Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories his tales of mystery and the macabre, he is regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. He is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction, he was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe was born in the second child of actors David and Elizabeth "Eliza" Arnold Hopkins Poe, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia, they never formally adopted him. Tension developed as John Allan and Poe clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, the cost of Poe's secondary education.
He left after a year due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name, it was at this time that his publishing career began with the anonymous collection Tamerlane and Other Poems, credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Frances Allan in 1829. Poe failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, he parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism, his work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore and New York City. He married Virginia Clemm in his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. Poe planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn.
He died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849, at age 40. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography, he and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today; the Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe Jr, he had a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had immigrated from County Cavan, Ireland around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeare's King Lear which the couple were performing in 1809, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died a year from consumption. Poe was taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, wheat and slaves.
The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally adopted him. The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son; the family sailed to Britain in 1815, Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in Irvine, Scotland before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817, he was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School at Stoke Newington a suburb 4 miles north of London. Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, John Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate; the inheritance was estimated at $750,000.
By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages; the university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, guns and alcohol, but these rules were ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, report all wrongdoing to the faculty; the unique system was still in chaos, there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts, he claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, he gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welco
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Cornell University Library
The Cornell University Library is the library system of Cornell University. As of 2014, it holds over a million ebooks. More than 90 percent of its current 120,000 periodical titles are available online, it has 8.5 million microfilms and microfiches, more than 71,000 cubic feet of manuscripts, close to 500,000 other materials, including motion pictures, DVDs, sound recordings, computer files in its collections, in addition to extensive digital resources and the University Archives. It is the sixteenth largest library in North America, ranked by number of volumes held; the library is administered as an academic division. The holdings are managed by the Library's subdivisions, which include 16 physical and virtual libraries on the main campus in Ithaca, New York; the John M. Olin Library is the primary research library for the social sciences and humanities, the Harold D. Uris Library has extensive holdings in the humanities and social sciences; the Albert R. Mann Library specializes in agriculture, the life sciences, human ecology.
The Carl M. Kroch Library includes the university's Rare & Manuscript Collections as well as its extensive Asia Collections; the Southeast Asia Collection at the Kroch Library, named in honor of John M. Echols, has been a joint undertaking of the university, the library, the Southeast Asia Program with the goal of acquiring a copy of every publication of research value produced in the countries of Southeast Asia and publications about the region published in other parts of the world; the system was a collection of 18,000 volumes stored in Morrill Hall. Daniel Willard Fiske, Cornell's first librarian, donated his entire estate to the university upon his death, as did President Andrew Dickson White. Under Fiske's direction, Cornell's library introduced a number of innovations, including allowing undergraduate students to browse through the books and check them out. By 1885, the library had installed electric lights and stayed open 12 hours per day, which allowed students to use it as a reference library.
The library plays an active role in furthering online archiving of scientific and historical documents. It provides stewardship and partial funding for arXiv.org e-print archive, created at Los Alamos National Laboratory by Paul Ginsparg. ArXiv has changed the way many physicists and mathematicians communicate, making the eprint a viable and popular form for announcing new research; the "Project Euclid" initiative creates one resource joining commercial journals with low-cost independent journals in mathematics and statistics. The project is aimed at enabling affordable scholarly communication through the Internet. Besides archival purposes, primary goals of the project is to facilitate journal searches and interoperatibility between different publishers; the Cornell Library Digital Collections are online collections of historical documents. Featured collections include the Database of African-American Poetry, the Historic Math Book Collection, the Samuel May Anti-Slavery Collection, the Witchcraft Collection, the Donovan Nuremberg Trials Collection.
The library houses several rare manuscripts. It houses one of the five copies of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address —the only such to be owned and the only one accompanied both by a letter from Lincoln transmitting the manuscript and by the original envelope addressed and franked by Lincoln; the library houses cuneiform tablets. It holds a copy of The Birds of America, considered the most expensive book in the world; the library has first editions of Darwin's "Origin of Species", the Book of Mormon, of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Rose Goldsen Archive of New Media Art is a research repository for new media art, it was founded in 2002 by Timothy Murray, Professor of Comparative Literature and English and Director of the Society for the Humanities. It is located in the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections at Cornell University Library and it is named in the honor of the late Prof. Rose Goldsen, a Sociology Professor at Cornell University and an avant-garde critic of pop culture, mass media and communication.
The Rose Goldsen Archive provides access to detailed archival material that mirrors the historical changes which have happened in new media art in terms of its technological development and experimentation, throughout the years. The archive's collections include multimedia artworks that reflect the transformation of new media art practices from analog to disc-based and from there to networked and web-based application during the past decades; the collections combine artworks produced on CD/ DVD-Rom, VHS/digital video and internet as well as supporting materials, such as unpublished manuscripts and designs and photographic documentation of installations and performances, digital ephemera, photographs, catalogues and resource guides to new media art. The general collection consists of various material about audi
Rufus Wilmot Griswold
Rufus Wilmot Griswold was an American anthologist, editor and critic. Born in Vermont, Griswold left home, he worked as a journalist and critic in Philadelphia, New York City, elsewhere. He built up a strong literary reputation, in part due to his 1842 collection The Poets and Poetry of America; this anthology, the most comprehensive of its time, included what he deemed the best examples of American poetry. He produced revised versions and similar anthologies for the remainder of his life, although many of the poets he promoted have since faded into obscurity. Many writers hoped to have their work included in one of these editions, although they commented harshly on Griswold's abrasive character. Griswold was married three times: his first wife died young, his second marriage ended in a public and controversial divorce, his third wife left him after the previous divorce was repealed. Edgar Allan Poe, whose poetry had been included in Griswold's anthology, published a critical response that questioned which poets were included.
This began a rivalry which grew when Griswold succeeded Poe as editor of Graham's Magazine at a higher salary than Poe's. The two competed for the attention of poet Frances Sargent Osgood, they never reconciled their differences and, after Poe's mysterious death in 1849, Griswold wrote an unsympathetic obituary. Claiming to be Poe's chosen literary executor, he began a campaign to harm Poe's reputation that lasted until his own death eight years later. Griswold considered himself an expert in American poetry and was an early proponent of its inclusion on the school curriculum, he supported the introduction of copyright legislation, speaking to Congress on behalf of the publishing industry, although he was not above infringing the copyright of other people's work. A fellow editor remarked, "even while haranguing the loudest, is purloining the fastest". Griswold was born to Rufus and Deborah Griswold on February 13, 1815, in Vermont, near Rutland, raised a strict Calvinist in the hamlet of Benson.
He was the twelfth of fourteen children and his father was a farmer and shoemaker. In 1822, the family moved to nearby Hubbardton; as a child, Griswold was complex and reckless. He left home when he was 15, calling himself a "solitary soul, wandering through the world, a homeless, joyless outcast". Griswold moved to Albany, New York, to live with a 22-year-old flute-playing journalist named George C. Foster, a writer best known for his work New-York by Gas-Light. Griswold lived with Foster until he was 17, the two may have had a romantic relationship; when Griswold moved away, Foster wrote to him begging him to return, signing his letter "come to me if you love me". Griswold attempted to enroll at the Rensselaer School in 1830, but was not allowed to take any classes after he was caught attempting to play a prank on a professor. After a brief spell as a printer's apprentice, Griswold moved to Syracuse where, with some friends, he started a newspaper called The Porcupine; this publication purposefully targeted locals for what was remembered as malicious critique.
He moved to New York City in 1836 and, in March of that year, was introduced to 19-year-old Caroline Searles, whom he married. He was employed as an editor for various publications in the New York area. In October, he did not receive the party's support. In 1837 he was licensed as a Baptist clergyman. Griswold married Caroline on August 12, 1837, the couple had two daughters. Following the birth of their second daughter, Griswold left his family behind in New York and moved to Philadelphia, his departure on November 27, 1840, was by all accounts abrupt, leaving his job with Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, his library of several thousand volumes. He joined the staff of Philadelphia's Daily Standard and began to build his reputation as a literary critic, becoming known for his savagery and vindictiveness. On November 6, 1842, Griswold visited his wife in New York after she had given birth to their third child, a son. Three days after returning to Philadelphia, he was informed that both she and the infant had died.
Shocked, Griswold traveled by train alongside her coffin, refusing to leave her side for 30 hours. When fellow passengers urged him to try to sleep, he answered by kissing her dead lips and embracing her, his two children crying next to him, he refused to leave the cemetery after her funeral after the other mourners had left, until forced to do so by a relative. He wrote a long poem in blank verse dedicated to Caroline, "Five Days", printed in the New York Tribune on November 16, 1842. Griswold had difficulty believing she had died and dreamed of their reunion. Forty days after her entombment, he entered her vault, cut off a lock of her hair, kissed her on the forehead and lips, wept for several hours, staying by her side until a friend found him 30 hours later. In 1842, Griswold released his 476-page anthology of American poetry, The Poets and Poetry of America, which he dedicated to Washington Allston. Griswold's collection featured poems from over 80 authors, including 17 by Lydia Sigourney, three by Edgar Allan Poe, 45 by Charles Fenno Hoffman.
Hoffman, a close friend, was allotted twice as much space as any other author. Griswold went on to oversee many other anthologies, including Biographical Annual, which collected memoirs of "eminent persons deceased", Gems from American Female Poets, Prose Writers of America, Female Poets of America. Between 1842 and 1845 while Griswold was collecting material for Prose Writers of America he discovered the identity of Horace Binne
Thomas Dunn English
Thomas Dunn English was an American Democratic Party politician from New Jersey who represented the state's 6th congressional district in the House of Representatives from 1891 to 1895. He was a published author and songwriter, who had a bitter ongoing feud with Edgar Allan Poe. Along with Waitman T. Barbe and Danske Dandridge, English was considered a major West Virginia poet of the late 19th century. English was born in Philadelphia on June 29, 1819, he attended the Friends Academy in Burlington, New Jersey, graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1839. His graduation thesis was on phrenology, he studied law, was admitted to the Philadelphia bar in 1842, but pursued journalism. English wrote scores of poems and plays as well as stories and novels, but his reputation as a writer was built on the ballad "Ben Bolt". Written for Nathaniel Parker Willis's New York Mirror, it was turned into a song and became popular, with a ship and racehorse soon named in its honor. American opera singer Eleonora de Cisneros recorded this on an Edison Blue Amberol cylinder in 1912.
Other works include the temperance novel Walter Woolfe, or the Doom of the Drinker in 1842 and the political romance MDCCCXLII. or the Power of the S. F. in 1846. He was the founding editor of the monthly The Aristidean in New York, which printed its first issue in February 1845. English edited several other journals, including the humorous magazine The John Donkey, American Review: A Whig Journal and Sartain's Magazine. English was a friend of author Edgar Allan Poe, but the two fell out amidst a public scandal involving Poe and the writers Frances Sargent Osgood and Elizabeth F. Ellet. After suggestions that her letters to Poe contained indiscreet material, Ellet asked her brother to demand the return of the letters. Poe, who claimed he had returned the letters, asked English for a pistol to defend himself from Ellet's infuriated brother. English was skeptical of Poe's story and suggested that he end the scandal by retracting the "unfounded charges" against Ellet; the angry Poe pushed English into a fistfight.
Poe claimed to have given English "a flogging which he will remember to the day of his death", though English denied it. That year, Poe harshly criticized English's work as part of his "Literati of New York" series published in Godey's Lady's Book, referring to him as "a man without the commonest school education busying himself in attempts to instruct mankind in topics of literature"; the two had several confrontations centered around literary caricatures of one another. One of English's letters, published in the July 23, 1846, issue of the New York Mirror caused Poe to sue the editors of the Mirror for libel. Poe was awarded $225.06 as well as an additional $101.42 in court costs. That year English published a novel called 1844, or, The Power of the S. F, its plot made references to secret societies, was about revenge. It included a character named Marmaduke Hammerhead, the famous author of The Black Crow, who uses phrases like "Nevermore" and "lost Lenore." The clear parody of Poe was portrayed as a drunkard and domestic abuser.
Poe's story "The Cask of Amontillado" was written as a response, using specific references to English's novel. Another Poe revenge tale, "Hop-Frog", may reference English. Years in 1870, when English edited the magazine The Old Guard, founded by the Poe-defender Charles Chauncey Burr, he found occasion to publish both an anti-Poe article and an article defending Poe's greatest detractor Rufus Wilmot Griswold. English's first foray into politics was as an advocate of the annexation of Texas, he moved to Virginia in 1852, to New York City in 1857, to Newark, New Jersey a year later. He was a member of the New Jersey General Assembly in 1863 and 1864. English was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses, serving in office from March 4, 1891, to March 3, 1895, he was chairman of the Committee on Alcoholic Liquor Traffic. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1894 to the Fifty-fourth Congress. After leaving Congress, English resumed his former literary pursuits in Newark.
In 1896, he published Reminisces of Poe. He did, defend Poe against rumors of drug use: "Had Poe the opium habit when I knew him I should both as a physician and a man of observation, have discovered it during his frequent visits to my rooms, my visits at his house, our meetings elsewhere – I saw no signs of it and believe the charge to be a baseless slander". English died April 1, 1902, was interred in Fairmount Cemetery in Newark, his monument notes him as "Author of Ben Bolt". Zephaniah Doolittle Walter Woolfe, or the Doom of the Drinker Ben Bolt MDCCCXLII. or the Power of the S. F. Gasology: A Satire Reminiscences of Poe United States Congress. "Thomas Dunn English". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Works by or about Thomas Dunn English at Internet Archive Works by Thomas Dunn English at LibriVox Thomas Dunn English at The Political Graveyard Thomas Dunn English at Find a Grave Bibliography of Thomas Dunn English at Poetry-Archive.com Thomas Dunn English obituary from The New York Times
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Abolitionism was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France who had abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, he passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, it was not enforced as a result. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church condemned the slave trade in response to a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, it was vehemently condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839; the abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanitarian grounds, arguing against it in Parliament, encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause.
Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More united with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. The Somersett Case in 1772, in which a fugitive slave was freed with the judgement that slavery did not exist under English common law, helped launch the British movement to abolish slavery. Though anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, the colonies and emerging nations that used slave labour continued to do so: Dutch, British and Portuguese territories in the West Indies, South America, the Southern United States. After the American Revolution established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution. Vermont, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans and African Americans.
During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. In 1787 the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed in London. Revolutionary France abolished slavery throughout its empire in 1794, although it was restored in 1802 by Napoleon as part of a program to ensure sovereignty over its colonies. Haiti formally declared independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory; the northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804. The United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. Britain abolished slavery throughout its empire by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies re-abolished it in 1848 and the U. S. abolished slavery in 1865 with the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia, to emancipate the serfs in Russia.
Slavery was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Mauritania was the last country to abolish slavery, with a presidential decree in 1981. Today and adult slavery and forced labour are illegal in all countries, as well as being against international law, but a high rate of human trafficking for labour and for sexual bondage continues to affect tens of millions of adults and children. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed; this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as this example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571, he was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France. Born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.
As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar cane plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves in the South around New Orleans, where they established sugarcane plantations. Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated the slave institution in the colonies, it gave unparalleled rights to slaves. It included the right to gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners to torture them or to separate families, it demanded enslaved Africans receive instruction in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact French law did not admit until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830, they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and slaves.
Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spo