New Fairy Tales (1844)
New Fairy Tales is a collection of four fairy tales written by Hans Christian Andersen and published by C. A. Reitzel in Copenhagen, Denmark on 10 November 1843; as was customary at the time however, the title page is dated 1844. The tales are Andersen's invention, owe no debt to folk or fairy lore, are the most autobiographical of his several fairy tale collections; the collection was received enthusiastically by the Danish critics and public and became Andersen's break-through in the fairy tale genre. "The Nightingale" and "The Ugly Duckling" have been adapted to various forms of drama. All the tales are Andersen's invention and the collection is the most autobiographical of his many works in the fairy tale genre. Andersen himself is the several heroes and heroines in the collection's tales – the awkward duckling, the nightingale, the gilded top."The Angel" tells of a dead child and an angel gathering flowers for Heaven. In a poverty-ridden section of the city, the angel retrieves a lily from a trash heap and explains the flower had cheered a dying child.
The angel reveals. Andersen had been attracted to the sentimental'dying child' theme since composing the poem, "The Dying Child", during his school days but the immediate catalyst was the death of the daughter of Edvard Collin, Andersen's close friend and lifelong homoerotic obsession; the tale was wildly popular. The angel and child were depicted in a print. In "The Nightingale", the Emperor of China enjoys the songs of both a real nightingale and a mechanical bird; when the mechanical bird breaks down and the Emperor is close to death, the real nightingale's song restores his health. The tale's Chinese setting was inspired by the recently opened Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, memorializes Andersen's unrequited love for singer Jenny Lind; the tale was completed in 24 hours on 12 October 1843. "The Nightingale" sets out in fairy tale form Andersen's artistic manifesto: naturalness and simplicity triumphing over artifice and reason. The tale is a variation on his earlier The Swineherd. "The Sweethearts.
When the top discovers the ball years lying in the dustbin faded and dirty, he refuses to recognize her. The tale is based on Andersen's youthful passion for lovely Riborg Voight, a woman who refused his marriage proposal in 1830, he met her again in 1843 when she had become a middle-aged matron. The tale is sometimes viewed as a counterpiece to "The Nightingale" in its ushering out of an old love and the welcoming in of a new one. In "The Ugly Duckling", an awkward and ungainly bird is ostracized by his barnyard fellows and wanders alone and unhappy until, to everyone's surprise, he matures into a swan, the loveliest bird of all. Andersen spent more than a year writing the tale, and, at one time, said The Ugly Duckling was his autobiography; the tale celebrates the cherished romantic view of genius over background and culture – "it doesn't matter being born in a duckyard if you're hatched from a swan's egg!" Of Andersen's many tales of transformation, "The Ugly Duckling" has gained the greatest universal appeal.
Thirty years after its publication, the Spectator wrote that the tale was – like Solomon's proverbs – "in everyone's mouth" and the tale was one of those "happy arrows that hit the bull's eye." The prevailing theme of the collection is that of transformation and it is worked as social comedy, religious awakening, artistic revelation. The collection is the most optimistic in Andersen's output since his fairy tale debut in 1835 but unlike the breezy, bouncy tone of the early tales, these four speak to adult fulfillment, of pain transformed to pleasure via suffering and understanding. New Fairy Tales was a break-through for Andersen who, until its publication, had received vigorous condemnation from the Danish critics for his venture into the fairy tale genre. Reviews for the collection however were ecstatic. Ny Portefeuille wrote, "There is in these tales so much beauty and goodness, so much humour and seriousness, so much poetry and depth, that the most disparate readers will by necessity find something of interest to them."
Andersen wrote his confidante Henriette Wulff, "These tales have been received with unanimous applause. None of my other books have had such a success here at home, every paper commends them, everyone reads them I am appreciated as the best fairy-tale teller." Bredsdorff, Elias. Hans Christian Andersen: The Story of His Life and Work, 1805-75. London, UK: Phaidon Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7148-1636-1. Andersen, Jens. Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life. New York, NY: Overlook Duckworth. ISBN 1-58567-737-X. Wullschlager, Jackie. Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-91747-9. Petri Liukkonen. "Hans Christian Andersen". Books and Writers Nunnally, Tiina. Fairy Tales. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03377-4. Tatar, Maria; the Annotated Hans Christian Andersen. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06081-2
The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America. The company never performed in Russia. After its initial Paris season, the company had no formal ties there. Conceived by impresario Sergei Diaghilev, the Ballets Russes is regarded as the most influential ballet company of the 20th century, in part because it promoted ground-breaking artistic collaborations among young choreographers, composers and dancers, all at the forefront of their several fields. Diaghilev commissioned works from composers such as Igor Stravinsky, Claude Debussy, Sergei Prokofiev, artists such as Vasily Kandinsky, Alexandre Benois, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, costume designers Léon Bakst and Coco Chanel; the company's productions created a huge sensation reinvigorating the art of performing dance, bringing many visual artists to public attention, affecting the course of musical composition. It introduced European and American audiences to tales and design motifs drawn from Russian folklore.
The influence of the Ballets Russes lasts to the present day. The French plural form of the name, “Ballets Russes,” refers to the company founded by Sergei Diaghilev and active during his lifetime. In English, the company is now referred to as "the Ballets Russes", although in the early part of the 20th century, it was sometimes referred to as “The Russian Ballet” or “Diaghilev’s Russian Ballet.” To add to the confusion, some publicity material spelled the name in the singular. The names “Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo” and “The Original Ballet Russe” refer to companies that formed after Diaghilev's death in 1929. Sergei Diaghilev, the company's impresario, was chiefly responsible for its success, he was uniquely prepared for the role. In 1890, he enrolled at the Faculty of Law, St. Petersburg, to prepare for a career in the civil service like many Russian young men of his class. There he was introduced to a student clique of artists and intellectuals calling themselves The Nevsky Pickwickians whose most influential member was Alexandre Benois.
From childhood, Diaghilev had been passionately interested in music. However, his ambition to become a composer was dashed in 1894 when Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov told him he had no talent. In 1898, several members of The Pickwickians founded the journal Mir iskusstva under the editorship of Diaghilev; as early as 1902, Mir iskusstva included reviews of concerts and ballets in Russia. The latter were chiefly written by Benois, who exerted considerable influence on Diaghilev's thinking. Mir iskusstva sponsored exhibitions of Russian art in St. Petersburg, culminating in Diaghilev's important 1905 show of Russian portraiture at the Tauride Palace. Frustrated by the extreme conservatism of the Russian art world, Diaghilev organized the groundbreaking Exhibition of Russian Art at the Petit Palais in Paris in 1906, the first major showing of Russian art in the West, its enormous success created a Parisian fascination with all things Russian. Diaghilev organized a 1907 season of Russian music at the Paris Opéra.
In 1908, Diaghilev returned to the Paris Opéra with six performances of Modest Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov, starring basso Fyodor Chaliapin. This was Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's 1908 version; the performances were a sensation. In 1909, Diaghilev presented his first Paris "Saison Russe" devoted to ballet. Most of this original company were resident performers at the Imperial Ballet of Saint Petersburg, hired by Diaghilev to perform in Paris during the Imperial Ballet's summer holidays; the first season's repertory featured a variety of works chiefly choreographed by Michel Fokine, including Le Pavillon d'Armide, the Polovtsian Dances, Les Sylphides, Cléopâtre. The season included Le Festin, a pastiche set by several choreographers to music by several Russian composers; the principal productions are shown in the table below. When Sergei Diaghilev died of diabetes in Venice on 19 August 1929, the Ballets Russes was left with substantial debts; as the Great Depression began, its property was claimed by its creditors and the company of dancers dispersed.
In 1931, Colonel Wassily de Basil and René Blum founded the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, giving its first performances there in 1932. Diaghilev alumni Léonide Massine and George Balanchine worked as choreographers with the company and Tamara Toumanova was a principal dancer. Artistic differences led to a split between Blum and de Basil, after which de Basil renamed his company "Ballets Russes de Colonel W. de Basil". Blum retained the name "Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo". In 1938, he called it "The Covent Garden Russian Ballet" and renamed it the "Original Ballet Russe" in 1939. After World War II began, the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo left Europe and toured extensivel
Thomas Vilhelm Pedersen was a Danish painter and illustrator, above all remembered for his illustrations for fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen. He was the first artist to illustrate Andersen's works, his drawings were used in the Danish and German editions. Pedersen was born in Karlslunde, he followed in his father's footsteps and became an officer in the Royal Danish Navy. He was interested in drawing and in 1843 Christian VIII granted him four years' paid leave to enable him to pursuit an artistic career, he enrolled at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. He first exhibited his works 1847 but voluntarily returned to the army at the outbreak of the Three Tear War, he participated in the Battle of Eckernförde which he would depict in two paintings. He continued his interrupted naval career until his early death in 1859. Andersen's earliest tales were published without illustrations, but in 1849, his popularity was growing and a new, five volume collection of his tales was published with 125 illustrations by Pedersen, a young naval officer.
The Pedersen illustrations found favor with the author, and, in Denmark today, are considered inseparable from the fairy tales in the same way that the John Tenniel illustrations are for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland or Quentin Blake illustrations are for Roald Dahl's children's books. Woodcuts from Pedersen's drawings were first produced for a German edition of the tales published by Carl B. Lorck in Leipzig. Andersen's Danish publisher, C. A. Reitzel, paid Lorck for the rights to the Pedersen illustrations, his sons Thorolf Pedersen and Viggo Pedersen were painters. Works by or about Vilhelm Pedersen at Internet Archive Illustrations by Vilhelm Pedersen and Lorenz Frølich at a Hans Christian Andersen website Ask Art: Vilhelm Pedersen The Stories of Hans Christian Andersen at Google Books Weilbach, Ph. "Pedersen, Thomas Vilhelm" in Carl Frederik Bricka Dansk biografisk Lexikon / XII. Bind. Münch – Peirup. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, pp. 641–62. Vilhelm Pedersen at Library of Congress Authorities, with 13 catalogue records
The Ugly Duckling
"The Ugly Duckling" is a literary fairy tale by Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen. The story tells of a homely little bird born in a barnyard who suffers abuse from the others around him until, much to his delight, he matures into a beautiful swan, the most beautiful bird of all; the story is beloved around the world as a tale about personal transformation for the better. “The Ugly Duckling” was first published 11 November 1843, with three other tales by Andersen in Copenhagen, Denmark to great critical acclaim. The tale has been adapted to various media including opera and animated film; the tale is Andersen's invention and owes no debt to fairy tales or folklore. When the story begins, a mother duck's eggs hatch. One of the little birds is perceived by the other birds and animals on the farm as an ugly little creature and suffers much verbal and physical abuse from them, he wanders sadly from the barnyard and lives with wild ducks and geese until hunters slaughter the flocks. He finds a home with an old woman, but her cat and hen tease and taunt him mercilessly and once again he sets off alone.
The duckling sees a flock of migrating wild swans. He is delighted and excited. Winter arrives. A farmer finds and carries the freezing little duckling home, but the foundling is frightened by the farmer’s noisy children and flees the house, he spends a miserable winter alone in the outdoors hiding in a cave on the lake that freezes over. When spring arrives, a flock of swans descends on the lake; the ugly duckling, now having grown and matured, is unable to endure a life of solitude and hardship any more and decides to throw himself at the flock of swans deciding that it is better to be killed by such beautiful birds than to live a life of ugliness and misery. He is shocked when the swans welcome and accept him, only to realize by looking at his reflection in the water that he has grown into one of them; the flock takes to the air, the now beautiful swan spreads his gorgeous large wings and takes flight with the rest of his new kind family. Andersen first conceived the story in 1842 while enjoying the beauty of nature during his stay at the country estate of Bregentved, lavished a year's worth of attention upon it.
He considered "The Young Swans" as the tale's title but, not wanting to spoil the element of surprise in the protagonist’s transformation, discarded it for "The Ugly Duckling". He confessed that the story was "a reflection of my own life", when the critic Georg Brandes questioned Andersen about whether he would write his autobiography, the poet claimed that it had been written — "The Ugly Duckling".“The Ugly Duckling” was first published in Copenhagen, Denmark 11 November 1843 in New Fairy Tales. First Book. First Collection. 1844.. For the first time the phrase "told for children" was not part of the title—an omission Andersen scholar Jackie Wullschlager believes exhibited a new confidence on Andersen's part: "These were the most mature and constructed tales he had written, though some of them at once became, have remained, favorites of children, Andersen here melds together the childlike and the profound with exceptional artistry." The first edition of 850 was sold out by December 18, Reitzel planned another 850.
The tale was fourth and last in the volume that included, "The Angel", "The Nightingale", "The Sweethearts. The volume sold out immediately and Andersen wrote on December 18, 1843: “The book is selling like hot cakes. All the papers are praising it, everyone is reading it! No books of mine are appreciated in the way these fairy tales are!” Andersen promoted the tale by reading it aloud at social gatherings. The tale was republished 18 December 1849 in Fairy Tales, and again 15 December 1862 in Fairy Stories. First Volume. 1862. The tale has since been translated into various languages and published around the world and has become the most famous story by Andersen. In reviewing Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life by biographer Jens Andersen, British journalist Anne Chisholm writes “Andersen himself was a tall, ugly boy with a big nose and big feet, when he grew up with a beautiful singing voice and a passion for the theater he was cruelly teased and mocked by other children"; the ugly duckling is the child of a swan.
Speculation suggests that Andersen was the illegitimate son of Prince Christian Frederik, found this out some time before he wrote the book, that being a swan in the story was a metaphor not just for inner beauty and talent but for secret royal lineage. Bruno Bettelheim observes in The Uses of Enchantment that the Ugly Duckling is not confronted with the tasks, tests, or trials of the typical fairy tale hero. “No need to accomplish anything is expressed in “The Ugly Duckling”. Things are fated and unfold accordingly, whether or not the hero takes some action.” In conjunction with Bettelheim’s assessment, Maria Tatar notes in ’’The Annotated Hans Christian Andersen’’ that Andersen suggests that the Ugly Duckling‘s superiority resides in the fact that he is of a breed different from the barnyard rabble, that dignity and worth and aesthetic superiority are determined by nature rather than accomplishment. According to Carole Rosen, the story was inspired in part by Andersen's friend Jenny Lind.
"The Ugly Duckling" became one of Andersen's best lov
A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in a single continuous movement, which illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, painting, landscape, or other source. The German term Tondichtung appears to have been first used by the composer Carl Loewe in 1828; the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt first applied the term Symphonische Dichtung to his 13 works in this vein. While many symphonic poems may compare in size and scale to symphonic movements, they are unlike traditional classical symphonic movements, in that their music is intended to inspire listeners to imagine or consider scenes, specific ideas or moods, not to focus on following traditional patterns of musical form such as sonata form; this intention to inspire listeners was a direct consequence of Romanticism, which encouraged literary and dramatic associations in music. According to Hugh Macdonald, the symphonic poem met three 19th-century aesthetic goals: it related music to outside sources; the symphonic poem remained a popular composition form from the 1840s until the 1920s, when composers began to abandon the genre.
Some piano and chamber works, such as Arnold Schoenberg's string sextet Verklärte Nacht, have similarities with symphonic poems in their overall intent and effect. However, the term symphonic poem is accepted to refer to orchestral works. A symphonic poem may stand on its own, or it can be part of a series combined into a symphonic suite or cycle. For example, The Swan of Tuonela is a tone poem from Jean Sibelius's Lemminkäinen Suite, Vltava by Bedřich Smetana is part of the six-work cycle Má vlast. While the terms symphonic poem and tone poem have been used interchangeably, some composers such as Richard Strauss and Jean Sibelius have preferred the latter term for their works; the first use of the German term Tondichtung appears to have been by Carl Loewe, applied not to an orchestral work but to his piece for piano solo, Mazeppa, Op. 27, based on the poem of that name by Lord Byron, written twelve years before Liszt treated the same subject orchestrally. The musicologist Mark Bonds suggests that in the second quarter of the 19th century, the future of the symphonic genre seemed uncertain.
While many composers continued to write symphonies during the 1820s and 30s, "there was a growing sense that these works were aesthetically far inferior to Beethoven's.... The real question was not so much whether symphonies could still be written, but whether the genre could continue to flourish and grow". Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Niels Gade achieved successes with their symphonies, putting at least a temporary stop to the debate as to whether the genre was dead. Composers began to explore the "more compact form" of the concert overture "...as a vehicle within which to blend musical and pictoral ideas." Examples included Mendelssohn's overtures The Hebrides. Between 1845 and 1847, the Belgian composer César Franck wrote an orchestral piece based on Victor Hugo's poem Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne; the work exhibits characteristics of a symphonic poem, some musicologists, such as Norman Demuth and Julien Tiersot, consider it the first of its genre, preceding Liszt's compositions.
However, Franck did not perform his piece. Liszt's determination to explore and promote the symphonic poem gained him recognition as the genre's inventor; the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt desired to expand single-movement works beyond the concert overture form. The music of overtures is to inspire listeners to imagine images, or moods; the opening movement, with its interplay of contrasting themes under sonata form, was considered the most important part of the symphony. To achieve his objectives, Liszt needed a more flexible method of developing musical themes than sonata form would allow, but one that would preserve the overall unity of a musical composition. Liszt found his method through two compositional practices; the first practice was cyclic form, a procedure established by Beethoven in which certain movements are not only linked but reflect one another's content. Liszt took Beethoven's practice one step further, combining separate movements into a single-movement cyclic structure. Many of Liszt's mature works follow this pattern, of which Les Préludes is one of the best-known examples.
The second practice was thematic transformation, a type of variation in which one theme is changed, not into a related or subsidiary theme but into something new and independent. As musicologist Hugh Macdonald wrote of Liszt's works in this genre, the intent was "to display the traditional logic of symphonic thought. Thematic transformation, like cyclic form, was nothing new in itself, it had been used by Mozart and Haydn. In the final movement of his Ninth Symphony, Beethoven had transformed the theme of the "Ode to Joy" into a Turkish march. Weber and Berlioz had transformed themes, Schubert used thematic transformation to bind together the movements of his Wanderer Fantasy
The Angel (fairy tale)
"The Angel" is a literary fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen about an angel and a dead child gathering flowers to carry to Heaven. The tale was first published with three others in New Fairy Tales by C. A. Reitzel in November 1843; the four tales were received by the Danish critics with great acclaim. A print depicting the angel and child became popular; when the tale opens, a child has died, an angel is escorting him to Heaven. They wander over the Earth for a while. Along the way they gather flowers to transplant into the gardens of Heaven; the angel takes the child to a poverty-stricken area. The angel salvages the flower explaining; the angel reveals he was the boy, the boy continued his journey. Jens Andersen, author of Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life, describes God as "one of Andersen's most beloved ghosts" and notes that God in "The Angel" is a "pleasant and helpful traveling companion There are few figures in his works to whom he returns more or examines from so many different childish angles".
The poet had an unshakable faith that a whole new existence awaited him once his spirit left his earthly frame at the appropriate time. When Andersen was assailed with doubts regarding the soul's immortality, he reverted to his child faith and could not bring himself to suggest that the human being is dispersed as gases and other substances to fertilize the earth at death as the scientific Niels Bryde does in Andersen's 1857 novel To Be or Not to Be. Andersen regarded God as a release for a new chance for those who have failed. God was an promising beginning for Andersen; the tale is Andersen's invention, may have been motivated by the death of the eldest daughter of his friends and Jette Collins. The theme of a child transformed into an angel had possessed Andersen since the completion of his poem "The Dying Child". According to Gustav Hetsch, the story is one of three Andersen stories to have been inspired by Jenny Lind. "The Angel" was first published in Copenhagen on 11 November 1843 by C. A. Reitzel in the first volume of the first collection of New Fairy Tales.
For the first time, the phrase "told for children" was not part of the title—an omission Andersen scholar and biographer Jackie Wullschlager believes exhibited a new confidence on Andersen's part: "These were the most mature and constructed tales he had written, though some of them at once became, have remained favorites of children, Andersen here melds together the childlike and the profound with exceptional artistry." The first edition of 850 was sold out by December 18, Reitzel planned publication of another 850."The Angel" was the first tale in the volume that included "The Nightingale", "The Sweethearts. The tale was republished 18 December 1849 in Fairy Tales and again on 15 December 1862 in Fairy Tales and Stories. Wullschlager describes "The Angel" as a "sentimental genre picture that suited the taste of the times." A print made from an illustration of the tale by the German artist Wilhelm von Kaulbach was popular and sold briskly. Andersen once found the print in Portugal, a country in which he was unknown.
New Fairy Tales was a break-through for Andersen who, until its publication, had received vigorous condemnation from the Danish critics for his venture into the fairy tale genre. Reviews for the collection however were ecstatic. Andersen, Jens. Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life. New York and London: Overlook Duckworth. Pp. 330, 537ff. "The Angel". Hans Christian Andersen Center. Retrieved 2009-05-18. Wullschlager, Jackie. Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-91747-4. Engelen. Original Danish text "The Angel". English translation by Jean Hersholt
Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were