LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. and from 2009–2017 was producing about 1,000 items per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects. LibriVox is affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, posed the question; the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad.
The main features of the way LibriVox works have changed little since its inception, although the technology that supports it has been improved by the efforts of its volunteers with web-development skills. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, giving the meaning BookVoice; the word was coined because of other connotations: liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says: "We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as'child of the voice', and'free voice'; the other link we like is'library' so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice."There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox. It is accepted. LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project, it has legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, who maintain a searchable catalogue database of completed works.
In early 2010, LibriVox ran a fundraising drive to raise $20,000 to cover hosting costs for the website of about $5,000/year and improve front- and backend usability. The target was reached in 13 days, so the fundraising ended and LibriVox suggested that supporters consider making donations to its affiliates and partners, Project Gutenberg and the Internet Archive. Volunteers can choose new projects to start, either recording on their own or inviting others to join them, or they can contribute to projects that have been started by others. Once a volunteer has recorded his or her contribution, it is uploaded to the site, proof-listened by members of the LibriVox community. Finished audiobooks are available from the LibriVox website, MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files are hosted separately by the Internet Archive. Recordings are available through other means, such as iTunes, being free of copyright, they are distributed independently of LibriVox on the Internet and otherwise. LibriVox only records material, in the public domain in the United States, all LibriVox books are released with a public domain dedication.
Because of copyright restrictions, LibriVox produces recordings of only a limited number of contemporary books. These have included, for example, the 9/11 Commission Report, a work of the US Federal Government therefore in the Public Domain; the LibriVox catalogue is varied. It contains much popular classic fiction, but includes less predictable texts, such as Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and a recording of the first 500 digits of pi; the collection features poetry, religious texts and non-fiction of various kinds. In January 2009, the catalogue contained 55 percent fiction and drama, 25 percent non-fiction and 20 percent poetry. By the end of 2018, the most viewed item was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in a 2006 solo recording by John Greenman. Around 90 percent of the catalogue is recorded in English, but recordings exist in 31 languages altogether. Chinese and German are the most popular languages other than English amongst volunteers, but recordings have been made in languages including Urdu and Tagalog.
LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Project Gutenberg. Intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as "perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia"; the project has been featured in press around the world and has been recommended by the BBC's Click, MSNBC's The Today Show, Wired, the US PC Magazine and the UK Metro and Sunday Times newspapers. A frequent concern of listeners is the site's policy of allowing any recording to be published as long as it is understandable and faithful to the source text; this means. While some listeners may object to those books with chapters read by multiple readers, others find this to be a non-issue or a feature, though many books are narrated by a single reader. Virtual volunteering Voice acting LibriVox siteLibriVox home page and LibriVox Catalogue of Audio BooksArticlesXeni Tech story from NPR's Day to Day, "Amateur Audio Books Cat
Christopher Marlowe known as Kit Marlowe, was an English playwright and translator of the Elizabethan era. Marlowe was the foremost Elizabethan tragedian of his day, he influenced William Shakespeare, born in the same year as Marlowe and who rose to become the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright after Marlowe's mysterious early death. Marlowe's plays are known for the use of their overreaching protagonists; some scholars believe that a warrant was issued for Marlowe's arrest on 18 May 1593. No reason was given for it, though it was thought to be connected to allegations of blasphemy—a manuscript believed to have been written by Marlowe was said to contain "vile heretical conceipts". On 20 May, he was brought to the court to attend upon the Privy Council for questioning. There is no record of their having met that day, he was commanded to attend upon them each day thereafter until "licensed to the contrary". Ten days he was stabbed to death by Ingram Frizer. Whether or not the stabbing was connected to his arrest remains unknown.
Marlowe was born in Canterbury to his wife Catherine. His date of birth is not known, but he was baptised on 26 February 1564, is to have been born a few days before. Thus, he was just two months older than his contemporary William Shakespeare, baptised on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. Marlowe attended The King's School in Canterbury and Corpus Christi College, where he studied on a scholarship and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1584. In 1587, the university hesitated to award him his Master of Arts degree because of a rumour that he intended to go to the English college at Rheims to prepare for ordination as a Roman Catholic priest. However, his degree was awarded on schedule when the Privy Council intervened on his behalf, commending him for his "faithful dealing" and "good service" to the Queen; the nature of Marlowe's service was not specified by the Council, but its letter to the Cambridge authorities has provoked much speculation, notably the theory that Marlowe was operating as a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham's intelligence service.
No direct evidence supports this theory, although the Council's letter is evidence that Marlowe had served the government in some secret capacity. Of the dramas attributed to Marlowe, Queen of Carthage is believed to have been his first, it was performed by the Children of the Chapel, a company of boy actors, between 1587 and 1593. The play was first published in 1594. Marlowe's first play performed on the regular stage in London, in 1587, was Tamburlaine the Great, about the conqueror Timur, who rises from shepherd to warlord, it is among the first English plays in blank verse, with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy is considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theatre. Tamburlaine was a success, was followed with Tamburlaine the Great, Part II; the two parts of Tamburlaine were published in 1590. The sequence of the writing of his other four plays is unknown; the Jew of Malta, about the Jew Barabas' barbarous revenge against the city authorities, has a prologue delivered by a character representing Machiavelli.
It was written in 1589 or 1590, was first performed in 1592. It was a success, remained popular for the next fifty years; the play was entered in the Stationers' Register on 17 May 1594, but the earliest surviving printed edition is from 1633. Edward the Second is an English history play about the deposition of King Edward II by his barons and the Queen, who resent the undue influence the king's favourites have in court and state affairs; the play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 6 July five weeks after Marlowe's death. The full title of the earliest extant edition, of 1594, is The troublesome reigne and lamentable death of Edward the second, King of England, with the tragicall fall of proud Mortimer; the Massacre at Paris is a short and luridly written work, the only surviving text of, a reconstruction from memory of the original performance text, portraying the events of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, which English Protestants invoked as the blackest example of Catholic treachery.
It features the silent "English Agent", whom subsequent tradition has identified with Marlowe himself and his connections to the secret service. The Massacre at Paris is considered his most dangerous play, as agitators in London seized on its theme to advocate the murders of refugees from the low countries and, indeed, it warns Elizabeth I of this possibility in its last scene, its full title was The Massacre at Paris: With the Death of the Duke of Guise. Doctor Faustus, based on the German Faustbuch, was the first dramatised version of the Faust legend of a scholar's dealing with the devil. While versions of "The Devil's Pact" can be traced back to the 4th century, Marlowe deviates by having his hero unable to "burn his books" or repent to a merciful God in order to have his contract annulled at the end of the play. Marlowe's protagonist is instead carried off by demons, in the 1616 quarto his mangled corpse is found by several scholars. Doctor Faustus is a textual problem for scholars as two versions of the play exist: the 1604 quarto known as the A text, the 1616 quarto or B text.
Both were published after Marlowe's death. Scholars have disagreed which text is
Sir Walter Raleigh spelled Ralegh, was an English landed gentleman, poet, politician, courtier and explorer. He was cousin to younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, he is well known for popularising tobacco in England. Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era. Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though in his late teens he spent some time in France taking part in the religious civil wars. In his 20s he took part in the suppression of rebellion in Ireland participating in the Siege of Smerwick, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. Raleigh was instrumental in the English colonisation of North America and was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, paving the way for future English settlements. In 1591, he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London.
After his release, they retired to his estate at Dorset. In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, not favourably disposed towards him. In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, men led by his top commander ransacked a Spanish outpost, in violation of both the terms of his pardon and the 1604 peace treaty with Spain. Raleigh returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, he was arrested and executed in 1618. Little is known about Raleigh's birth but he is believed to have been born on 22 January 1552, he grew up in the parish of East Budleigh in South Devon. He was the youngest of the five sons of Walter Raleigh of Fardel Manor in the parish of Cornwood, in South Devon.
His family is assumed to have been a junior branch of the de Raleigh family, 11th century lords of the manor of Raleigh, Pilton in North Devon, although the two branches are known to have borne dissimilar coats of arms, adopted at the start of the age of heraldry. His mother was Katherine Champernowne, his father's 3rd wife, the 4th daughter of Sir Philip Champernowne, lord of the manor of Modbury, Devon, by his wife Catherine Carew, a daughter of Sir Edmund Carew of Mohuns Ottery in the parish of Luppitt and widow of Otes Gilbert of Greenway in the parish of Brixham and of Compton Castle in the parish of Marldon, both in Devon. Katherine Champernowne's paternal aunt was Kat Ashley, governess of Queen Elizabeth I, who introduced the young men at court; the coat of arms of Otes Gilbert and Katherine Champernowne survives in a stained glass window in Churston Ferrers Church, near Greenway. Sir Walter's half-brothers John Gilbert, Humphrey Gilbert, Adrian Gilbert, his full brother Carew Raleigh were prominent during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and King James I.
Raleigh's family was Protestant in religious orientation and had a number of near escapes during the reign of Roman Catholic Queen Mary I of England. In the most notable of these, his father had to hide in a tower to avoid execution; as a result, Raleigh developed a hatred of Roman Catholicism during his childhood, proved himself quick to express it after Protestant Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558. In matters of religion, Elizabeth was more moderate than her half sister Mary. In 1569, Raleigh left for France to serve with the Huguenots in the French religious civil wars. In 1572, Raleigh was registered as an undergraduate at Oriel College, but he left a year without a degree. Raleigh proceeded to finish his education in the Inns of Court. In 1575, he was registered at the Middle Temple. At his trial in 1603, he stated, his life is uncertain between 1569 and 1575, but in his History of the World he claimed to have been an eyewitness at the Battle of Moncontour in France. In 1575 or 1576, Raleigh returned to England.
Between 1579 and 1583, Raleigh took part in the suppression of the Desmond Rebellions. He was present at the Siege of Smerwick, where he led the party that beheaded some 600 Spanish and Italian soldiers. Raleigh received 40,000 acres upon the seizure and distribution of land following the attainders arising from the rebellion, including the coastal walled town of Youghal and, further up the Blackwater River, the village of Lismore; this made him one of the principal landowners in Munster, but he had limited success inducing English tenants to settle on his estates. Raleigh made the town of Youghal his occasional home during his 17 years as an Irish landlord being domiciled at Killua Castle, County Westmeath, he was mayor there from 1588 to 1589. His town mansion of Myrtle Grove is assumed to be the setting for the story that his servant doused him with a bucket of water after seeing clouds of smoke coming from Raleigh's pipe, in the belief that he had been set alight, but this story is told of other places associated with Raleigh: the Virginia Ash Inn in Henstridge near Sherborne, Sherborne Castle, South Wraxall Manor in Wiltshire, home of Raleigh's friend Sir Walter Long.
Amongst Raleigh's acquai
A nymph in Greek mythology is a supernatural being associated with many other minor female deities that are associated with the air, seas or water, or particular locations or landforms. Different from Greek goddesses, nymphs are more regarded as divine spirits who animate or maintain Nature for the environments where they live, are depicted as beautiful, young graceful maidens, they are divided into various broad subgroups, such as Aurai, Nereides and Dryades The Greek word νύμφη has the primary meaning of "young woman. Yet the etymology of the noun νύμφη remains uncertain; the Doric and Aeolic form is νύμφα. Modern usage more applies to young women at the peak of their attractiveness, contrasting with parthenos "a virgin", generically as kore "maiden, girl"; the term is sometimes used by women to address each other and remains the regular Modern Greek term for "bride". Nymphs were sometimes beloved by many and dwell in most specific areas related to the natural environment. E.g. mountainous forests by springs or rivers.
Other nymphs appeared in the shape of young maidens, were part of the retinue of a god, such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan, or a goddess the huntress Artemis. The Greek nymphs were spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin genius loci, sometimes this produced complicated myths like cult of Arethusa to Sicily. In some of the works of the Greek-educated Latin poets, the nymphs absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams, while the Lymphae, Italian water-goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae; the classical mythologies of the Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cults of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of Latium. Among the Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted, they appear exclusively as divinities of the watery element; the ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century, when they were known as "nereids".
Nymphs tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. They might appear in a whirlwind; such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate human. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos. A motif that entered European art during the Renaissance was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a grotto or spring; this motif came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the River Danube. The report, an accompanying poem on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at Stourhead.
As H. J. Rose states, all the names for various classes of nymphs are plural feminine adjectives agreeing with the substantive nymphai, there was no single classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. Thus, the classes of nymphs tend to overlap. Rose mentions dryads and hamadryads as nymphs of trees meliai as nymphs of ash trees, naiads as nymphs of water, but no others specifically; the following is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended as a guide: The following is a list of groups of nymphs associated with this or that particular location. Nymphs in such groupings could belong to any of the classes mentioned above; the following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Dryades etc. See respective articles. Sabrina Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36281-9. Larson, Jennifer Lynn. Greek Nymphs: Myth, Lore. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514465-9.
Lawson, John Cuthbert, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910, p. 131 Nereids paleothea.com homepage Tomkinson, John L.. Haunted Greece: Nymphs and Other Exotika. Athens: Anagnosis. ISBN 978-960-88087-0-6; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nymphs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 930. Theoi.com: Nymphs Theoi Project – List of Nymphs
William Carlos Williams
William Carlos Williams was an American poet and physician associated with modernism and imagism. In addition to his writing, Williams had a long career as a physician practicing both pediatrics and general medicine, he was affiliated with Passaic General Hospital, where he served as the hospital's chief of pediatrics from 1924 until his death. The hospital, now known as St. Mary's General Hospital, paid tribute to Williams with a memorial plaque that states "we walk the wards that Williams walked". Williams was born in Rutherford, New Jersey to an English father and Puerto Rican mother of partial French descent, his work has a great affinity with painting. Williams received his primary and secondary education in Rutherford until 1897, when he was sent for two years to a school near Geneva and to the Lycée Condorcet in Paris, he attended the Horace Mann School upon his return to New York City and, having passed a special examination, was admitted in 1902 to the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1906.
Upon leaving Penn, Williams did internships at both French Hospital and Child's Hospital in New York before going to Leipzig for advanced study of pediatrics. He published his first book, Poems, in 1909. Williams married Florence Herman in 1912, they moved into a house in Rutherford, New Jersey, their home for many years. Shortly afterward, his second book of poems, The Tempers, was published by a London press through the help of his friend Ezra Pound, whom he had met while studying at the University of Pennsylvania. Around 1914, Williams and his wife had their first son, William E. Williams, followed by their second son, Paul H. Williams, in 1917, their first son would grow up to follow Williams in becoming a doctor. Although his primary occupation was as a family doctor, Williams had a successful literary career as a poet. In addition to poetry, he wrote short stories, novels and translations, he wrote at night. Early in his career, he became involved in the Imagist movement through his friendships with Pound and H.
D. but soon he began to develop opinions that differed from theirs and his style changed to express his commitment to a modernist expression of his immediate environment. In 1920, Williams was criticized by many of his peers when he published one of his most experimental books, Kora in Hell: Improvisations. Pound called the work "incoherent" and H. D. thought the book was "flippant". The Dada artist and poet Baroness Elsa critiqued Williams's sexual and artistic politics in her experimental prose poem review entitled "Thee I call'Hamlet of Wedding Ring'", published in The Little Review in March 1921. Three years Williams published one of his seminal books of poetry and All, which contained the classic poems "By the road to the contagious hospital", "The Red Wheelbarrow" and "To Elsie". However, in 1922, the year it was published, the appearance of T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land became a literary sensation and overshadowed Williams's different brand of poetic Modernism. In his Autobiography, Williams would write, "I felt at once that The Waste Land had set me back twenty years and I'm sure it did.
Critically, Eliot returned us to the classroom just at the moment when I felt we were on a point to escape to matters much closer to the essence of a new art form itself—rooted in the locality which should give it fruit". And although he respected the work of Eliot, Williams became critical of Eliot's intellectual style with its frequent use of foreign languages and allusions to classical and European literature. Instead, Williams preferred colloquial American English. In his modernist epic collage of place entitled Paterson, an account of the history and essence of Paterson, New Jersey, Williams wrote his own modern epic poem, focusing on "the local" on a wider scale than he had attempted, he examined the role of the poet in American society and famously summarized his poetic method in the phrase "No ideas but in things". In his years, Williams mentored and influenced many younger poets, he had an significant influence on many of the American literary movements of the 1950s, including the Beat movement, the San Francisco Renaissance, the Black Mountain school, the New York School.
One of Williams's most dynamic relationships as a mentor was with fellow New Jersey poet Allen Ginsberg. Williams included several of Ginsberg's letters in Paterson, stating that one of them helped inspire the fifth section of that work. Williams wrote the introduction to Ginsberg's important first book and Other Poems, in 1956. Williams suffered a heart attack in 1948 and, after 1949, a series of strokes. Severe depression after one such stroke caused him to be confined to Hillside Hospital, New York, for four months in 1953, he died on March 1963, at the age of 79 at his home in Rutherford. He was buried in Hillside Cemetery in New Jersey. During the 1930s, Williams began working on an opera; the opera, entitled The First President, was focused on George Washington and his influence on the history of the United States of America and was intended to “galvanize us into a realization of what we are today.” The poet and critic Randall Jarrell said of Williams's poetry, "William Carlos Williams is as magically observant and mimetic as a good novelist.
He reproduces the details of what he sees with surpr
Louisiana Tech University
Louisiana Tech University, colloquially referred to as Louisiana Tech or La. Tech, is a public research university in Louisiana, it is a space grant college, member of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, member of the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities, Carnegie Doctoral University with high research activity. It is a member of the University of Louisiana System. Louisiana Tech conducts research with ongoing projects funded by agencies such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the Federal Aviation Administration. Louisiana Tech is one of fewer than 50 comprehensive research universities in the nation and the only university in Louisiana to be designated as a National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education and Research and a National Center of Academic Excellence in Cyber Defense Education and Research by the National Security Agency and the United States Department of Homeland Security.
The FAA named Louisiana Tech to the National Center of Excellence for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. The university is known for its science programs. Louisiana Tech opened as the Industrial Institute and College of Louisiana in 1894 during the Second Industrial Revolution; the original mission of the college was for the education of students in the arts and sciences for the purpose of developing an industrial economy in post-Reconstruction Louisiana. Four years in 1898, the state constitution changed the school's name to Louisiana Industrial Institute. In 1921, the college changed its name to Louisiana Polytechnic Institute to reflect its development as a larger institute of technology. Under the leadership of Dr. F. Jay Taylor, the college continued to change over time. Louisiana Polytechnic Institute became desegregated in the 1960s, it changed its name to Louisiana Tech University in 1970 as it satisfied criteria of a research university. Louisiana Tech enrolled 12,463 students in five academic colleges during the Fall 2018 academic quarter including 1,282 students in the graduate school.
In addition to the main campus in Ruston, Louisiana Tech holds classes at the Louisiana Tech University Shreveport Center, Academic Success Center in Bossier City, Barksdale Air Force Base Instructional Site, on the CenturyLink campus in Monroe. Louisiana Tech fields 16 varsity NCAA Division I sports teams and is a member of Conference USA of the Football Bowl Subdivision; the university is known for its Bulldogs football team and Lady Techsters women's basketball program which won three national championship titles and made 13 Final Four appearances in the program's history. Ruston College, a forerunner to Louisiana Tech, was established in the middle 1880s by W. C. Friley, a Southern Baptist pastor; this institution had annual enrollments of about 250 students. Friley subsequently from 1892 to 1894 served as the first president of Hardin–Simmons University in Abilene and from 1909 to 1910, as the second president of Louisiana College in Pineville. On May 14, 1894, the Lincoln Parish Police Jury held a special session to outline plans to secure a regional industrial school.
The police jury called upon State Representative George M. Lomax to introduce the proposed legislation during the upcoming session. Representative Lomax, Jackson Parish Representative J. T. M. Hancock, journalist and future judge John B. Holstead fought for the passage of the bill. On July 6, 1894, the proposed bill was approved as Act No. 68 of the General Assembly of Louisiana. The act established "The Industrial Institute and College of Louisiana", an industrial institute created for the education of white children in the arts and sciences. In 1894, Colonel Arthur T. Prescott was elected as the first president of the college, he began overseeing the construction of a two-story main building. The brick building housed eight large classrooms, an auditorium, a chemical laboratory, two offices. A frame building was built nearby and was used for the instruction of mechanics; the main building was located on a plot of 20 acres, donated to the school by Francis P. Stubbs. On September 23, 1895, the school started its first session with six faculty members and 202 students.
In May 1897, Harry Howard became the first graduate. Colonel Prescott awarded him with a Bachelor of Industry degree, but there was no formal commencement; the first formal commencement was held in the Ruston Opera House the following May with ten graduates receiving their diplomas. Article 256 of the 1898 state constitution changed the school's name to Louisiana Industrial Institute. Two years the course of study was reorganized into two years of preparatory work and three years of college level courses. Students who were high school graduates were admitted to the seventh quarter of study without examination; as years went by, courses changed and admissions requirements tightened. From 1917 to 1925, several curricula were organized according to the junior college standards and were offered leading to the Bachelor of Industry degree. In 1919, the Board of Trustees enlarged the curricula and started granting a standard baccalaureate degree; the first of these was granted on a Bachelor of Science in Engineering.
The Constitution adopted June 18, 1921, changed the name of the school in Article XII, Section 9, from Louisiana Industrial Institute to Louisiana Polytechnic Institute. The Main Building known as Old Main, burned to the ground in 1936, but the colum
A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture. It lends its name to a genre of literature and music that depicts such life in an idealized manner for urban audiences. A pastoral is a work of this genre known as bucolic, from the Greek βουκολικόν, from βουκόλος, meaning a cowherd. Pastoral is a mode of literature in which the author employs various techniques to place the complex life into a simple one. Paul Alpers distinguishes pastoral as a mode rather than a genre, he bases this distinction on the recurring attitude of power. Thus, pastoral as a mode occurs in many types of literature as well as genres. Terry Gifford, a prominent literary theorist, defines pastoral in three ways in his critical book Pastoral; the first way emphasizes the historical literary perspective of the pastoral in which authors recognize and discuss life in the country and in particular the life of a shepherd.
This is summed up by Leo Marx with the phrase "No shepherd, no pastoral." The second type of the pastoral is literature that "describes the country with an implicit or explicit contrast to the urban." The third type of pastoral depicts the country life with derogative classifications. Hesiod's Works and Days presents a ` golden age'; this Golden Age shows that before the Alexandrian age, ancient Greeks had sentiments of an ideal pastoral life that they had lost. This is the first example of literature that has pastoral sentiments and may have begun the pastoral tradition. Ovid's Metamorphoses is much like the Works and Days with the description of ages but with more ages to discuss and less emphasis on the gods and their punishments. In this artificially constructed world, nature acts as the main punisher. Another example of this perfect relationship between man and nature is evident in the encounter of a shepherd and a goatherd who meet in the pastures in Theocritus' poem Idylls 1. Traditionally, pastoral refers to the lives of herdsmen in a romanticized, but representative way.
In literature, the adjective'pastoral' refers to rural subjects and aspects of life in the countryside among shepherds and other farm workers that are romanticized and depicted in a unrealistic manner. The pastoral life is characterized as being closer to the Golden age than the rest of human life; the setting is a Locus Amoenus, or a beautiful place in nature, sometimes connected with images of the Garden of Eden. An example of the use of the genre is the short poem by the 15th-century Scottish makar Robert Henryson Robene and Makyne which contains the conflicted emotions present in the genre. A more tranquil mood is set by Christopher Marlowe's well known lines from The Passionate Shepherd to His Love: Come live with me and be my Love, And we will all the pleasures prove That hills and valleys and field, And all the craggy mountains yield."There will we sit upon the rocks And see the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers, to whose falls Melodious birds sing madrigals."The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" exhibits the concept of Gifford's second definition of pastoral.
The speaker of the poem, the titled shepherd, draws on the idealization of urban material pleasures to win over his love rather than resorting to the simplified pleasures of pastoral ideology. This can be seen in the listed items: "lined slippers," "purest gold," "silver dishes," and "ivory table"; the speaker takes on a voyeuristic point of view with his love, they are not directly interacting with the other true shepherds and nature. Pastoral shepherds and maidens have Greek names like Corydon or Philomela, reflecting the origin of the pastoral genre. Pastoral poems are set in beautiful rural landscapes, the literary term for, "locus amoenus", such as Arcadia, a rural region of Greece, mythological home of the god Pan, portrayed as a sort of Eden by the poets; the tasks of their employment with sheep and other rustic chores is held in the fantasy to be wholly undemanding and is left in the background, leaving the shepherdesses and their swains in a state of perfect leisure. This makes them available for embodying perpetual erotic fantasies.
The shepherds spend their time chasing pretty girls — or, at least in the Greek and Roman versions, pretty lads as well. The eroticism of Virgil's second eclogue, Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin is homosexual. Pastoral literature continued after Hesiod with the poetry of the Hellenistic Greek Theocritus, several of whose Idylls are set in the countryside and involve dialogues between herdsmen. Theocritus may have drawn on authentic folk traditions of Sicilian shepherds, he wrote in the Doric dialect but the metre he chose was the dactylic hexameter associated with the most prestigious form of Greek poetry, epic. This blend of simplicity and sophistication would play a major part in pastoral verse. Theocritus was imitated by the Greek poets Moschus; the Roman poet Virgil adapted pastoral into Latin with his influential Eclogues. Virgil introduces two important uses of pastoral, the contrast between urban and rural lifestyles and political allegory most notably in Eclogues 1 and 4 respectively.
In doing so, Virgil presents a more idealized portrayal of the lives of sheph