they felt in those scraps. They spout enough of what they did, but theyre as emotionless as rocks, returning to these magazines during subsequent visits to the studio, he decided to write a war novel. He stated that he had been working the detail of the story out through most of his boyhood and had imagined war stories ever since he was out of knickerbockers. At the time, Crane was intermittently employed as a free-lance writer and he began writing what would become The Red Badge of Courage in June 1893, while living with his older brother Edmund in Lake View, New Jersey
Billboard Hot 100
The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales, radio play and online streaming, the weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is available on a real-time basis. A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesdays, as of the issue for the week ending on April 15,2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,061 different number one hits. The current number one song is Shape of You by Ed Sheeran, prior to 1955, Billboard did not have a unified, all-encompassing popularity chart, instead measuring songs by individual metrics. At the start of the era in 1955, three such charts existed, Best Sellers in Stores was the first Billboard chart, established in 1936. This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country, Most Played by Jockeys was Billboards original airplay chart.
It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio disc jockeys, Most Played in Jukeboxes ranked the most played songs in jukeboxes across the United States. On the week ending November 12,1955, Billboard published The Top 100 for the first time, the Top 100 combined all aspects of a singles performance, based on a point system that typically gave sales more weight than radio airplay. The Best Sellers In Stores, Most Played by Jockeys and Most Played in Jukeboxes charts continued to be published concurrently with the new Top 100 chart. The week ending July 28,1958 was the publication of the Most Played By Jockeys and Top 100 charts. On August 4,1958, Billboard premiered one main all-genre singles chart, the Hot 100 quickly became the industry standard and Billboard discontinued the Best Sellers In Stores chart on October 13,1958. The Billboard Hot 100 is still the standard by which a songs popularity is measured in the United States, the Hot 100 is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by Nielsen Soundscan and streaming activity provided by online music sources.
There are several component charts that contribute to the calculation of the Hot 100. Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with Arbitron listener data. Hot Singles Sales, the top selling singles compiled from a sample of retail store, mass merchant and internet sales reports collected, compiled. The chart is released weekly and measures sales of commercial singles. With the decline in sales of singles in the US