Gare Montparnasse (The Melancholy of Departure)
Gare Montparnasse is a painting by the Italian metaphysical painter Giorgio de Chirico. Many of de Chirico’s works were inspired by the introspective feelings evoked by travel, he was born in Greece to Italian parents. This work was painted during a period; the painting depicts the Gare Montparnasse railway station in France. It is a classic example of de Chirico’s style, depicting an angular perspective on an outdoor architectural setting in the long shadows and deep colours of early evening. On the horizon is a steam train with a plume of white smoke billowing away from it; the train image appears several times in de Chirico's work. In the foreground is a bunch of bananas, another recurring image in de Chirico's work. In 1916, de Chirico painted another work titled The Melancholy of Departure. Museum of Modern Art
Metaphysical Interior with Biscuits
Metaphysical Interior with Biscuits is a painting by the Italian metaphysical painter Giorgio de Chirico. It is one of the earliest editions in a series of works. Like the others in this series, this painting depicts a room cluttered with objects in a surreal arrangement. In this case the main focus is a panel on which are mounted several biscuits arranged to resemble an abstract face. Behind this panel is a picture in an irregularly shaped frame; the image in the frame is an architectural scene in the style of de Chirico’s earlier work
The Melancholy of Departure
The Melancholy of Departure is a painting by the Greek-Italian metaphysical painter Giorgio de Chirico. This painting was created after de Chirico returned to Italy from Paris to join the Italian Army in World War I. During this time de Chirico was moving away from the bright open scenes of his previous work, he was now focusing on more abstract combinations of objects and indoor settings, seeking to paint the hidden meanings behind the surface of things. The themes of travel and departure are present in much of de Chirico's canon, as seen in his many paintings of trains and railways stations; this painting depicts a random cluster of objects used to make paintings, an easel which holds up a triangular map. The map shows a channel between two land masses with outlines of different routes; the surroundings are the inside of a room at night. The room has an open archway through; this is the second painting by de Chirico by this title after his 1914 work Gare Montparnasse. In 1987 the American jazz musicians Mark Isham and Art Lande released a song titled “The Melancholy of Departure” on their collaborative album We Begin.
Metaphysical Interior with Large Factory
Metaphysical Interior with Large Factory is a painting by the Italian metaphysical painter Giorgio de Chirico. It is part of a series. Like the other works in this series it depicts a small room cluttered with surreal objects; this time the main focus is a framed picture of a factory complex
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, safflower oil; the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired; the paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by painters in western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain popularity until the 15th century, its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became known.
The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in Northern Europe, by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had completely replaced the use of tempera paints in the majority of Europe. In recent years, water miscible. Water-soluble paints are either engineered or an emulsifier has been added that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, allows, when sufficiently diluted fast drying times when compared with traditional oils. Traditional oil painting techniques begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint. Oil paint is mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is'fat over lean', meaning that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will peel; this rule does not ensure permanence.
There are many other media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or'body' of the paint, the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke; these aspects of the paint are related to the expressive capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the painting surface using paintbrushes, but there are other methods, including using palette knives and rags. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew; this can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, but after a while the hardened layer must be scraped. Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, is dry to the touch within a span of two weeks, it is dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year.
Although the history of tempera and related media in Europe indicates that oil painting was discovered there independently, there is evidence that oil painting was used earlier in Afghanistan. Outdoor surfaces and surfaces like shields—both those used in tournaments and those hung as decorations—were more durable when painted in oil-based media than when painted in the traditional tempera paints. Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel supports. However, Theophilus gives instructions for oil-based painting in his treatise, On Various Arts, written in 1125. At this period, it was used for painting sculptures and wood fittings especially for outdoor use. However, early Netherlandish painting with artists like Van Eyck and Robert Campin in the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, only Italy.
Early works were still panel paintings on wood, but around the end of the 15th century canvas became more popular as the support, as it was cheaper, easier to transport, allowed larger works, did not require complicated preliminary layers of gesso. Venice, where sail-canvas was available, was a leader in the move to canvas. Small cabinet paintings were made on metal copper plates; these supports were more expensive but firm, allowing intricately fine detail. Printing plates from printmaking were reused for this purpose; the popularity of oil spread through Italy from the North, starting in Venice in the late 15th century. By 1540, the previous method for painting on panel had become all but extinct, although Italians continued to use chalk-based fresco for wall paintings, less successful and durable in damper northern climates; the linseed oil itself comes from a common fiber crop. Linen, a "support" for oil painting comes from the flax plant. Safflower oil or the walnut or poppyseed oil are sometimes used in formulating lighter colors li
Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania
There are multiple Annenberg Schools. For the communications school at USC, see USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. See Annenberg; the Annenberg School for Communication is the communication school at the University of Pennsylvania. The school was established in 1958 by Wharton School's alum Walter Annenberg as the Annenberg School of Communications; the name was changed to its current title in 1990. Walter Annenberg created the Annenberg School of Communications in 1958; the school, whose first class began in 1959, was a master's-only program. Gilbert Seldes was the first dean at the school, serving from 1959 until 1963. George Gerbner, an advisor to communications commissions and a major contributor to cultivation theory, became dean in 1964, he held the post until 1989, refocusing the school away from an emphasis on professional training and toward research and theory. He founded the Cultural Indicators Project in 1967, measuring trends in television content and how it shaped perceptions of society.
The Annenberg School launched its doctoral program in 1968. The school retained ownership of the Journal of Communication from 1974 to 1991, published by Penn while Gerbner was editor. Kathleen Hall Jamieson was dean from 1989 to 2003. In 1989, the Annenberg School and Oxford University Press published the four-volume International Encyclopedia of Communications, the first broad-based attempt to survey the entire communication field. In 1990, the school changed its name to Annenberg School for Communication. During Jamieson's deanship, the school received two large endowments from the Annenberg Foundation. In 1993, Walter and Leonore Annenberg, through their foundation, granted Penn $120 million to endow the school and establish the Annenberg Public Policy Center. In 2002, Annenberg Foundation gave $100 million to the school for scholarships, faculty chairs, classroom refurbishment. During this time, Annenberg School suspended its master's program. After Jamieson stepped down as dean in 2003, the school named Michael X. Delli Carpini to the position.
His term was extended until 2018. Annenberg School's faculty and staff work in the following core research areas: Activism and social justice Communication neuroscience Critical journalism studies Culture and communication Digital media and social networks Global and comparative communication Health communication Media and communication effects Media institutions and systems Political communication Visual communicationAnnenberg School offers a five-year doctoral program. Annenberg offers a joint doctoral degree in communication and political science; the school hosts visiting scholars. Oscar H. Gandy, Jr. Herbert Schiller professor of Communication studies Kathleen Hall Jamieson, professor of communication, Director of the Annenberg Public Policy Center Elihu Katz, American-Israeli sociologist, winner of the UNESCO-Canada McLuhan Prize Klaus Krippendorff, professor for cybernetics, creator of the Krippendorff's Alpha coefficient Monroe Price, media scholar, former Dean of the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law Richard J. Stonesifer, president of Monmouth University Christopher Yoo, professor of Law and Computer Information Science USC Annenberg School for Communication Official website The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania webpage on The Annenberg Foundation website