As a physical object, a book is a stack of rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained.
So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts; the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e. an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing.
A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus, they were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian culture
University of Massachusetts Transportation Services
University of Massachusetts Transportation Services, abbreviated to UMass Transit Services or UMass Transit, is a department within the University of Massachusetts Amherst that provides mass transit services to the UMass Amherst campus and other members of the Five Colleges Consortium in eastern Hampshire County, as well as outlying towns. Similar to other large campus transportation systems, such as UGA Campus Transit in Georgia and Unitrans in California, UMass Transit buses are driven by students attending UMass Amherst. UMass Transit operates as a contractor for the Pioneer Valley Transit Authority, headquartered in Springfield, the largest municipality in the region; this setup exists because PVTA, as a regional transit authority established under Chapter 161B of the Massachusetts General Statutes, is forbidden under Section 25 of the same statute from operating routes directly. PVTA thus contracts with the school to operate certain routes. UMass Transit buses in fixed route service are owned by the PVTA and are painted in their standard livery.
These buses are numbered in the 3000 series, are between 35 and 60 feet in length. The 60-feet buses were acquired in 2013 to accommodate student crowds on the North Pleasant Street through routes Gold 30 and Pink 31. In addition to operating tendered services for the PVTA, UMass Transit maintains an activity fleet of buses of various types for charter by student groups within the UMass Amherst community. In keeping with the school colors of white and maroon, these buses are painted white with a maroon stripe; the following routes are operated by UMass Transit Services on behalf of the PVTA. Most buses only display the destination; these routes, operated by UMass Transit, are targeted not toward the UMass student body, but towards the year-round local population in the area. Notes: Connections are available to FRTA Route 23 at Sugarloaf Estates in Sunderland, to Route 31 at South Deerfield Center and Whately Park and Ride. By order of the Amherst Police Department and UMass Police Department, in an effort to curb student crowds and maintain order, the Fearing Street bus stops in Amherst are bypassed by all campus buses, along with the B43 route, after 10 p.m. on Thursday and Saturday nights during full service periods.
The North Village bus stop in North Amherst is bypassed after 11 p.m. on Thursday and Saturday nights during full service periods. UMass Transit buses are not equipped with fareboxes or fare registers. Students attending any colleges in the Five Colleges Consortium have a fee included in their tuition bills for each semester that prepays their bus fares for the semester and funds the Five Colleges bus system, along with fares on the M40 between UMass and Smith College, the B43 local route between Amherst College and Smith College via UMass. UMass Transit buses operate via a proof-of-payment system, in which there are random inspections of student identification cards and bus passes and transfers. Riders not affiliated with the Five Colleges must be prepared to show a transfer, ticket, or pass valid at the time during random fare inspections. While the population of Amherst is nominally 37,819 as per the 2010 census, that figure includes the student population of the Five Colleges, many of whom are only part-time residents and who account for 60 percent of that figure.
As such, when classes are not in session, service is reduced and suspended on many routes, other routes will have service ending early. All UMass Transit service is suspended on New Year's Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day. On other days when classes are not in session, UMass Transit routes operate on a reduced service schedule. University of Massachusetts Transportation Services - official site
Pioneer Valley Transit Authority
The Pioneer Valley Transit Authority oversees and coordinates public transportation in the Pioneer Valley of Western Massachusetts. The PVTA offers fixed-route bus service as well as paratransit service for the elderly and disabled; the PVTA was created by Chapter 161B of the Massachusetts General Laws in 1974. It is based in Springfield and serves Hampden and Franklin counties; as per Section 25, Chapter 161B of the Massachusetts General Laws, regional transit authorities in Massachusetts are not permitted to directly operate their service, but must instead contract with other entities to operate the buses. As such, the PVTA contracts with two entities to provide fixed-route service in the service area: First Transit and UMass Transit Services; the contractors run semi-autonomous garages. The Springfield Area Transit Company operates the southern portion of PVTA's service area, servicing Hampden County. SATCo, located at 2840 Main Street in Springfield, is managed by First Transit, is located adjacent to the PVTA's headquarters at 2808 Main Street.
All SATCo fixed-route buses are numbered in the 1000 series. SATCo transports more than 9 million passengers annually. UMass Transit Services operates PVTA's routes through the Five Colleges area in eastern Hampshire County and neighboring towns, with most of the routes centered around UMass Amherst, the largest ridership generator in the service area. UMass Transit Services is a department within the University of Massachusetts Amherst; the UMass Transit garage is located on-campus at Amherst. All UMass Transit fixed-route buses are numbered in the 3000 series. UMass Transit is a student-based organization with more than 90% of the employees being UMass students. Amherst PVTA is operated by one of the oldest student driver groups in the country, having been founded in 1969 as a demonstration grant from the Urban Mass Transit Administration. Today, UMass Transit Services operates 10 routes with a fleet of 40 transit vehicles. Service runs 12 months a year, 20 hours per day, seven days per week, is driven by over 150 student operators.
UMass Transit Services transports more than 3.5 million passengers annually. The Valley Area Transit Company operates the central portion of PVTA's service area. All of its routes originate from Northampton, providing connections to the UMass Transit service area via Route 9, to the SATCo service area on the other side of the Mount Tom Range via Routes 5 and 10. VATCo, located at 54 Industrial Drive in Northampton, is managed by First Transit. All VATCo fixed-route buses are numbered in the 7000 series. ADA Paratransit Service is provided by National Express Transit for the entire service area, except for the University of Massachusetts, where the UMass Special Transportation Service provides service for University members. Amherst-area paratransit passengers who are not members of the University community are served by NEXT. All paratransit vehicles are numbered in the 5000 series; the fixed-route van shuttles are operated by Hulmes Transportation Services. These routes are operated by vans numbered in the 1200 series.
These routes are operated by the Springfield Area Transit Company, except for the Ware-Palmer Circulator and Ware-Palmer Express, which are operated by Hulmes Transportation Services. These routes are operated by UMass Transit Services; these routes are operated by the Valley Area Transit Company, except for the Nashawannuck Express, operated by Hulmes Transportation Services. PVTA offers connections to the following regional transportation agencies: Franklin Regional Transit Authority, for service to Greenfield, in Franklin County: PVTA Route 31 connects with FRTA Route 23 at Sugarloaf Estates in Sunderland. PVTA Northampton-area routes connect with FRTA Route 31 at the Academy of Music Theater in Northampton. PVTA Route 46 connects with FRTA Route 31 at Ride. CTtransit, for service to Enfield, Windsor Locks and Hartford, CT: PVTA Route G5 connects with CTtransit Route 905 and 915 at MassMutual - Bright Meadow Campus, Enfield, CT. One-way fixed-route fares are noted below. NOTE: UMass Amherst buses do not have fareboxes and operate via a proof-of-payment system.
One-way fares for adults 13 and older are $1.15 if purchased at the PVTA Customer Service Center at Springfield Union Station. Transfers for children 6-12 are $0.25, transfers for mobility impaired passengers and seniors are $0.10. All passes are good through the end of the service day. 1-Day passes are sold on PVTA Springfield and Northampton buses at the fareboxes, as well as at ticket vending machines at Springfield Union Station, Holyoke Transportation Center, Westfield Olver Transit Pavilion. 7- and 31-day passes are sold at Big Y supermarkets in the service area, at Springfield Union Station, at the Holyoke Transportation Center, at the Westfield Olver Transit Pavilion, by the Western New England University's bursar office. The 31-day pass is sold on the PVTA website. PVTA buses operated by UMass Transit operate via a proof-of-payment system. See here for more details. Ridership is up 12 % in 9 % in October. Springfield mayor Domenic Sarno stated that people who choose to live without a car in city centre in market rate housing can
South Hadley, Massachusetts
South Hadley is a town in Hampshire County, United States. The population was 17,514 at the 2010 census, was estimated to be 17,791 in 2017, it is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. South Hadley is home to Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley High School, Pioneer Valley Performing Arts Charter Public School, the Berkshire Hills Music Academy. South Hadley was an uninhabited area of Hadley from 1659 until 1721 when the first English settlers arrived from Hadley. A separate town meeting was held in 1753, the town was split and incorporated in 1775; the town is the home of the nation's first successful navigable canal as well as the oldest continuing institution of higher education for women. The Civil War Monument in the center of the Commons was given to South Hadley by William H. Gaylord in the 1900s; the Gaylords donated the Gaylord Memorial Library, located near the center of town. South Hadley is located in the western part of Massachusetts in the Pioneer Valley, it is bordered on the north by Hadley and Amherst, on the east by Granby, on the south by Chicopee.
The Connecticut River defines the town's western border and separates it from the cities of Holyoke and Easthampton. South Hadley is 45 miles south of Brattleboro, Vermont, 87 miles west of Boston, 145 miles from New York City. Although no interstate highways cross South Hadley's borders, U. S. Route 202, Massachusetts Highways 33, 47, 116 provide primary routes of transportation. Interstate 91 can be accessed in Holyoke. Westover Metropolitan Airport is located in neighboring Chicopee and offers air services throughout the region. Bradley International Airport, serving the greater Hartford–Springfield area, is located 17 miles to the south; the closest Amtrak station is the Holyoke station. The Village Commons, a center for dining and leisure, is located at the juncture of Massachusetts Routes 116 and 47, in the area called South Hadley Center. Additional commercial centers are located on Massachusetts Routes 116 and 33, including South Hadley Falls, across the river from Holyoke. South Hadley is the home of Mount Holyoke College, the oldest continuously operating institution of higher education for women, founded in 1837.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.4 square miles, of which 17.7 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. The mountain range called the Mount Holyoke Range passes through the north of the town and separates it from Hadley and Amherst. There are 12 reservoirs in the town fed by eight distinct streams and six natural ponds; the first confirmed evidence of a dinosaur to be found in North America was unearthed in South Hadley by Pliny Moody while plowing in 1802, 40 years before dinosaurs were identified as a fossil group. The sandstone slab bearing large, mysterious footprints was purchased by Elihu Dwight, who gave the prints the name of "Noah's Raven". Professor Edward Hitchcock obtained the slab, now on prominent display in the Beneski Museum of Natural History at Amherst College. Hitchcock believed the fossils were made by gigantic ancient birds, long before scientists accepted that modern birds and dinosaurs are related; as of the census of 2000, there were 17,196 people, 6,586 households, 4,208 families residing in the town.
The population density was 971.0 people per square mile. There were 6,784 housing units at an average density of 383.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.05% White, 1.20% African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.53% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.36% of the population. There were 6,586 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. Of all households 30.4% were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 14.9% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 65.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,678, the median income for a family was $58,693. Males had a median income of $42,256 versus $31,219 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,732. About 4.1% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. Although South Hadley's economy has changed in the last two centuries, reflecting the trends of the Commonwealth and country, today it still retains businesses in agriculture and manufacturing. With Mount Holyoke College being by far the largest employer in the area, a number of other contractors, service providers, businesses support the college. Additionally the area maintains a small agricultural sector with several farms, is home to several small machine shops and manufacturing firms, including a research and manufacturing facility of the E Ink Corporation. Mount Holyoke College, a member of the Five College Consortium, one of the Seven Sisters colleges, is located in South Hadley.
South Hadley High School is known for its hig
The Massachusetts Review
The Massachusetts Review is a literary quarterly founded in 1959 by a group of professors from Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst. It receives financial support from Five Colleges, Inc. a consortium which includes Amherst College and four other educational institutions in a short geographical radius. MR bills itself as "A Quarterly of Literature, the Arts, Public Affairs." A key early focus was on civil rights as well as African-American culture. E. B. Du Bois, Martin Luther King, Jr.. Sidney Kaplan, a founder of the Du Bois Department of Afro-American Studies at the University of Massachusetts, was a founding member of MR as well. In 1969, co-editor Jules Chametzky and Kaplan put together a collection of essays from the first ten years of MR. Recent special issues include the 2008 Especially Queer Issue as well as the 2011 Casualty Issue. MR is known for visual as well as literary arts, its cover design was conceived by the sculptor and graphic artist Leonard Baskin, who contributed work throughout his career.
Jerome Liebling – the photographer and mentor to Ken Burns – was an MR editor. Recent artists featured in magazine inserts include Manuel Álvarez Bravo, Whitfield Lovell, Anna Schuleit, Dan Witz; the Massachusetts Review has published 10 Nobel Prize winners, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 9 United States Poets Laureate. Influential individual works from its pages include contributions from Chinua Achebe’s “An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness", Robert Frost, Martin Luther King’s “Legacy of Creative Protest", Roberto Fernández Retamar’s “Caliban", Adrienne Rich’s “Blood and Poetry", Jean-Paul Sartre’s “Black Orpheus"; the Council of Literary Magazines and Presses website notes: "he Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines founded by a board of magazine editors at the suggestion of the National Endowment for the Arts, to act as an NEA regranter. The signatories of the original letter of intent to the NEA Reed Whittemore; the magazine awards the Anne Halley Poetry prize to the best poem.
The current staff includes: Jules Chametzky, Editor Emeritus. List of literary magazines Massachusetts Review
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major